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THE 


CHINESE RECORDER 


P4> 



VOLUME XLVIII 


Shanghai: 

PRESBYTERIAN MISSION PRESS 




INDEX TO VOL XLVIIL—1917 


CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES 


American Congregational Methods in Mission Administration in N. 

China, and Modem Tendencies in Mission Work. Murray S. Frame. 79 

Ancestor Worship iu Japan .452 

Approach to the Chinese Mind, The Best . A. H. S. 93 

Aspects of the Christian Message, Individualistic and Socialistic 

J. B. Cochran. 231 

Attitude towards Chinese Religions, Our . Arthur Sowerby. 296 

Baptist Field in Chekiang, Adequate Occupation of the . 

James V. Latimer. 530 

Bible Study iu the Home, Family Worship and ... Mrs, G. F. Fitch. 445 
Bibliography of Books on Islam in Chinese and Chinese-Arabic, 

A Classified .Chas. L. Ogilvie and S. M. Zwemer. 652 

Boarding Schools, Evangelism in Girls’ .714 

Book of Rewards and Punishments, The . Arthur'Sowerby. 7 

Book Table .47, 124, 189, 259, 326, 465, 535. 611, 667, 735, 

Brewster, D.D., Rev. William Nesbitt.456 

Call of the Hour, The . F. Herbert Rhodes. 632 

Chalfaut, M.A., D.D., Rev. William P. W. M. H. 404 

Chekiang, Adequate Occupation of the Baptist Field in J. V. Latimer. 530 
Chemical Experiments iu Preaching to the Chinese, The Use of 

G. W. Leavell. 777 

China and Agencies for Relief, Social Problems in ... W. D. Boone. 95 
China Continuation Committee Annual Meeting: 

Report of the Special Committee on Comity ... D. E. Hoste. 349 
Reportof the Special Committee on the Chinese Church. C. Y, Cheng. 358 
Report of the National Evangelistic Week, 1917. W. MacNaughtau. 369 
Report of the Special Committee on Survey and Occupation 

E. C. Lobenstine. 377 

Recommendations of the Special Committees .390 

Impressions of Members .401 

China, Lutheran Union Movements iu America and.721 

China, Medical Education in . Ed. M. Merrins. 497 

China, Music in .C. S. Champness. 489 

China, Preparation of Missionaries for Literary Work iu. 


D. MacGillivray. 

China, Status of Women iu . Ernest Faber. 

China, The Papaya for South .G. W. Groff. 

China Union University, West . J. L. Stewart. 

Chinese and Chinese-Arabic, A Classified Bibliography of Books on 

Islam in.Chas. L. Ogilvie and S. M. Zwemer. 

Chinese, How to Preach the Gospel to Non-Christian. W. MacNaughtau. 


Chinese Mind, The Best Approach to the 
Chinese Ministry, The Securing and Training of a 
Chinese Moslem Standpoint, The 
Chiuese Mosque, Preaching Christ iu a 
Chinese Religions, Our Attitude towarc 

Chinese Students Abroad. 

Church, Student Enquirers and the 
Churches and the Theological Seminaries, The 


A. H. S. 
J. Leighton Stuart. 

James Hutson. 
Charles L. Ogilvie. 
Arthur Sowerby. 
Arthur Rugh. 
Arthur Rugh, 
C. R. Hager. 


506 

59° 

448 

602 

652 

215 

93 

693 

639 

629 

296 

147 

227 

761 





Index. 


11 


City, Evangelization of tlie . W. L. Beard. 524 

Classic for Moslems, Tlie Three Character . LieoKaiLien. 645 

Copp, Mr. Alfred .G. N. 800 

Correspondence ... 56, 128, 192, 262, 327, 411, 472, 538, 6n, 676, 741, 809 

Davis, D.D., LL.D., Rev. John Wright. W. H. H. 254 

Democracy, The School the Meeting Place of.Frank Rawlinson, 704 

Editorial . i, 73, 141, 209, 275, 343, 413, 482, 551, 619, 687, 755 


Ed. M. Merrins. 
Arthur Sowerby. 

.H. S. 

Arthur Rugh. 
D. MacGillivray. 


Mrs. C. E. Patton, M.D. 
... A. L. Warnshuis. 
... James A. Heal. 
Win. MacNaughtan. 
... Mrs. R. K. Evans. 


Education in China, Medical . 

Edwards, Mrs. S. F. 

Englund, Mrs. L. M. . 

Enquirers and the Church, Student . 

Evangelism during the Special Week, Newspaper 
Evangelism in Girls* Boarding Schools... 

Evangelism, Medical . 

Evangelism, The Special Week of 
Evangelistic Agency, The Post Office as an 
Evangelistic Week, Ideals for the 
Evangelistic Work among Women, City 
Evangelization, A Province-wide Campaign of Village. A. A. Fulton. 
Evangelization of a City, How Better to Utilize our Available Forces 

in the . Robert F. Fitch. 

Evangelization of the City. W. L. Beard. 

Family Worship and Bible Study in the Home ... Mrs. G. F. Fitch. 

Faruham, D.D., Rev. J. M. W.' ... J. W. L. 

Fitting Girls for Home Life . Mrs. H. J. Conradson. 

Gleysteen, Mrs. Alice Carter .C. H. Fenu. 

Gospel to Non-Christian Chinese, How to Preach the. W. MacNaughtan. 

Hadeu, Rev. Robert Allen .. 

Hangchow, Working together in. J. Mercer Blain. 

Hour, The Call of the . F. Herbert Rhodes. 

Hager, M.D., D.D., Rev. C. R. C. A. Nelson. 

Hainan, The Miao Awakening in . Geo. D. Byers. 

Home Life, Fitting Girls for . Mrs. H. J. Conradson. 

Honan, The Orphan Jewish Colony of.D. MacGillivray. 

How to Preach the Gospel to Non-Christian Chinese. W. MacNaughtan. 
Islam in Chiuese and Chinese-Arabic, A Classified Bibliography of 

Books on.Chas. L. Ogilvie and S. M. Zwemer. 

Japan, Ancestor Worship in . 

Jewish Colony of Honan, The Orphan.D. MacGillivray, 

Kitchens of Missionary Institutions, The . Henry Fowler. 

Kuight, Rev. W. Percy .R. G. 

Lees, Mrs. Jonathan. R. 

Life and Work of the Late W. A. P. Martin. 

Literary Work in China, Preparation of Missionaries for. 

D. MacGillivray. 

Local Church, The Supreme Test of Our Mission Methods, The. 

W. W. Lockwood. 

Lutheran Union Movements in America and China. 

Martin, The Life and Work of the Late W. A. P. 

McFarlane, Mrs. Sewell .. ••• R. 

Mclutosb, Mrs. Gilbert . M. M. F. 

Medical Education in China . Ed. M. Merrins, M.D. 

Medical Evangelism.Mrs. C. E. Patton, M.D. 

Medical Missions, The Nature and Purpose of ... W. A. Tatchell. 
Message, Individualistic and Socialistic Aspects of the Christian 

J. B. Cochran. 


497 

186 

461 

227 

253 

7 i 4 

237 

245 

243 

43 

32 

570 

21 

524 

445 

322 

768 

257 

215 

256 

107 

632 

797 

771 

76S 

37 

215 

652 

452 

37 

313 

605 

409 

116 

506 

557 

721 

116 

407 

325 

497 

237 

784 

231 



Index. 


iii 


Methods in Mission Administration in N. China and Modern Tendencies 

in Mission Work, Americau Congregational ... Murray S. Frame. 79 

Methods, The Local Church the Supreme Test of Our Mission . 

W. W. Lockwood. 557 

Miao Awakening in Hainan, The. Geo. D. Byers. 771 

Ministry, The Securing and Training of a Chinese. J. Leighton Stuart. 693 

Miracles . C. Y. Cheng. 793 

Missionary Institutions, The Kitchens of . Henry Fowler. 313 

Missionary News ... 59, 131, 197, 265, 330, 412, 475 . 54 L 614, 676, 743. 811 

Missionary, The Making of a .A. H. Smith. 727, 789 

Missions in Tientsin, The Present Status of Protestant R. M. Hersey. 579 


, W. A. Tatckell. 
. ... S. B. Keers. 

. Geo. H. McNeur. 
Mary M. Morrison. 

James Hutson. 
. S. M. Zwemer. 
. Lieo Kai Lien. 

T. B. Grafton. 
. G. G. Warren. 
. C. S. Champness, 
. W. A. Tatckell. 
D. MacGillivray. 


Missions, The Nature and Purpose of Medical... 

Mitchell, Dr. Isabel. 

Morrison Memorial, Robert . 

Morrison, Mrs. M. E. . 

Moslem Standpoint, The Chinese . 

Moslem World, A New Spirit toward a New ... 

Moslems, The Three Character Classic for 

Motorcycles for Missionaries . 

Moulton, Dr. J. H. 

Music in China . 

Nature and Purpose of Medical Missions 
Newspaper Evangelism during the Special Week 
Non-Christian Chinese, How to Preach the Gospel to... W. MacNaughtau. 
Obituaries:— 

Brewster, D.D., Rev. William Nesbitt 
Chalfaut, M.A., D.D., Rev. William P. 

Copp, Mr. Alfred 

Davis, D.D., LL.D., Rev. John Wright 
Edwards, Mrs. S. F. ... 

Engluud, Mrs. L. M. ... 

Farnham, D.D., Rev. J. M. W 
Gleysteen, Mrs. Alice Carter 
Haden, Rev. Robert Allen 
Hager, M.D., D.D., Rev. C. R 
Lees, Mrs. Jonathan ... 

Martin, Dr. W. A. P. ... 

McFarlaue, Mrs. Sewell 
McIntosh, Mrs. Gilbert 
Mitchell, Dr. Isabel 
Morrison, Mrs. M. E. ... 

Moulton, Dr. J. H. 

Porter, Dr. Henry Dwight 
Simpson, Miss Annie ... 

Sjoquist, M.D., Rev. John 
Smith, Rev. H, Sutton 
Sweet, Rev. W. S. 

Thomson, D.D , Ven. Arch. E. H. 

Tsang Nying-kwe, Rev. 

Tseng, Mrs. L. S. 

Occupation of the Baptist Field in Chekiang, Adequate. James V. Latimer. 

Om Mani Pad Me Hum: A Tibetan Prayer .J. Huston Edgar. 

Omei, A Trip to Sacred Mount .L. Newton Hayes. 

Papaya for South China, The .G. W. Groff. 

Porter, Dr. Henry Dwight.Arthur H. Smith. 

Post Office as an Evangelistic Agency, The . James A. Heal. 


784 

462 
iii 
732 
639 
625 
645 
519 

463 

489 

784 

253 
215 

456 

404 

800 

254 

186 

461 
322 

257 

256 

797 

409 

116 

407 

325 

462 
732 

463 

46 

324 

731 

734 

799 

403 

666 

258 
530 
440 
515 
44S 
46 
243 










IV 


Index. 


Prayer, Call to United .417 

Preaching Christ in a Chinese Mosque.Charles L. Ogilvie. 629 

Preaching to the Chinese, The Use of Chemical Experiments in 

Geo. W. Leavell. 777 

Preparation of Missionaries for Literary Work in China. D. MacGillivray. 506 


Promotion of Intercession 


...78,146, 214, 280, 348, 488, 556, 624, 692, 760 


Province-wide Campaign of Village Evangelization 
Religions, Our Attitude towards Chinese 

Rescue, The Universal . 

Rewards and Punishments, The Book of 

Robert Morrison Memorial . 

School the Meeting Place of Democracy, The... 
Schools of Soochow—A Survey ... 

Securing and Training of a Chinese Ministry, The 


A. A. Fulton. 
... Arthur Sowerby. 
... Lewis Hodous. 
... Arthur Sowerby. 
... Geo.' H. McNeur. 
... Frank Rawliuson. 

Sophie S. Lanneau. 
...J. Leighton Stuart. 


Significance to the Missionary of Dr. Zwemer’s Visit... 

Simpson, Miss Annie . 

Sjoquist, M.D., Rev. John. 

Smith, Rev. H. Sutton . 

Social Problems in China and Agencies for Relief ... 

Soochow—A Survey, The Schools of 

Special Week of Evangelism, The . 

Special Week, Newspaper Evangelism during the ... 

Spirit toward a New Moslem World, A New. 

Status of Protestant Missions in Tientsin, The Present 

Status of Women in China. 

Street Chapel, The. 

Student Enquirers aud the Church 

Sunset, From the . 

Sweet, Rev. W. S. 

Test of Our Mission Methods, The Local Church the Supreme 

W. W. Lockwood. 


R. A. Jaffray. 
E. C. S. 
... P. Matson. 
Kate Welsey, 
W. D. Boone. 
Sophie S. Lanneau. 

. A. L. Warushuis. 
. D. MacGillivray. 
S. SI. Zwemer. 
R. M. Hersey. 
Ernest Faber. 
James Stobie. 
Arthur Rugh. 
L. Newton Hayes. 
D. Duncan Main. 


Theological Seminaries, The Churches and the 

Thomson, D.D., Ven. Arch. E. H. . 

Three Character Classic for Moslems, The . 

Tibetan Prayer, Cm Maui Pad Me Hum . 

Tientsin, The Present Status of Protestant Missions in 
Training of a Chinese Ministry, The Securing and 
Training, Vocational . 


Trip to Sacred Mount Omei, A . 

Tsang Nying-kwe, Rev. 

Tseng, Mrs. L. S. 

Union Movements in America and China, Lutheran ... 

Union University, West China . 

Universal Rescue, The . 

Village Evangelization, A Province-wide Campaign of. 
Visit, The Significance to the Missionary of Dr. Zwemer’s. 


...C. R. Hager. 

Lieo Kai Lien. 
J. Huston Edgar. 
R. M. Hersey. 
...J. Leighton Stuart. 
Miss C. J. Lambert. 
... L. Newton Hayes. 
... D. Duncan Main. 


J. L. Stewart. 
Lewis Hodous. 
A. A. Fulton. 
R. A. Jaffray. 


Vocational Training. 

Week of Evangelism, The Special . 

Week, Newspaper Evangelism during the Special 
West China Union University 

Women in China, Status of . 

Working together in Hangchow. 

Worship and Bible Study in the Home, Family 

Worship in Japan, Ancestor . 

Zwemer’s Visit, The Significance to the Missionary of Dr. R. A. Jaffray. 


Miss C. J. Lambert. 
A. L. Warnshuis. 
D. MacGillivray. 
J. L. Stewart. 
Ernest Faber. 
J. Mercer Blain. 
Mrs. G. F. Fitch. 


570 

296 

434 

7 

III 

704 

423 

693 

663 

324 

731 

734 

95 

423 

245 

253 

625 

579 

590 

224 

227 

281 

799 

557 

761 

403 

645 

440 

579 

693 

292 

5*5 

666 

258 

721 

602 

434 

570 

663 

292 

245 

253 

602 

590 

107 

445 

452 

663 



Editorials. 


v 


EDITORIALS 


Chaos, Political .622 

China and Samoa. 415 

China, Changing. 487 

Chinese Hymns. 759 

Chinese Ministry and Social 
Activities, The. 688 

Christian Church the Center of 
Friendship . 758 

Christian Homes in China ... 758 


Christian Literature, Survey of... 554 
Christianity, A By-product of ... 77 

Christianity,“Individualistic ”... 755 
Christians and Social Waste ... 688 
Church and the Community, The 757 
Church and the Social Approach, 


The .687 

Church, Cantonese Union ... 689 

Church, Chinese. 347 

Church, The Chinese . 278 

Church, The Orthodox Greek ... 275 

Collection, A Unique . 622 

Comity .346 

Committee, The China Con¬ 
tinuation .343 

Correction, A . 77 

Death’s Heavy Toll . 144 

Delegates from Japan . 344 

Dress, Chinese and Foreign ... 142 

Education in China . 1 

Education, Professor Moore on... 553 

“ Enlargement of Heart” ... 482 

Enquirers, Student . 212 

Evangelism . 73 

Evaugelism, Individual. 277 

Evangelism, Individual... ... 756 

Evangelism, Social . 756 

Evaugelism, The Forward Move¬ 
ment in ;. 209 


Features, Special. 344 

Fields, Neglected. 210 

Hangchow.343 

Henry Haigli, D.D., Death of 

the Rev. 485 

Islam in China .620 

Jews, The.276 

Killing ... .. 551 

Leper Relief, World Movement 

for.690 

Literature. 4 

Martin, Dr. W. A. P. 76 

Martin, Peking, Dr. W. A. P.... 6 

McIntosh, Mr. G. 77 

Membership . 345 

“ Moslem World,” The. 621 

Moslems, Literature for. 620 

Most Popular Books on China... 759 

“ No flowers, by request ” ... 213 

Pray, Let us .622 

Rawlinson’sBereavement, Mr.... [44 

Returned Student, The. 141 

Revolutionary Reflections ... 689 

Russia .275 

Societies, Tract .347 

Study, Original .759 

Subscribers, To Our . 279 

Sunday Observance . 142 

Sunrise .418 

Survey . 345 

Survey, Miss Launeau’s. 414 

“ The Spirit of Patronage ” ... 691 

Veterans, Two . 144 

Visit, Dr. Zwemer’s . 619 

Women, Progress in Work for... 623 

Worship, Ancestor . 413 

Zwemer, The Coming of Dr. ... 484 




Vi 


Illustrations. 


ILLUSTRATIONS 


| (June) Frontispiece. 


... (May) Frontispiece. 
...(February) Frontispiece. 

(March) Frontispiece. 


Bible Class at Pingyao . 

Bible Study Classes, Foochow . 

Brewster, D.D., The Late Rev. W. N. 

Buddhist Island of the “Three Urns and Moon’s 
Reflected Image,” West Lake, Hangchow 

Chalfaut, D.D., The Late Rev. W. P. 

Chiu Tan Gorge 

Christian Wedding, A . 

Church at Chung Lau, Canton Province 

C. I. M. Shansi Bible Institute . 

Davis, D.D., LL.D., The Late Rev. J. W. 

Edwards, The Late Mrs. S. F. 

Euglund, The Late Mrs. L. .. 

Farnham, D.D., The Late Rev. J. M. W. ... . 

Fire at Administration Building, Nanking University . 

‘Golden Summit,” The top of Sacred Mt. Omei (August) Frontispiece 
Hart Memorial Building, West China Union University, Chengtu, Sze. .. 

Haskell Gymnasium, Shanghai Baptist College . 

Joyce Memorial Building, West China Union University, Chengtu, Sze. ... 

Kuight, The Late Rev. W. .. . 

Lees, The Late Mrs. J. 

Martin, D.D., The Late Rev. W. A. P. 

McFarlane, The Late Mrs. .. 

Methodist Episcopal Dormitory, “ Tower ) 

Building,” West China Union Uni- 

versity, Chengtu, Sze. ) 

Mihrab of theShaughai Mosque,'The ... 

Mitchell, The Late Dr. Isabel D. 

Mt. Omei, Szechwau .. . 

Page from a Moslem Primer .. 

Pages from the First Chapter of the Koran . 650, 

Pao Soh Tah from Imperial Is., ) (t >>t (June) Frontispiece. 
West Lake, Hangchow ) 

Papaya for South China, The . 

Presentation of an Honorary Tablet to Mr. and Mrs. F. C. H. Dreyer ... 

Scholars learning Arithmetic on the Abacus ... .• 

Sermon by an Imam in Mosque ) 


(September) Frontispiece. 
... (October) Frontispiece. 
... (July) Frontispiece. 


in Shanghai Native City j 
Stuart, D.D., The Late Rev. J. L. / 

Stuart Memorial Chapel, Hangchow J 
“ The Peak that flew over ” (from India), ) 
Lin Yin Monastery, Hangchow ... ) 
Thomson, D.D., The Late Ven. Arch. E. H. 


604 

238 

456 


404 


38 

255 

186 

463 

322 

792 

602 

793 

603 
605 
409 
116 
408 


462 

660 

651 


448 

741 

38 


(October) Frontispiece. 
(December) Frontispiece. 
(January) Frontispiece. 


403 


Visitors and Delegates at Union Lutheran ? (November) Frontispiece. 

Conference, Kikuugshan . ) 

Workers in Week of Evangelism atT'ai Shan (& lU) (April) Frontispiece. 


THE CHINESE 

RECORDER 

u m m m 

VOL. XLVIII. JANUARY, 1917. No. 1 

Registered at the Chinese Post Office as a Newspaper. 

The Book of Rewards and Punishments 
The Evangelization of a City 
City Evangelistic Work Among Women 
The Orphan Jewish Colony of Honan 
Ideals for the Evangelistic Week 

Material intended for Publication should be addressed, 

“Editor, Chinese Recorder, 5 Quinsan Gardens, Shanghai.” 

Advertising and Business Matters should be addressed to 

“Presbyterian Mission Press, 18 Pek.ng Road, Shanghai.” 


Published monthly by the American Presbyterian Mission Press, 
18 Peking Road, Shanghai, China. 

Subscription $ 4.00 Mexican (Gold $ 2.00 or 8 shillings) per annum, postpaid. 












THE CHINESE 

RECORDER 

VOL. XLVIII. JANUARY, 1917. No. 1 


CONTENTS 

PAUMr 

EDITORIAL COMMENT. 1 

Education in China.—Literature.—Dr. W. A. P. Martin, Pekinfi. 


CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES: 



The Book of Rewards and Punishments . 

Arthur Sowkrby. 

7 

How Better to Utilize Our Available Forces in the ) 
Evangelization of a City.) 

... Robt. F. Fitch. 

21 

City Evangelistic Work Among Women . 

...Mrs. R. K. Evans. 

32 

The Orphan Jewish Colony of Honan . 

D. MacGjxlivary. 

37 

Ideals for the Evangelistic Week . 

Wm. Macnauohtajv, 

43 

In Memoriam.—Henry Dwight Porter . 

. 

46 

OUR BOOK TABLE. 

• •• ••• Ml 

47 

CORRESPONDENCE . 

Ml Ml M« 

56 

Progress of Lutheran Union.—The Missionary Home.—Kikungshan School for Mission- 


aries’ Children. 



MISSIONARY NEWS . 

Ml Ml ••• 

59 


The Thirteen Meeting of the Executive of the China Continuation Committee.—Report of 
Committee on the Forward Evangelistic Movement.-Biennial Conference of the 
China Medical Missionary Association, and the National Medical Association.— 
Evangelistic Items.—Notes from the Field.—Mr. Chang Po Ling’s Visit to Kirin,— 

“ Retreat Conference.’’—East China Educational Association. 

MISSIONARY JOURNAL. 72 


ILLUSTRATIONS. 


Excavations in " The Peak that flew over" (from India) Lin Yin Monastery, Hangchow. Frontispiece 
Scholars Learning Arithmetic on the Abacus, on an Island off the Coast of Tengchoufu .) 

Church at Chung Lan, Canton Province, Built by Chinese at 0 Cost of SI 2 , 000 . It > Page 38 
began with six Members and has now nearly 300 . ..‘ 




NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS 


Rev. Arthur Sowerby (Order of the Double Dragon, 2nd 
class), has for the past thirty-five years rendered service in 
connection with the evangelistic, educational, and literary work of 
the English Baptist Missiou, nearly thirty years of this period being 
spent in pioneer work in Shansi. For four years he was tutor to 
Yuan Shih-k’ai’s sons, in connection with literary work. He is at 
present engaged wholly in literary work. 

Robert F. Fitch, D. D. (Wooster University, 1916), a 
member of the American Presbyterian Mission, North, has been in 
China eighteen years (“plus sixteen years of boyhood ”), engaged 
in educational and evangelistic work in connection with the Ningpo 
Presbyterian Academy, Ningpo College (gentry), nine years; and 
the Hangchow College, nine years. For the past year he has also 
been General Secretary of the Hangchow Union Evangelistic 
Committee. He is a member of the Chekiang Federation Council 
and of the China Continuation Committee Sub-committee on 
Evangelism and Social Application. In translation work he has 
given China “ An Outline Harmon}' of the Gospels.’’ 

Mrs. R. K. Evans, born in Peking, a daughter of Dr. W. 
Hopkyn Rees, is a member of the London Missiou. Previous to 
joining the staff of the Mission she was, for over two years, a 
teacher in the families of the late President Yuan Shih-k’ai (while 
Viceroy of Chihli) and H. E. Tong Shao-yi, Most of her time in 
connection with the Mission has been spent in Reaching in girls’ 
schools, visiting in homes, and in general evangelistic work for 
women. 

Donaud MacGiluvray, M.A., D.D., is probably well known 
to most of the readers of the Recorder through his long con¬ 
nection with the Christian literature Society, having spent the 
past seventeen years in Shanghai in literary work for this Society. 
Previous to this time, as a member of the Canadian Methodist 
Mission, he was engaged for eleven years in evangelistic work in 
Honan. He has also served as Convener of the Literary Committee 
of the China Continuation Committee. In addition to bis trans¬ 
lations, which are “too numerous to mention”, he has helped 
largely in supplying Chinese newspapers with “Gospel” articles. 




F. F. Fitch. 

EXCAVATIONS IN “THE PEAK THAT FI.EW OVER” (FROM INDIA) 

DIN YIN MONASTERY, HANGCHOW. 





THE CHINESE RECORDER 


Published Monthly at the American Presbyterian Mission Press, 
18 Peking Road, Shanghai, China 


Editorial Board. 


Editor-in-chief : Rev. Frank Rawlinson, (On furlough.) 


Associate Editors 


( Rev. W. Hopkyn Rees, d.d, 
{ Rev. G. F. Fitch, d.d. 


Rev.R obert C.Beebe,m.d. Rev.O.E. Kteborn, m.d. Rt,Rev.F.L. Norris,d. d. 
Rev. Ernest Box. Rev. E.C. Lobknstine, Rev. 0. Schui/tze. 

Rev. G. A. Ceayton. Mr. Gilbert McIntosh. Rev. A. H, Smith, d.d. 
Rev. J. C. Gibson, d.d. Rev. G. H. McNeur. Miss I,aura M. White. 


VOL. XLVIII JANUARY, 1917 


NO. 1 


Review of 1916 


Education tn Cblna. 


Government. The lack of more progress 
in the development of the educational 
system for China has been partly due to financial conditions. 
The difficulty of securing sufficient revenue for the ordinary 
expenses of the government has prevented the assignment of 
large sums for educational purposes. 

There does not, however, seem to be any appreciable decline 
in the demand for the new education. 


The following are the most recent statistics : 

Schools . 108,448 

Students.. ... 3,643,206 

The flourishing business carried on by the Commercial 
Press and the Chung Hwa Book Company in preparing and 
publishing textbooks is an indication of the rapid spread of 
modern education in China. 

The Tsing Hua College near Peking is rapidly becoming 
the most important government college in the country. Large 
sums of money are being spent on buildings and equipment. 
The standard is being raised, and before long it may develop 
into a national university. 

President Li Yuan-hung has expressed himself strongly 
in regard to his desire to promote general education throughout 
the country. 








2 The Chinese Recorder [January 

The present Minister of Education, Mr. Fan Yuan- 
lien, places the emphasis rightly on the need of encouraging 
primary education, and advocated making such education 
compulsory. 

We may expect that as soon as a stable government has 
been established there will be marked activity in educational 
development. 

The rapid growth of the University of Hongkong should 
not he overlooked. Although strictly speaking not situated in 
China yet it is intended for the education of the Chinese. Much 
interest has been manifested, and large sums of money have 
been contributed by wealthy Chinese. It promises to become 
one of the great Universities of the Far East, and to exert a 
powerful influence, especially in Southern China. 

Missionary. The past year lias been one of advance on 
all lines, and although we can not be satisfied with present 
accomplishments, yet we can say that missionary educators 
are keenly alive to the situation, and are making determined 
efforts to utilize their opportunities. 

Much interest has been created in the home lands in the 
unique opportunity for the Christian school and college in 
China, and generous gifts have been forthcoming for this 
branch of the missionary enterprise. 

Two new local Educational Associations have been founded, 
which are affiliated with the Central China Christian Educa¬ 
tional Association. One is the Shantung-Honan Educational 
Association, and the other is the Manchurian Branch Associa¬ 
tion. Altogether there are now eight local associations. At the 
meeting of the Advisory Council of the Educational Association 
to be held in the spring of 1917* it is expected that representa¬ 
tives of all these local associations will be present. 

In higher education some of the plans already formulated 
are being carried into execution. Extensive building operations 
are being carried on, notably at Chinanfu by the Shantung 
Christian University, at Nanking by the Nanking University, 
and at Changsha by the Yale Mission. 

Progress in union enterprises has been made in connection 
with the University of Peking and the Fukien Union College. 
The latter institution is still young, but lias already met with 
considerable success. During the first year the total enrolment 
was 86, distributed among the classes as follows ; Freshman 
54, Sophomores 27, Junior specials 5. Among the older institu- 


1917] 


Editorial 


3 

tions St. John’s makes the gratifying report that the total 
number of students in the college proper is now 242. 

The China Medical Board by its activities in China has 
altered the situation in regard to medical education. Through 
its assistance a strong Union Medical School for teaching 
medicine in the Chinese language will be developed at Chinan- 
fu. The Union Medical School of Nanking will not attempt 
to carry on its work, as it is thought wise to concentrate 
energies on the Chinanfu school, and make that thoroughly 
efficient. 

The Union Medical School at Peking for teaching medicine 
in the English language will be financed by the China Medical 
Board. Dr. McLean has been appointed Dean. Building 
operations are in progress. The first class will enter in 1917. 

The establishment of the School of Medicine in Shanghai 
by the China Medical Board -will probably take place in the 
near future. 

During the year much has been done by missionary edu¬ 
cators in the w r ay of improving primary and secondary educa¬ 
tion. Men and women have been set apart to give their whole 
time to this important branch of the work. 

Much time has been devoted by local associations to the 
drawing up of curricula, and to standardizing the schools. In 
some centers local examination boards have done much useful 
work, especially in Central China and in Fukien province. 
The Board in Central China reports that pupils for 965 mission 
schools took the examination last year. In the first three 
grades 1,578 were examined. From the fourth to the seventh 
grade 799 were examined. In the first year of the Middle 
School 15 were examined. 

Looking forward to the future, it would be well for 
missionary educators to put before themselves certain definite 
aims. 

There must be more unity. Perhaps one of the best ways 
to promote this unity will be by strengthening the central 
organization. 

The general secretary of the Educational Association 
should have in connection with his office a much larger staff, 
so that his valuable work may be raised to a higher state of 
efficiency. A Chinese general secretary should be appointed 
to work in co-operation with the foreign general secretary. 
One of the first aims should be the publication of an educa- 


4 The Chinese Recorder [January 

tional journal in Chinese for the benefit of Chinese teachers in 
mission schools who do not understand English. 

The plan for a more thorough survey of mission educa¬ 
tional work should be carried out. It would be advisable to 
secure for at least a year the services of two educational 
experts, one English and one American, to come out to China 
for the purpose of studying the field and of drawing up recom¬ 
mendations as to the way in which our work could be made 
more effective. 

It would be advantageous if each local asso ciation could 
obtain the services of a local secretary, who would have as one 
of his duties that of advisory inspector of all the schools and 
colleges within the area of the association. This plan has 
been carried out with good results in West China. In strong 
educational centers missions should unite to establish and 
conduct good Normal Schools. One of the crying needs of the 
present day is for well-trained Chinese teachers. 

Much benefit might be derived from the founding of a few 
educational experimental stations, at which methods of teach¬ 
ing English and Chinese could be tried out. Such stations 
would be of value to the government as well as to the mission 
schools, and at them much valuable pedagogical data could 
be gathered. 

In the further development of our schools and colleges 
nothing should be done to lead the Chinese to suspect that 
missionary educators are attempting to set up a rival system. 
We should work in as close co-operation as possible with the 
government. 

The task of providing adequate educational facilities for 
China is so enormous that there is plenty of room for the 
mission school alongside of the government school. 

The Christian school will be of vast benefit to China if, 
in addition to maintaining a high state of efficiency from the 
educational standpoint, it gives the students the Christian 
outlook ou life and develops Christian character. 

* * * 

literature Viewed from several standpoints the year 1916 is 
remarkable for the development which has taken 
place in this branch of our great enterprise. Turning first to 
the question of production one cannot but feel that a year 
which has seen the completion of the Chinese u Hastings”— 
the greatest gift yet made to the Chiuese Church by the 


1917] 


Editorial 


5 


literary workers—and the completion of plans for the writing 
of a new Commentary on the New Testament for students, and 
for the translation of the “Devotional Commentary” for the 
use of the ordinary church members and of the “Universal 
Bible Dictionary” for Sunday school teachers, will ever be 
regarded as a historic year. Dr. Fenn is nearing the comple¬ 
tion of his enormous task of preparing a Concordance to the 
Union Version of the Bible, while Dr. Hallock is issuing his 
Concordance to the old Version. And each of the Literature 
and Tract Societies has added to its list of publications. 

Problems of distribution have also been faced with a new 
enthusiasm. The visits which Dr. Hopkyn Rees and Pastor 
Cheng paid to centres where the Tract Societies are at work 
are bearing fruit. Several of the societies have already issued 
annotated catalogues in Chinese and others are preparing to 
follow suit. The example set by the great Chinese publishing 
houses is thus being followed and in a year or two it will 
doubtless be the rule for the Christian publishers to appeal to 
the public direct rather than rely on the missionary to secure 
sales. There seems no reason why, if advertising is carefully 
planned, the sales of Christian books should not greatly in¬ 
crease. With a Christian community as large and as influential 
as that in China the average edition of a well-written book 
ought to exceed the limit of two thousand at which it at 
present seems to stand. 

In the matter of organization there has been distinct prog¬ 
ress, though outward and visible signs are few. The war has 
so far dislocated the ordinary sources of supply that some of 
the most important aims of the China Christian Publishers 1 
Association cannot be realized. It is out of the question to 
state in a paragraph the results of constant communications 
between the various societies. Never has it been less true 
that “the Tract Societies are working at cross-purposes” than 
in the year now closed. The first full year of the union 
between the North and Central Societies has shown that there 
are many advantages and few disadvantages in the centraliza¬ 
tion of management thus effected. The bonds between Han¬ 
kow and the daughter in West China have never been closer. 
And there can be no doubt that further unions are only a 
matter of time. The failure of most of the Tract Societies 
and of other Publication Societies to join in the activities of 
the Mission Book Company have been hastily criticised in 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January, 19t 7 


some quarters, but those who are acquainted with all the 
problems of production and sale-prices and discounts know 
that much more spade-work has to be done quietly before the 
productions of all the societies can be stocked in any one 
centre. 

Such frequeut reference has been made to the survey of 
existing Christian literature that no detailed summary need 
be given now. The two directors have not yet been found, 
but meantime the work of compiling the loose-leaf index 
steadily advances. As the survey cannot be begun till this 
index is completed, time is not really being lost. Nor need 
one summarize in more than a sentence the work of the “ Press 
Bureau ” type which is being done by the Christian Literature 
Society, the International Reform Bureau, the Young Men’s 
Christian Association, the Nanking University, and other 
agencies. Distinct advance has been made, a wider public 
has been influenced and a clearer understanding between the 
editors of the vernacular press and the leaders in this Christian 
campaign reached. 

The number of missionaries devoting their whole time to 
literary work has not appreciably iucreased during the year, 
but there has beeu a greater readiness to allow men to have 
time for such work, and a much more sympathetic attitude 
towards the financial appeals. The Chinese Church has not 
yet entered into its rightful share in this vast field of usefulness, 
but among Christian Chinese leaders there has been a deeper 
comprehension of the value of literature as a means of up¬ 
building faith and uprooting error. So far as this branch of 
work is concerned, the future is full of glorious possibilities 
capable of realization. 


* 


* 


2 >r. m. H. B>, 
flfcartin, Pefclng. 


As we go to press the message comes to us 
that this great man and missionary has 
entered peacefully into rest, at the age of 89, 
after more than 60 years of strenuous and varied services for 
China and Christ. ‘‘Peking is in mourning” : yes, aud no 
wonder, for a prince in Israel has gone. China never had a 
truer or braver friend, aud the missionary body a representative 
with a more varied record of activities of the highest order, a 
personality of unique type, loved and honoured of all who were 
privileged to know him. Great men fall on sleep, one by one, 
but the joy of our service, and its inspiration, is that other 
spirits of a kindred nature arise to take their place, and best of 
all, the Master liveth to remain with us till the glad day when 
Christ shall see of the travail of His soul in fullest satisfaction. 

We hope at an early date to publish a sketch of Dr. Martin 
by one who has been for years his intimate friend. 


Contributed Articles 


The Book of Rewards and Punishments* 

ARTHUR SOWERBY. 


the most widely circulated and most widely read of all 
modern Taoist treatises.” T‘ai Shang Lao Chun, The Greatly 
Exalted Venerable Kingly One, is the title given to Lao Tzu by 
his disciples, and while this can scarcely be made to represent 
a claim to the authorship of the classic, yet at least it signifies 
that it is supposed to present the doctrines he taught. Kan 
means to move, to influence, and Ying expresses recompense 
and retribution, and the commentaries explain that virtue and 
vice move Heaven and Earth, and hence men are rewarded or 
punished according to their deeds. 

The title fairly expresses the contents of the book, for 
while it contains moral categories, and good and evil actions 
are discriminated and to some extent defined, the author’s 
intent was to show that all men’s deeds are observed by Divine 
or by spiritual beings, with beautiful rewards for virtuous 
actions and terrible inflictions for vicious ones, and he thus 
hopes to strengthen men in the pursuit of moral good, and to 
induce the wicked to repent and reform. 

The book is therefore one of interest to us as missionaries, 
as it gives the popular ideas on ethics, on the superintendent 
and spiritual Powers that are on the side of righteousness, and 
on the way men may escape from the due consequences of 
wrong doing, and change the curse into a blessing. In other 
words we are dealing with the popular Chinese ideas on the 
moral government of the world, and as we are here to enlighten 
the Chinese on this and give them the truth concerning it as 
contained in the teaching of Christ and His Apostles, it is a 
subject worthy of our closest attention. 

♦Read before the Tientsin Missionary Association. 


Note. —Readers of the Recorder are reminded that the Editorial Board 
assumes no responsibility for the views expressed by the writers of articles 
published in these pages. 


m 


HE little book of Chinese ethics that we have been 
invited to study this eveuiug is entitled the T‘ai Shang 
Kan Ying P‘ien and, according to Wieger, is “one of 







8 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


The treatise was written in the Southern Sung Dynasty 
(1127-1280 A.D.),* and has therefore been in circulation 
between seven hundred and eight hundred years. The author 
of course was not Lao Tzu, but a Taoist scholar, Li Chiang 
Ling, and although at least a hundred years antecedent to 
them we may fairly consider the comparative value of his 
ethics by thinking of the great Florentine poet, Dante, and 
our English Chaucer, who was one of the first to create the 
English ethical ideals. The Kan Ying P‘ien does not rise to 
the supreme heights of the Purgatorio and Paradiso, having 
no such finely wrought disciplinary cbasteniug as we find in 
the Purgatorio, nor the splendid vision of the Paradiso, but, 
even in the commentaries, which borrow the Buddhistic ideas 
of hell, there is nothing so terrible and ghastly as we find in 
the Inferno, while there is a great deal of sane practical ethical 
sentiment, such as characterizes many of Chaucer’s poems. 
The Kan Ying P‘ien has been and is so popular that numerous 
editions have been published, and I found that in Peking 
there were about twenty different editions easily procurable at 
the various book stalls, It would be tedious and unprofitable 
to attempt any detailed account of these, but we may consider 
one or two, as they throw light on the estimate in which the 
book is held and the modification of its doctrines by scholars 
of different schools. 

The text of the treatise, with a fairly accurate translation, 
will be fouud in Wieger’s Moral Tenets and Customs in China, 
translated by Pere Davrout. This also has the Commentary 
written by Cheng Ch‘ing Chili. The first copy of the Kan 
Ying P l ien which I possessed and read many years ago had 
this same commentary. I lost this copy in the troubles of 
1900, and while I have not been able to compare it with the 
commentary given in Dr. Wieger’s volume, yet I remember 
it sufficiently to be able to say that, while it is the same in 
thought, the style was not quite the same in these different 
editions. This is no doubt the standard commentary, yet it 
does not occupy the same position in relation to the text as 
Chu Fu Tzu’s famous commentary does to the great classics. 
For instance, three other editions which I possess do not have 
this commentary at all, but the text is commented on and 
explained by other scholars. 


♦Dr. H. A. Giles maintains that the date of its composition is uncertain. 



1917 ] The Book of Rewards and Punishments 9 

That the Kan Yiiig P‘ieu was highly esteemed by the 
Manchu Emperors, and so obtained extensive circulation 
during the Ta Ch l ing dynasty, is shown by the two editious 
which I place before you. The larger 8vo edition of eight 
volumes enclosed in one case was printed in the twelfth year 
of Hsun Chib, the first Emperor of the Manchu dynasty. It 
has a translation of the text of the treatise into Manchu, and 
the characters of both the Chinese and Manchu text are 
beautifully cut. The book is finely illustrated by numerous 
wood cuts, and although hardly of striking beauty yet all the 
cuts show a vigorous line treatment that is not without merit. 
In addition to the text each passage has comments, illustra¬ 
tions, and appendixes, with various quotations from the 
classics and the writings of other scholars, to elucidate or en¬ 
force the doctrine of the book, or stories taken from life, some 
of them, however, evidently more or less fabulous, which give 
point to the passage to which they are attached. 

The copy enclosed in wooden boards has also eight 
volumes and these are arranged iu order by the list of virtues, 
hsiao, ti ) chung , hsin, li ) i\ lien , chHh (filial piety, brotherly 
affection, loyalty, faith, courtesy, uprightness, modesty, and 
shame), such an arrangement being appropriate to a book on 
morals. This edition was published in the eighteenth year 
of the reign of Kuang Hsu, and is printed in metal types and 
is also well illustrated. The pictures show the same vigorous 
treatment, with well drawn and striking lines, but with rather 
less delicacy of touch than in the other volume. 

The subjects of the drawings in both volumes are repre¬ 
sentations of the tales told to illustrate and enforce the moral 
doctrines, aud as many of these tales are concerned with the 
terrible results that follow evil deeds the pictures in conse¬ 
quence are often ghastly although not a few portray quite 
pleasing situations. The editors aud publishers of these edi¬ 
tions in attempting to impress on the public mind the serious¬ 
ness of moral doctrines appreciate the value of the appeal to 
eye gate, and if we quickly pass over some of the gruesome 
events depicted, we must remember that terrible crimes such 
as these illustrated are uot fictitious but are committed by the 
people, although perhaps not more in China than in many 
other lands. 

I have another edition, in one volume, issued by a scholar 
at Sianfu, published in the 28th year of Tao Kuaug, but 


10 The Chinese Recorder [January 

this has no illustrations. Of these three editions the last 
mentioned is edited from the Confuciau standpoint, and con¬ 
tains constant references to the Classics, but omits the ordinary 
commentary. The smaller edition is distinctly Taoist with 
frequent mention of the knei and the shen ) while the 8vo 
edition is about half way between the two, quoting from the 
Classics, with less emphasis put on the action of the spirits 
and demons. Probably these three editions are fairly typical; 
the moral doctrines in all will be found much the same, and 
more or less in harmony with the Confuciau ethics, and mainly 
differ in the greater or less place allotted to the action of 
spiritual powers. 

There are various appendixes and introductions which 
somewhat modify the original treatise and these will be dealt 
with later on. We now come to consider the subject matter 
of the book under notice. There will be certain questions 
latent in our minds. We shall ask on what basis the moral 
obligations rest? Whether the category of virtues is in any 
way complete ? Whether due balance is drawn between ethical 
claims ? What place is given in the estimate of meritorious 
deeds, and, finally, What are the divine sanctions? 

While this is no logical and systematic treatment of the 
ethics, still the questions are valid and the study of the book 
will afford some kind of replies. The treatise may briefly be 
divided into three heads. 

First, there is the assertion that happiness depends upon 
conduct and this because of the judgment of spiritual beiugs 
who are acquainted with men’s doings and reward or punish 
them accordingly. After this there is a categorical statement 
of the deeds done or avoided by the good man followed by a 
brief epitome of the happiness consequent upon his virtue, and 
then in contrast we have another category of the wicked 
practices of evil men, and the miseries which will fall upon 
them, and then finally, in again enforcing the certainty of 
retribution, there is a strong appeal made to all to lead virtuous 
lives, while there is the added doctrine of much importance 
that by repentance and a changed course of life the penalties 
awaiting the wrong-doer can be avoided, and calamity be 
changed into happiness. 

The opening sentences then deal with the spiritual beings 
who acquaint the Heavenly Powers with the deeds of men, 
and this is, as we might expect, the weakest part of the book. 


1917] 


The Book of Rewards and Punishments 


11 


There are San Tai, or The Three Eminences, who reside in the 
constellation of the Great Bear, and the San Shih, dwelling 
in the body, the Spirit of the Hearth, and the innumerable 
Kuei Shen, that are to be fouud everywhere. It must be 
observed that it is not these various spiritual existences that 
have the power of dealing out rewards and retributions, but 
they are mentioned as the informants to the ruling powers 
above of the good actions done and the crimes committed. 
The San Tai are above and look down from that vantage point 
on men ; the San Shih are within, dwelling in the head, the 
abdomen, and the feet, and they control the thoughts and 
desires of men ; the Spirit of the Hearth is in the home and 
nothing can be kept from his knowledge ; while the kuei shen 
surround us everywhere, the invisible beholders of all within. 
It may therefore be supposed that the dwellers in the Heavenly 
Palaces are minutely and accurately informed of human 
actions. In the commentaries constant reference is also made 
to Wen Chang, the God of Literature, and this for the same 
reason, as his literary ability enables him to inscribe on his 
tablets whatever comes under his observation, so that he is 
to the Chinese the Recording Angel. As for the supreme 
and awful Powers who are in fact the dispensers of justice, 
the veil is not withdrawn, but at the end of the book it is 
stated that it is the Ssu Ming or Dispenser of Life, and 
il Heaven,” with whom man’s destiny ultimately rests. 

One cannot help perceiving that the Chinese mind repre¬ 
sents the Heavenly Powers uuder forms similar to the ruling 
powers on earth, Kings, Emperors, Princes, and officials. In 
the “Travels in the West,” translated by Dr. Richard under the 
title “A Mission to Heaven,” this is markedly so, and there 
we find a Celestial Emperor who dwells in his palace with 
innumerable female spirits and hosts of servants; he issues 
decrees and rewards and punishes his servants and state officers 
as any Chinese Emperor of the past dynasties might have 
done, but behind all this there is an apprehension of some 
Spiritual Being who is the Great Reality and the Supreme 
Ruling Force and is styled Righteousness—Shang Ti, Fuh, 
T‘ien,—and herein lies the highest conception the Chinese 
have of God. 

In connection with this account of the Divine judgment 
on men’s actions and the consequent reward or punishment we 
come upon a doctrine of some significance. The text says 


12 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


“Concerning men’s sins—for great offences twelve years are 
cutoff, for small offences, one hundred days.” Here there is 
an attempt to estimate the moral value, the merit or demerit 
of different actions, and we find the same thing a little further 
on, where it is said “one must perform 1,300 good deeds to 
become an earthly genius.” This is, obviously, a very clumsy 
and imperfect appreciation of moral actions. The difference 
between twelve years and one hundred days is so great and 
there are no intermediate terms that it marks a great differ¬ 
ence between various offences. It is true that this corresponds 
in some measure to our category of venial and mortal sins, 
and this wide gap may be meant to represent the difference that 
the Chinese consider exists between say the reckless destruc¬ 
tion of snakes and tortoises, and false and damaging accusations. 
We shall see directly that for the gravest offences such as 
murder, patricide, and the darker crimes the Chinese have a 
judgment far beyond that represented by the shortening of 
a man’s life by twelve years. But while the Chinese rightly 
mark the great difference between moral actions in these 
estimates, they altogether forget how by very slow degrees the 
various offences differ from one another. White almost 
imperceptibly loses its perfect purity, tones down into grey, 
and grey by inappreciable changes deepens into black. And 
so it is with the moral life, and the lapse from perfect 
goodness so easily and fatally degenerates into actual crime 
that from such a high standard as the Christian ethic we 
find the first lapse closely associated with its ultimate outcome 
in outrageous crime, and we read “he that loveth not his 
brother is a murderer.” 

Further, with these specific announcements as to the 
definite punishments inflicted, or the actual amount of good 
deeds that merit high rewards, we naturally ask for the 
authority that has imposed this legal enactment, and supposing 
it is the ordinance of High Heaven we want to know how 
this became known to the author aud commentators of this 
book. It is needless to say we ask in vain, but it shows 
that the Chinese can only think these things out in' the 
legal terms to which they are accustomed, and that these 
announcements represent a purely arbitrary enactment of the 
Heavenly Powers, and so long as an apparently authoritative 
statement is made who is there that has any sufficient intimacy 
with Celestial Courts to call it in question ? 


1917] The Book of Rewards and Punishments 13 

In the appendixes and notes in these volumes we find that 
there is a much better treatment of this estimation of moral 
actions. In one of these the reader is recommended to self- 
examination and to keep some black and white beans, every 
night adding a white bean to his store for each virtuous action 
and a black one for each offence against morality. Then 
follow some principles by which the actions can be valued. 
Some things are so plainly duties that no special merit 
pertains to their performance, for instance, if a loyal and 
patriotic officer restrains his soldiers and underlings from 
oppression and violence, this is what he should do, and there 
is no special merit in doing it. Again, some actions are so 
bad that they cannot be wiped out by what would ordinarily 
be considered meritorious deeds, as if a wealthy man commits 
murder he cannot atone for that by the distribution of ten 
thousand taels in almsgiving. 

The value of good actions is carefully drawn. To abstain 
from taking revenge is a virtue, but not to avenge one’s 
parents’ wrongs is a crime. To remit a debt is a virtue, but 
not if the debtor has suffered greatly, and the debt is remitted 
by a magisterial order. If a bad man is assisted to escape 
from the punishment of his evil deeds, while apparently an 
act of kindness to the sufferer yet the act carries with it no 
degree of merit. 

Very significant is the estimate of the fulfilment of the 
highest duties and the committal of the basest crimes. One 
scholar, Ynn Ku Shan, is quoted as saying, u Men should 
reverence High Heaven, and respect their parents. To do 
so cannot be considered meritorious, but if men do not do so 
they commit the greatest sin.” With regard to crimes it is 
said, “ Not to reverence one’s parents, to commit adultery, to 
abuse women and girls, to break down river banks and set the 
floods loose, or to commit incendiary, cannot be reckoned up 
as so many immoral deeds, for these show a nature so 
perverted that the doer cannot be reckoned as a human 
being.” I think we will all approve of a moral judgment 
and an ethical doctrine so serious and so sincere as this. 

We now turn to the main content of the book, the 
detailed statement of virtues and crimes, practised or avoided 
by the good or the wicked man. As I have said before, this 
is no systematic and complete treatise of moral doctrine, and it 
does not contain any orderly arrangement of duties, nor indeed 


14 The Chinese Recorder [January 

do we find such an elementary classification as is afforded 
by the Chinese categories of the five relations or the eight 
virtues. In this respect it is something like the Book of 
Proverbs, although much briefer, and the author has written 
down those things that especially obtain his approbation or 
his condemnation. It must also be noted that the catalogue 
of virtuous deeds is much shorter than the list of immoralities, 
and while this is partly accounted for by the vast number of 
possible and practised iniquities, yet it does show that to 
the author, and presumably to the Chinese thinkers generally, 
there is a fuller conception of the vices that should be avoided 
than of the virtues that should be practised. While we are 
pained at the scantiness of the ideal of goodness, yet we are con¬ 
strained to admit that the man who did the things approved and 
abstained from those condemned would certainly be a good man, 
and also that no man could habitually follow the right path 
as indicated here without having a genuine goodness of heart. 

The ideal of the virtuous mau is that of a man who 
reverences the Powers above, who is loyal to the duties 
springing from the relationships of life, who will not wantonly 
hurt a living thing, caring for plants as well as the sentient 
animal and insect life, compassionate to all, especially the old 
and the young, the widow and the orphan, full of sympathy 
(“consider the gains and losses of other men as if they were 
your own”) and helpful charity (“help your neighbour when 
he is in strained circumstances”), doing the deed for the 
deed’s sake (“when you dispense bounty seek not reward”), 
and with a humble and patient spirit (“ being honored, fear, 
being humbled do not complain”). Such is the ideal given 
us, aud we are glad to recognise that it is not merely that 
of an inflexible and severe righteousness, but has some touch 
of those kind and gracious characteristics that we generally 
associate with the name of Christian. One thinks almost 
inevitably of some of the Wordsworthian sentiments, of the one 

“ Who would not mix his pleasure or his pride, 

With sorrow of the meanest thing that grows.” 
or 

“The primal duties shine aloft like stars, 

The charities that soothe and heal and bless 
Are clustered round about our feet like flowers.” 

One or two examples from the commentaries show that 
the excellence of the moral doctrines does not lose in their 


1917] The Book of Rewards and Punishments 15 

treatment. For instance, with regard to kindness to the aged 
and the young, it is pointed out that every one cares for the 
aged and the young in his own family and that this kindness 
of heart should be extended to reach the aged and the young 
in other families. So again kindness to animals is taught on 
the grounds that we share with them a common sentient 
nature. Much of this is well summed up and expressed in 
commenting on the word “ren” (fc) which Eegge translates 
“benevolence,” and Soothill, “moral perfection, virtue, 
charity.” The commentator punning on this word says, 
“Every thing has its ‘ren’ {ren also meaning kernel), the 
peach has its kernel, the apricot has its kernel, and the 
‘ren’ or kernel of man’s nature is the heart of mercy.” 
This word “ren” seems to combine the two ideas which 
we represent by the two words “virtue” and “humanity,” 
or humane. Virtue being of course the true moral nature 
of the vir or man, and the humane, not the human, being the 
proper moral characteristic of the human race. 

This keen insight into the true moral value of actions 
is also shown in a quotation from a scholar, Yun Ko Chan, who 
says, “The distribution of one hundred cash in charity 
reckons as one virtuous action, but if a poor man gives fifty 
cash, or a very poor man twenty cash such gifts also are equal 
to one virtuous deed, and while to obtain fraudulently one 
hundred cash is a wicked deed, the wealthy man who assists 
others to wicked acts and obtains but fifty cash has committed 
oue wicked act, and if he be very rich then the immoral gain 
of only twenty cash will tell against him equally.” There is 
something stiff and formal about this, but in the recognition 
of the moral value of the gifts of the poor there is something 
that reminds us of the widow’s mite that won the commenda¬ 
tion of our Eord. 

Of the long list of offences we note that some of them are 
not really immoral but they are offences against certain 
religious or superstitious beliefs. For instance, to spit at a 
comet, to point at the North Star, to jump over a well, are only 
condemned because of the disrespect shown to the gods. 
To some extent the killing of animals and insects, and even 
creatures loathed, such as snakes and tortoises, is condemned 
because of current Buddhistic ideas of the sanctity of life, its 
sacredness depending partly upon the doctrine of transmigra¬ 
tion of souls, so that the animals around us and even the 


16 The Chinese Recorder [January 

plants growing in our gardens may conceal the identity of 
some human being, but it is not only this, for I have already 
shown that the Chinese do recognise that other living beings 
besides ourselves can suffer and should be treated with a 
merciful consideration. When we see the abominable cruelty 
with which many, such as coolies, carters, muleteers, cooks, 
and dealers in live stock, treat the animals they possess, we are 
led to imagine that the Chinese has no appreciation of the 
wickedness of ill-treating the dumb creatures, but it is well to 
find that the proper treatment of living beings has its place in 
their teaching. 

From this category of ill deeds we also note that a large 
section is devoted to the iniquities of the governing and powerful 
classes. Some of these are, “exiles the upright and thrusts 
away the wise” ; “ insults the orphans and oppresses widows”; 
“transgresses the law and accepts bribes”; “treats the right 
as wrong and the wrong as right”; “enters light offences 
as serious”; “punishes the innocent.” In reading these we 
think how easily we could parallel them from the denunciations 
of the sins of the rulers by the prophets of Judah and Israel. 
The autocratic rule of the Bast, the same till now as in those 
ancient days, made such evil deeds easy of performance, while 
the suffering inflicted and the sense of outraged justice have 
always called forth the strong protest of moral teachers. It 
is not surprising that such misdeeds occupy so much con¬ 
sideration here, and in the commentaries many offences that 
might be easily considered common to all men are particularly 
noticed, as the offences of rulers, and those holding an official 
position under an autocratic rule, for instance, “does not 
discern the right and the wrong,” or “receives kindness and 
is not grateful.” The insistence on the demerits of the ruling 
classes is not merely because by their iniquities they inflict 
many undeserved sufferings and cause wide-spread sorrow, but 
because they are supposed to be by word and deed the moral 
teachers of the people and the upholders of the moral order 
of society. The power of the democracy in the West and the 
consequent almost enforced righteousness of those who act in a 
judicial and administrative position, at any rate in their public 
lives, does away with many of these evils ; and so to appreciate 
the Chinese standpoint we have to think ourselves back into 
Bible days, and recall to our minds the early impressions made 
upon us by such stories as that of Ahab and Naboth. 


1917] The Book of Rewards and Punishments 17 

The list of evil deeds deals with crimes of the very gravest 
nature, but also with the offences of the slovenly, the idle, 
the discourteous, the wastrel, the ungeuerous, the selfish, and 
the greedy. It particularly condemns those who injure their 
neighbours, by theft, by fraud, by slander, by malicious 
lawsuits, and by the many offences against the social life, and 
demands of all a large-hearted ness of mind that shows itself 
in -all courteous, gracious, upright, aud beneficent deeds, 
and therefore it is not surprising that this little book has 
held so large a place in public esteem, and we might find 
much to encourage us in the fact that the moral ideals are 
taught with such terseuess, emphasis, and beauty. 

The final section of the book is largely a repetition of the 
opening section, and the certainty of retribution is again dwelt 
upon with considerable weight. This and the insight with 
which the moral ideals are drawn, form the strength aud 
value of the book, while its incorrect divinity, which weakens 
the force of the divine sanctions of morality, is where it fails 
in its value of ethical instruction. 

It would doubtless be interesting to give illustrations from 
real life showing the effect of the book on the moral life of 
the Chinese, but that is not by any means an easy task. We 
all know how the gods referred to in the text are the objects 
of worship by most of the people, aud how when the God 
of the Hearth ascends to the higher regions to give in his 
report, there is offered to him sugar sticks to stick up his 
jaws and wine to make him drunk, and in this way the divine 
sanctions of morality are trifled with ; nevertheless we may 
suppose that to some extent this little book keeps the moral 
ideas before the minds of the masses with some belief in their 
seriousness. The stories that are related in these various 
editions will also tend to have that effect, and with reference 
to a few, I close. Some of them are plainly full of superstition, 
and can only terrify the ignorant and feeble-minded. There 
is one such tale of a woman and her daughter who kept an 
inn. She was a sorceress, and deluded her guests by good 
treatment until having allayed all suspicion she was able to 
cast a spell upon them and turned the unfortunate victims 
into mules and donkeys, when she made them work hard 
and well belaboured them. On her iniquity being dis¬ 
covered she met her reward. A better tale is that of a 
farmer who perpetually grumbled at the weather, and one 


18 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


day standing beside a stream he was accosted by two men 
of venerable appearance. He complained of his poverty, and 
the loss of crops through unfavorable weather, when they 
pointed out to him that there was something in the stream 
glittering like a mass of silver. He eagerly plunged into 
the water to obtain the coveted treasure and was swept 
away by the flood. 

Sometimes the retribution has in it a very fitting and 
awful justice. A certaiu district was inundated, and many 
of the villagers with their household goods were washed away. 
One man was directing a raft, endeavouring to gain some 
of the wrecked property when he saw a woman floating, 
supported by a box. He made his way to her, cruelly 
pushed her off the box into the waters, and dragged the box 
on to his raft. When he came to open it he found the young 
woman’s betrothal cards, and saw to his horror that he had 
destroyed his future bride. 

To illustrate the passage that the wicked forgets the old 
on obtaining the new there is a story of a Shansi scholar, Li, 
a brilliant man who obtained his position in the Hanlin 
College as a Doctor of Laws. He was introduced to a very 
beautiful and accomplished girl whom he married and with 
whom for a time he lived very happily, but his young wife, 
fearing he might weary of her and forsake her, appealed to 
him to be always true. The husband swore eternal fidelity 
by the hills and the rivers, and registered his vow in writing 
and gave it into his wife’s keeping. Shortly after this his 
father summoned him to return to his Shansi home, and 
again his wife told him she feared he would take another 
woman and forget her. Once more he repeated his vows, 
and leaving his wife in Peking returned home. Here he 
remained and, away from his wife, soon ceased to care for her, 
and at his father’s instigation married another woman. The 
forsaken woman was heart-broken and pined away and died, 
but before her decease she wrote upbraiding him and told him 
her spirit would visit him and demand recompense. 

The scholar, Li, obtaining promotion, set out for Peking 
with his wife, but while travelling by water the ghost of the 
departed woman appeared on the river’s brink, and compelled 
her former husband and the wife with him to attempt to 
approach her, and so plunging into the stream they both 
were drowned. 


191 7 ] 


The Book of Rewards and Punishments 


19 


One more tale illustrative of the doctrine of repentance, 
and one that is very suggestive in many ways. 

There was a man named Ch‘i I L,uu who was very strong. 
The poor feared him and the wealthy avoided him, and 
finding himself an object of dread he became very wilful and 
violent. One day he visited the temples at Wu Tai Shan, and 
saw the models of the torments in the eighteen Buddhist hells. 
Ch‘i I Tun was very much frightened and reflecting confessed 
that he had committed nine crimes worthy of death. Surely, 
he said, these hells are prepared for me. From this time he 
went about full of fear of the recompense awaiting his 
misdeeds, but he met an old Taoist priest of whom he enquired 
how to escape from the wrath to come. The priest replied, 
“Although High Heaven is very severe yet the repentant may 
escape punishment; a change of heart will ensure that the 
retribution for your sins does not fall on you. If the butcher, 
slayer of sheep, cows, and swine, throws down his knife he 
may become a Buddha.” Accordingly he abandoned his evil 
ways and put up in his room the pictures of the hells, to 
remind him of the rewards of vicious courses. 

After this a friend of his got into trouble through some 
wrong doing, and Ch‘i I Tun went to him and said, “Your 
family is very poor, your mother is aged, your wife is very 
young, your son is very little, if the magistrate exiles you, 
your family will perish. I will go for you and you can remain 
here.” So Ch‘i I Tun took the place of the guilty man, but 
just then there came an occasion of public amnesty and the 
magistrate appreciating Chi’s virtue set him free. 

Among Chi’s acquaintances was a man who owed a sum 
of twenty taels to a very wealthy man, and failing payment 
his creditor wished to procure the debtor’s daughter as a 
wife. Ch‘i was indignant and going to the poor mau told 
him not to do this. “Your daughter,” said he, “is my 
nephew’s child” (that is, is as a blood relation to me); “if 
you dare to send her from you I will thrash you. I am willing 
to pay the debt for you.” The household, aware of Ch‘i’s 
great strength, was over-awed, and handed to him the 
creditor’s claim, which he discharged. In gratitude the girl’s 
parents wished Ch‘i to accept the maiden as his wife, but this 
anuoyed him and he left the house. 

It was autumn, and Ch‘i went hunting with his friends ; 
one night-fall being far from his quarters he stayed at a 


20 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


temple. When the moon rose he overheard voices; a tiger 
was praying the god in a human voice to send him a prey. 
The spirit replied, “To-morrow morning early by the river¬ 
side you will see a sow in blue garments, washing clothes, 
you can feed on her.” Ch‘i I Luti thought to himself, “A 
sow wears blue garments, and washes clothes ; there is some 
trick here.” So arming himself with a chopper he went early 
to the river bauk, and saw a young woman clad in blue 
garments engaged in washing. The tiger approached to seize 
the woman but was attacked by Cb‘i, and the noise roused the 
villagers who came out in a body and beat the tiger to death. 
ChT then told them what he had heard over night, and they 
replied, “ Ah ! that woman’s sign is the pig.” Then our hero 
led the way to the temple and, rebuking the god, said, “You 
receive the people’s worship, and do not protect them ; you are 
not a benevolent and virtuous god. You lead beasts to destroy 
meu; you are a god without reason; you are not fit to be a 
god”; and with his chopper he broke the god to pieces. He was 
then suddenly transfigured with glory and appeared as a god. 

That night every one in the village dreamt that Chh 
came to them and said, “Shang Ti, because I repented of my 
evil deeds and have done many virtuous actions, has appointed 
me god of these hills to rule over you. To-morrow I enter 
on my office and become a deity.” Tire next day the people 
had prepared an image and carried to the temple, but on that 
evening they had another dream in which the new deity 
appeared and said, “To destroy one and take his wife is the 
action of a beast. I cannot remain with you.” This was 
because an image of a goddess, the partner of the destroyed 
god, still remained in the temple. On the removal of this image 
all went well ; the people had abundance of fertile rains, and 
the number of virtuous men and women was greatly increased. 

Such are the kind of stories with which this treatise is 
illustrated and its moral lessons enforced. There are good 
and bad points in them but it must be plainly evident that 
the religious errors of the book are far greater than the ethical 
ones, aud that above all things the Chinese need to know the 
“true God, and Jesus Christ whom He has sent.” Still we 
may be thankful that there are high moral ideals, and 
aspirations and look forward confidently to the day when 
through the mighty power of the Holy Spirit these ideals are 
realised in the lives of this great portion of the human family. 


1917] Our Available Forces in the Evangelization of a City 


21 


How Better to Utilize Our Available Forces in 
the Evangelization of a City 

ROBT. F. FITCH. 

VANGEUZATION is the highest form of warfare. Its 
r requirements of those who must put on the whole armor 
of God are higher than what is expected of the men 
who manfully fight in the trenches of Europe. And yet 
to know in a simple, vivid way what is required of us, it might 
be well to turn our eyes to those nations to-day where a titanic 
struggle is taking place and learn some lessons from them. 

Before declaring war it is essential to know the resources 
of the enemy. Is there or is there not a fighting chance ? 
Not only is it well to know how many men the enemy can 
muster, it is also well to know the quality of its individual 
units, its available supply of ammunition and food, the loyalty 
of the people to their own social order, and their capacity for 
endurance in a prolonged struggle. To underestimate the 
enemy, or even to respect them but not to know and to under¬ 
stand them, is a lack with serious cousequences to the nation 
that would fight. 

The second essential is au adequate plau of campaign. 
History is full of battles and of wars where large masses of 
men have remained inert and useless or have been slaughtered 
by inferior numbers because the strategy of the enemy was 
superior to their own. This has been true of religious 
movements as well as of ordinary wars. 

The third essential is the development of the material 
already available. If each man knows his task and can do it 
well, is disciplined, efficient, and resourceful in his fighting, he 
'is worth many men of an indifferent type. But not only is 
the rank and file soldier necessary to victory, great leadership 
is also necessary. A General Staff may have a perfect plan of 
campaign, the ordinary soldier may be an ideal unit, but if the 
generals of an army are not very exceptional men, better than 
the generals of the opposing army, the cause may be lost. 

Hence in our spiritual warfare on a city there are three 
things which we must do. We must know the city with its 
many problems, all of which are fundamentally religious. We 
must have a conception, a plau of how best to reach the city, 





22 The Chinese Recorder [January 

and we must develop, with the resources at present available, 
the material for the conquest of the city. 

I. 

Let us first consider the problem. To be more concrete 
let me speak of Hangchow. There have been missionaries 
residing in that city for many years and yet is there one man 
who could give a broad survey of city life as it is to be found 
there? We see certain fragments of city life, we have deep 
and intensive experiences, and we at times have a very 
intimate contact with certain individuals, but do we really 
know tbe city ? And yet to know the general problem without 
feeling the individual problem is also wrong. 

There are the poor, bound down industrially, so that 
though they are not slaves in the traditional sense, they are 
more helpless than ordinary slaves. If slaves and servants in the 
early Church were not required to abstain from Sabbath labor 
because of their limitations surely the poor of Hangchow are 
under equally serious limitations. And yet we who do little 
to help them in their limitations make higher requirements 
than the apostles of the early Church did. Not long ago a 
man came to me showing a box of matches, rejoicing in 
the fact that they were made in Hangchow, and hence the 
local industry which employed many hundreds of Chinese was 
ousting the Japanese trade. I recall the mental reservation I 
made at the time. Later, a friend of mine one day strayed 
into the home of a poor family where they happened to be 
making match boxes for the match factory. The father, 
mother, and four children slept in one room on two beds, 
ate and ordinarily cooked in the same place. On enquiry 
he found out that the individuals in this home were paid 
by the amount of daily output, which netted an average 
of four coppers per diem to each worker. All six were 
working hard from dawn till sunset. At noon he noticed that 
instead of making preparation for cooking their dinner, they 
prepared to leave and go elsewhere. He found that they were 
going to one of the free rice-distributing centres in the 
city. The income of the family of six was twenty cents Mex. 
in small money and the profits of the match industry were 
taken from the taxes of the people that went into rice distrib¬ 
uting centers. To-day in Hangchow there are women skilful 
with the needle who go to sweat shops and receive cut 


19! 7) Our Available Forces in the Evangelization of a City 23 

garments which they take home and sew on from early till 
late, for the compensation of six coppers per diem. By this 
system the ordinary tailor is forced out of business as he 
cannot compete, his wages being on a family basis. 

The ordinary shopkeeper is also the slave of a system 
where the meat is more than life and the raiment more than 
the body, where the bodies of men are the temples of mammon, 
and the Spirit of God is unknown and unheard. 

Hundreds of young men are in our government schools, 
cut loose from fathers who perhaps had some intellectual 
training and indifferent morals, cut off from mothers who loved 
them indulgently and whose thoughts could not wield empire 
beyond the lisping years of childhood. They are eager for 
some new thing both in experience and in hearsay, and 
without the anchor of home they wander out into every storm 
of doubt and of loose indulgence. And yet many of them, like 
Augustine, can be awakened into limitless possibilities of 
spiritual and intellectual achievement. 

Then there are the scholars who are enquiring and think¬ 
ing as never before. We have a school in Hangchow solely 
for the teaching of Japanese and it is through the Japanese 
language that the Chinese scholars are coming into contact 
with modern thought. Japan for over ten years has fixed her 
modern vocabulary, which is to be the vocabulary of China 
five and ten years hence. The best books of religious 
philosophy are also to be found in the Japanese language, such 
as the works of Bergsen and Bucken. Rabindranath Tagore’s 
recent visit to Japan revealed the fact that over teu of his 
works had already been translated into Japanese. The 
“Manhood of the Master ” by Fosdick was translated in Japan 
shortly after its appearance in the States. But, and this is 
the interesting fact to note , the Chinese scholar is content 
ordinarily with an intellectual approval of Christianity rather 
that with an active and open association with the Christian 
Church. The ordinary tendency, when this fact is pointed 
out, is to put all of the blame on the Chinese scholar. I think 
that half of the blame must lie with the Church. 

Among the officials there are many able and patriotic 
men, as well as the inefficient and indifferent. All of them are 
playing such a keen game of political chess—that is if they 
would continue to be officials—that while they are more 
friendly than ever before to Christianity, it is hard to get 


24 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


beneath the skin of diplomatic courtesy and reach the heart of 
the man. Yet like any other son of a mother, he has a heart 
and often appreciates truth in the inward parts as he finds it 
in a Christian, just because he sees less evidence of it around 
him in political life; and such faith and perception may bear 
seed unto life eternal. If we cannot win him to an open 
acceptance of the Gospel, cannot we at least convince him that 
in comparison with it there is no other Gospel, and that the 
need of it is China’s fundamental need ? 

Then we have the children who, like the poor and often 
themselves poor, are always with us. They are a great 
problem with their bright faces, underfed bodies, and often 
scabby scalps. It is almost unbelievable the transformation that 
can take place in a group of such when they have been under 
Christian instruction in a day school for even a month or two. 
The stars at night as we see them may have infinite courses 
and bounds but the highest power telescope reveals nothing in 
comparison with those spaces of achievement which lie before 
the lives of children truly taught 

With them come the mothers, loving, impulsive, with 
little of self-control, hot-tempered, wronged and taking their 
turn at wronging, progenitors of sages and of criminals, great 
ganglions of potentialities in the human race, who, even as 
densely ignorant, bead-chanting Buddhists, can continue to 
wield their sway over a sceptical son of Confucius. The 
citadel of conservatism in China is in her women and instead 
of discrediting her with being a conservative we should credit 
her for being a citadel. And we want her to retain her citadel 
character when she chooses her better part. 

In addition to the individuals of a city there are its 
various institutions. In Hangchow there are 71 schools for 
boys, 10 for girls, 5 modern banks, 14 native banks, 5 
hospitals, 13 philanthropic institutions, the largest being 
Buddhist, 6 printing establishments, 21 factories and work¬ 
shops, 71 large commercial houses and 34 guilds. How much 
do we know of such institutions and the men who are back of 
them and the throbbing life of the city? How many of us 
can go into such institutions, reach and find a welcome in the 
homes of such men ? 

What is the problem underlying or common to the life of 
the city, both individual and social ? It is twofold, the lack of 
the spirit of love, and lack of the knowledge of the truth. 


1917] Our Available Forces in the Evangelization of a City 2$ 

These two things, the impulse and the knowledge, would 
transform the city. How can they be given in sufficient 
measure to men ? By bringing to them to Gospel of Christ, 
not merely the Gospel as a message but the Spirit of Christ 
himself incarnate in our lives. This then is the problem, how 
to bring Christ to men ? 

II. 

We now come to the solution of this great problem. It 
must not be a vague, indefinite solution but something direct, 
specific, suited to the various needs of complex human life and 
intelligible to the individual who is to be reached. 

To bring Christ to the sick and wounded, the message 
must be accompanied by healing. To the poor who are bound 
down in almost soul and body destroying slavery, the Church 
must bring with her glad tidings, industrial aid and alleviation. 
To the student and scholar who wander in the mazes of warring 
systems, there must be with the message those thoughts and 
ideals which can take supreme place in their lives. To the 
business man who is bent on getting all the gain he can from 
society, there must come with the message the call for personal 
service, for stewardship of his goods. To the mothers who 
struggle inadequately with problems of life and death, there 
must come intelligent sympathy and aid. To the children 
who are susceptible in a wonderfully sensitive way to every 
good and evil impression, must come with the message the 
daily care and provision that meets the need of the child. To 
society and the leaders of social thinking, must come the 
message so as to redeem and hence Christianise the ideals of 
social life. 

It is foolish to talk Christian politics with a baby, to talk 
philosophy with a man in pain, to bring industrial help to a 
man fattened with wealth. But it is equally wrong to with¬ 
hold from individuals any and all help and to think that the 
message of God’s love in Christ is sufficient without proof of 
it in the lives of those who profess it. And that proof must be 
suited to the need of the recipient and intelligible as well. 

The general plan then is to bring the message, the truth 
of God’s love as revealed in Christ, and to express, to in¬ 
carnate that love in a manner that will meet the needs of and be 
intelligible to the one who is to be saved. The heathen even 
mote than the Christian says to us, “Show me thy faith by thy 
works.” It is the combination that convinces and satisfies. 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


26 


III. 

We have dealt with two phases of our general subject. 
We must first know the city and its needs. We must have 
a plan that definitely meets those needs. The third 
phase concerns the development and use of material. By the 
analogy already given of warring nations, the material with 
which we have to deal is to be found in the rank and file 
church membership and the leaders of the Church. In this 
connection the reader will pardon me if I refer to the general 
plans of our Union Evangelistic Committee in Hangchow. It 
might be said that our work at present divides itself into two 
classes,—the development of the church membership, which is 
intensive, and the use of the church membership in reaching 
the city , which is extensive work. 

As regards the intensive cultivation of the Church there 
are at present seven lines of effort which we are taking up. 
The first is in the Sunday school. We have had Sunday 
school classes for the casual outsider who strays in and likely 
as not he will be taught with the others some abstruse passage 
from the Epistles to the Romans. The lesson is no more 
intelligible to him than the perfervid tongues of some Pen¬ 
tecostal friends though the conduct may be somewhat more 
diguified. But to reach enquirers it is not enough to be both 
unintelligible and dignified. We have groups of men and 
women of various grades, grouped indiscriminately together, 
and because the grade of instruction given is suited to a small 
fraction only the majority remain politely innocuous. Most of 
the teachers are earnest, which is worth much, but they are 
not really teachers. They are lecturers. There is already in 
most of our Sunday schools a serious attempt to grade our 
pupils, and during this coming fall we hope to extend to all of 
our churches a co-operative plan of normal training for the 
teachers, so that the teachers of various grades will gather 
according to their several grades and receive instruction as well 
as discuss methods of teaching the lesson of the following week. 
This plan is feasible only through union effort as in no one 
church are there enough leaders who can give normal in¬ 
struction. By this means the best leaders of the whole church 
in Hangchow will be made available for all of the Sunday 
schools. 

In one of the churches has been organized a Brotherhood, 
the object of which is to develop a definite task and a sense of 


27 


1917] Our Available Forces in the Evangelization of a City 

personal responsibility in each church member, so as to utilize 
hitherto unreached resources. It has given the pastor support 
which he never had before and we are watching the movement 
closely with the highest hopes because we believe the plan 
will soon be introduced into all our other churches in 
Hangchow. 

A committee has been formed to study the question of 
industrial help for our church membership. Some of our ablest 
men, graduates of the Hangchow Presbyterian College, are 
intensely interested in this question and plans have already been 
discussed of a simple and, we believe, effective nature, whereby 
the problem of daily support can be better met. Recently a 
heathen woman whose husband’s income was inadequate, 
gained an added income from the making of paper money, 
solely that her daughter might come to one of our Christian 
schools. The form of occuptatiou was a source of sorrow to 
her but it was her ouly way to give her daughter a Christian 
education. If the Church only points out to the woman her 
duty and fails in performing its own duty, namely that of 
securing industrial help, what is the composite character of the 
message of the Church ? Does it not require a higher ideal of 
the poor struggling heathen woman that it requires of itself? 
Is it not also preaching faith without works ? We give medical 
aid to the occasional sick, education to the children of the 
privileged few, but withhold help from those men and women 
who daily face the responsibility of keeping the bodies and 
souls together of themselves and of those who are dependent 
upon them. We cannot say, “Be ye fed and clothed.” We 
must also help the needy to feed and clothe themselves. 

We have a committee on church festivals. In ancient 
Jewish life, in China in connection with Buddhism, and in 
Western lands, festivals have played an important part. “All 
services and no play make the Church a dull Church.” For 
the Chinese Christian who has been cut off from his past life 
and to a considerable extent from his present environment, the 
Church must create new opportunities for social intercourse and 
they should be made as joyous as possible. For the present 
year we hope to celebrate the Koh T'sin (which commemorates 
the founding of the Republic and is like our Fourth of July), 
also Christmas and Easter. We are also making enquiries as 
to how we may celebrate the T‘sin Min and thus manifest the 
reverence the Christian feels for those who have gone before. 


28 The Chinese Recorder [January 

Zia Hong Lai, before liis death, said to me that the 
Chinese Christians lacked the help and inspiration that we 
got through our reading of books and periodicals. He made a 
plea that something be done. To meet this need we are devel¬ 
oping a plan of lantern lectures whereby one man prepares 
one subject and gives the benefit of his preparation to the 
whole Church of Hangchow. Soon we hope to include some 
of the government schools and philanthropic institutions. 
These lectures are used as a means of attracting the non- 
Christians to our churches and also of bringing to them the 
Gospel. We have such subjects as the Life of Christ (in five 
lectures), The Other Wise Man, Pilgrim’s Progress, The 
Cathedrals of Europe, Aucieut Rome, Ancient Egypt, Hang¬ 
chow and its Environs, The Yellowstone, The Yosemite, 
Picturesque Colorado, Notable Buildings and Bridges of New 
York City, the same of Washington, D.C., Silk Culture (with 
slides from Hangchow, Japan, and the States,) and we hope to 
have one soon on Social Hygiene, 

A Christian Fellowship Club has been formed of all the 
church leaders of the city, both Chinese and foreign, men and 
women, with a membership of over 120 . At the first meeting 
a survey of existing conditions in our churches was given 
which stirred up intense interest. At our second meeting we 
discussed the question of how the church leaders may better 
help the rank and file membership in the work of saving 
others. The first hour is given to tea and cake and social 
intercourse, the second hour to a program which concerns the 
welfare and growth of the Church. We hope great things of 
this organization in the coming year. 

We now come to the extensive work of the Church, the 
work of the Church for the city. 

A literature depot and reading room have been opened 
in the Tartar City which are prospering and are well patronised. 

A hundred and twenty volunteers, covering sixty districts 
of the city and suburbs, distribute specially prepared tracts 
from house to house. This is done about once in two mouths. 
Previous to the Saturday of the distribution the volunteers 
meet in a lecture hall, report their former experiences and 
pray for divine blessing upon their work. The hope of the 
committee is that this form of effort may gradually mould and 
leaven public opinion so that it may be more ready for the 
Gospel. It is interesting to note that a Buddhist organization 


1917] Our Available Forces in the Evangelization of a Gity 29 

has to a certain extent copied this method and urges those who 
would get well or wealthy to go to certain temples on the city 
hill, there to present their offerings, said offerings being 
primarily for the health and wealth of their priestly recipients. 

Our methods of cultivating enquirers and of receiving 
them into church membership have beeu very irregular and 
often very inefficient. Sometimes enquirers are put off from 
communion to communion not knowing the reason of the delay 
and without the means of getting the information or of getting 
further instruction for admission into the Church. Some 
Churches receive after long and discouraging probation and 
some receive an enquirer after being satisfied that he is sincere 
in his desire to follow Christ. We now have a committee for 
studying these conditions with a view to correcting faults and 
recommending better methods so that an enquirer may be both 
welcomed and be given proper care until he is ready for full 
membership in the Church. 

For these enquirers we plan to have special Bible classes, 
specifically suited to their needs, where the leader of the class 
feels a personal responsibility for guiding his friends iuto the 
Christian life. 

During the coming year we have planned for a series of 
five popular lectures on Christianity, for the scholar class. We 
shall advertise and invite personally by ticket the men we want 
to attend. The lectures are also for our Church membership. 
The general subject is “ The Relation of Christianity to Present- 
day Problems.” In other words the relation of Christianity to 
other religions, to modern philosophical thought, to China, to 
education, and to the men of the upper classes. 

In the secular press of the city we are preparing for some 
publicity work, the publishing of articles which will show the 
relation of Christianity to present-day conditions and needs. 
Some of these articles will be simply of general interest, so as 
to win those whom we might otherwise fail to reach. For this 
work we have secured a man of exceptional ability, himself 
favorable to Christianity though not yet an open Christian. 
The change in attitude of the Hangchow press towards Chris¬ 
tianity has already changed the press of conservative Shaohsing 
from that of opposition to that of friendliness. No doubt a 
similar influence has goue to other places in the Province. We 
have met personally and plan yet more to meet personally the 
city editors, so that they will not only publish our articles but 


50 The Chinese Recorder [January 

do it heartily and if possible give their own occasional editorial 
support. 

Our Committee on Evangelism has chosen two men, one a 
missionary and the other a Chinese preacher, each to conduct a 
series of services in each of our churches. It is also planned 
to have conferences with the church workers iii each church 
so that they may organize their members as personal workers. 
The meetings will be advertised and we believe the Christians 
will help to bring in their friends and neighbors. Previous to 
the series of meetings consecration services will be held. All 
of these series of meetings will lead up to personal decisions for 
Christ and we hope to follow up and cultivate those who thus 
make their stand. It is our desire that evangelism become 
more of a norm within all of our churches. Sometimes the 
indifference of the Church is more of a deterrent to salvation 
than is the indifference of those who should be saved. 

In addition to the cultivation of church membership and 
the impact of that membership on the city is the great question 
of church leadership. The history of the Church is the history 
of its leadership. 

Where would the early Christian Church have been had it 
not been for such men as Origin, Eusebius, Athanasius, Basil 
the Great, Gregory Nanzianzen, Chrysostom, Ambrose, and 
Augustine? After Augustine the terrible decadence of the 
Church follows the cessation of this high type of leadership. 
In the Medieval Ages the Church is revived by such men as 
Peter the Hermit, St. Bernard, Antony of Padua, Thomas 
Aquiuas, Huss, and Savanarola. The Reformation is lead by 
such men as Calvin, Luther and Zwingli, Wyclif, Latimer, 
John Knox. Later the Church is revived by such men as 
Bitnyan, Whitfield, Wesley, and Chalmers. 

Is such a leadership to be found among the missionaries of 
China ? I trow not. What are we doing to produce this lead¬ 
ership? We invest heavy funds and long years of waiting to 
secure a foreigner to the soil, and then perhaps lose him 
through ill health or incompetency. If we keep him we may 
have gained a strong man but always handicapped in doing the 
ultimate work of the Chinese Church. He also handicaps the 
Chinese Church. He may be the best we could have had in 
the past. He is not the best we can get in the future. Shall 
we apply the same patience and waiting and selective skill to 
good Chinese material as we have hitherto to the foreigner ? 


1917 ] Our Available Forces in the Evangelization of a City 51 

Shall we not definitely plan for such men in connection with 
our future policy with our home Boards instead of our various 
stations rivaling each other in seeing how many more foreign 
men and women missionaries we can get ? 

The brief stay of Zia Hung Lai in our midst lias taught 
us a great lessou. He has exerted a profound influence upon 
many men who hitherto were unreached. During the past few 
months there has been no man who could take his place. We 
need five or six such men in Hangchow alone. They are far 
more needed than more foreign missionaries. Let us in the 
future select a few such men, test them during and after their 
school education, their ability to study, to work, to exercise 
a positive Christian influence on their environment, and let us 
definitely plan to give them the same training we have had and 
receive them back into our Church on the same footing with 
ourselves. They can furnish a leadership to the Church, can 
strengthen the rank and file of our leadership as we never can 
do. Better have our present available funds, gradually sub¬ 
stitute Chinese leadership for missionary leadership, than to 
double our fttuds and double our missionary staff and double 
the income to be used by that staff. 

Sometimes it is a grand thing to be limited. It is a bad 
thing to be too limited. Some of us missionaries are like 
workers without ordinary straw and yet the full quota of bricks 
is required of us. But after sufficient means have been 
furnished us ; let us not be too ambitious for further material 
sources of supply, we who are foreigners in a foreign land, but 
rather let us earnestly face and answer the question as to “How 
Better to Utilise our Available Forces in the Evangelisation of 
a City ? ” We then give our attention to the spiritual quality 
of our work and it is there that our ultimate hope lies. 

With that spiritual quality, with ourselves arrayed in 
harmony with the divine and inevitable order of things, in 
harmony with the purposes of God, though our available forces 
be but like two little flocks of kids, we shall annihilate the 
army of Benhadad. 

Let me then close with those words by Felix Adler, words 
which each one of us must feel towards the city in which 
we live - 

“ We are builders of that City. 

All our joys and all our groans 
Help to rear its shining ramparts: 

All our lives are building stones. 


32 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


For that city we must labor, 

For its sake bear pain and grief: 

In it fiud the end of living 
And the anchor of belief. 

And the work that we have budded 
Oft with bleeding hands and tears, 
Oft in error, oft in anguish, 

Will not perish with our years. 

It will last and shine transfigured 
Iu the final reign of right: 

It will pass into the splendours 
Of the City of the Light” 


City Evangelistic Work Among Women* 

MRS. R. K. EVANS. 


which present themselves for bringing the Gospel of 
Christ to the women and girls of China’s cities. The most 
familar of these methods are : 

(1) Regular Evangelistic Meetings. 

( 2 ) Special Missions. 

( 3 ) Bible Classes for Enquirers. 

( 4 ) Women’s Bible Schools, whether “boarding” or 
“day schools. ” 

( 5 ) Preaching to and conversing with the in- and out¬ 
patients of our Women’s Hospitals. 

( 6 ) And last, but by no means least, Visitation in 
the Home. 

This is not at all an exhaustive list, and it may be 
that this Conference may disclose some new and hitherto 
untried means for making our work amongst the women of the 
cities more effective ; but I think we should all agree that, 
generally speaking, the secret of greater efficiency will be 
found not iu the invention of new methods, but in the more 
faithful and earnest use of old and tried ways of work. 

"Address given at the Rejtaiho Women’s Conference and published 
by request. 


W 


HEN confronted with a subject like this, we naturally 
think first of the various methods which have been 
employed so far, aud the different kinds of opportunity 






1917] 


City Evangelistic Work Among Women 


33 


Of the old familiar methods already mentioned, I want to 
devote most of the time at my disposal to, Visiting in the 
Homes. I put visiting first because it seems to me that it 
comes a long way first. I wish I could only put this as strongly 
as I feel it. I am afraid one is rather apt to avoid this kind 
of work, for in some ways it is very difficult and requires 
much time. To do it welly one must always seem to have 
any amount of leisure. 

I think nothing compares in importance with this, in 
work among women , through in work among men almost the 
opposite is true. Here lies the great difference in the two 
pieces of work— Chinese men prefer to come to you, Chinese 
women will rarely do so ; Chinese men are scarcely ever found 
in their homes, Chinese women are never anywhere else. 
That is why special classes and services and even schools for 
women are not as useful for them as for meu,—women so often 
cannot or will not come. The cannot come because they have 
no one to leave the children with, if they are too tiny to be 
left and also too tiny to bring to church. So often too they 
may be ill, and always there is the food of the family to be 
cooked. The more visiting I do the greater marvel it is to 
me that they come to meetings as much as they do. 

When we want to get to know each other well, we visit 
in each other’s homes, and have meals together ; and that is, 
I think, what we want to do more and more with the Chinese. 
Exceptional people can help those they have never seen 
before in large gatherings or at meetings, but ordinary people 
can only help well when they know and love well . 

One must become a friend of the family ; one must enter 
the home and learn all about its history. One must sit down 
among them, chatting , and perhaps having a meal with them, 
as if one had nothing else in the world to do. Only so can 
one find out the peculiarities of that special family. If one can 
remember the names of the children, so muck the better , 
and their ages, too., if it can be managed—though I must say 
there always seem so many more of them than in our homes. 
If it is the peculiarity of the old lady of the house to show one 
her coffin at each visit, or her own special bit of garden or the 
photo of her favourite, grandson , it is better to be interested, 
and at any rate once or twice to content one’s self with 
admiration only for the wood of which that particular coffin 
is made, rather than to point the moral of coffins in general. 


34 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


Also it is important to know what the grown-up sous or 
fathers of families are doing in the business of the outside 
world. That knowledge may save one from being done"— 
as the saying is—by that same family later on. Who knows ! 

This visiting ought to be continuous but not too regular . 
If will lose half its charm for them if they realize it is in 
one's week's programme . They notice if calls only happen on 
a Wednesday. You see if one really wanted to know them 
one would run in whenever one had a spare quarter of an hour, 
and that is the ideal way. But if one only has a spare after¬ 
noon a week, it is very good to dedicate it to that— continuous , 
steady , earnest , regular , house-to-house visiting. I believe 
there is nothing like it for really effective evangelistic work. 

And in some ways it is so easy / I think it is quite 
beautiful the way the poorest Chinese woman will receive us 
into the merest hovel, with little fuss and no embarrassment , 
I am not sure if true hospitality is not better understood by the 
Chinese than by us I One does not need to worry about 
arriving on washing day , or between the hours of one and four. 
One does not need to send a note to ask if it is convenient, or 
whether the lady of the house will be in, for she is always in. 
That’s what her very name means. Always there is the little 
cup of tea , and as you sit in that dirty home sipping tea, 
perhaps from a dirty cup, you read in the face of your hostess 
a true welcome. It is aglow with pride and pleasure that 
you have come ; all the more so if she lives in a small city and 
has the satisfaction of knowing that her neigh bout s are 
looking on. 

I cannot at this time say anything about the methods of 
teaching and preaching and reading with the women in their 
homes. That will all come easy, once we are on the right 
footing. This is more a plea for getting onto that right 
footing first. 

I don’t think we need always visit Bible in hand ' If it is 
a Christian family they will have one in the home ; if not, 
it is best to become a friend first. One does not want to go 
Into their homes offering Christian teaching in the same way as 
blankets and coals are sometimes offered to the poor at home. 
Chinese women are different from men in this way. A 
missionary can help a man whether he knows him well or not. 
He is interested and his head comes to his help, but often 
you can only get at a Chinese woman through her heart . 


35 


1917] City Evangelistic Work Among Women 

Also one should not always take the Bible-woman, 
We need her sometimes as a chaperone, but it looks official. 
In a small city one soon gets known among its streets, and can 
go unmolested and unchaperoned anywhere . You do not want 
to make this visiting too like calling in the Chinese sense. 
It is better to make an excuse of any little thing to run into 
the homes of the Christians often—a sick child, a birthday— 
anything , so long as one goes. If one is asked to stay for the 
meal it is the best possible thing to do. Also ask them to a 
meal later in return—I mean a proper meal, not just tea and 
cakes ; and one or two at a time, not a whole crowd. Though 
a big tea from time to time has its use, too. 

I said, do not always take the Bible-woman, and yet 
what a help she is. In the walk between home and home she 
can tell you more in a few minutes about a family than you 
could find out in a whole year. And it isn’t only that —each 
gets to know the other so intimately ; and to understand and 
be understood by her is the key to the whole situation. Think 
of the sympathy that can grow up in the quiet walk of lialf-a- 
mile. I lived where there were no rickshaws, and I have 
always been glad for that. 

And if in passing her door the Bible-woman asks you to 
drop in and take a meal with her, it is a good thing to do. 
Perhaps you are both tired and a little hungry, and that is the 
human link at once—the touch of sympathy that makes the 
whole world kin ! Perhaps one has been a little disappointed 
in some Christian home. It seems to me so muck better to talk 
it over quietly at her humbler table, with her help and 
sympathy. 

I feel that I must say just a word about work among the 
sick women who come to our hospitals. I think the speaking 
to out-patients by a lady missionary ought to be done very 
faithfully aud regularly. I found I could only manage it 
every other day, but I am sure this ought not to be left too 
much to the Bible-women. They somehow have an idea that 
you are not doing your duty if you are not preaching from the 
platform all the time. It is usually a long, long wait for the 
out-patients, for they always come too early ; but there they 
are, with nothing to do but wait, and they will gladly listen to 
anything to pass away the time. I never spoke—or scarcely 
ever—for more than twenty minutes, but I always spent more 
than an hour with them—going down among them, asking 


36 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


what illness they had, and how much they had understood of 
my Chinese. Of course one got to know the chronic patients 
very well indeed, and this seems to me an opportunity to be 
used more and more. 

And now about having the Chinese in our homes. 
At Hwangpei we lived quite alone, without even colleagues, 
for two years, and thus had a very large compound and lovely 
garden all to ourselves. The second house being empty, I had 
a day school for girls. In visiting round the city I used to be 
sorry to see these children playing on the dirty, cobbled streets, 
hearing the bad language of their elders as well as the not very 
uplifting gossip of their mothers. Their homes seemed even 
worse places. So seldom did they seem to be playing good 
healthy games that I felt something must be done. I told them 
that if after they had had their food they cared to come and 
play in our big garden, on the grass lawns and among the 
trees, they might do so. Some came daily. There they had 
each other to play with and everything was clean and sweet 
about them. You can see what a difference it made on the 
long summer evenings, and yet it cost me nothing—often not 
even time, for if I was busy I did not go out to them, and 
the garden was so big that one was not bothered by the 
noise—only sounds of laughter and play from time to time. 
Usually I liked to have a romp with them so as to teach them 
our English games. Not even my floors were the worse for 
their muddy feet for they usually much preferred the garden, 
though I liked them to feel that they might come to find me 
in any part of the house if they had anything to talk about, 
aud anyone dropping in on us would usually find the baby of 
the school some where upstairs. We never lost anything. 
Just before twilight these children would gather on the steps 
of our verandah and listen open-mouthed while I told Bible 
story after Bible story to them, or they would ask questions 
about the stars coming out, or the flowers they saw about 
them, or the God that made them. Never at School Prayers 
did I get such absolute attention, and it always seemed that 
it was with a sigh of regret that they left and went back into 
the house. 


The Orphan Jewish Colony of Honan 


3 ? 


1917 ] 


The Orphan Jewish Colony of Honan 

D. MaCGILUVRAY. 

"T"l FEW years after the destruction of the Temple of 
fx Jerusalem, a little band of the Sons of Abraham could 
* *1 be seen setting out “from somewhere” for the Far 
East. A monumental stone which once adorned their 
Synagogue says that they did so in answer to a divine 
command, reminding us of Father Abraham who left Ur of the 
Chaldees and went west. What their names or tribes were we 
cannot tell. When they reached China they tried to express 
their names in Chinese sounds just as we do, but in process of 
time their descendants adopted names already familiar to the 
Chinese, such as Fee, Chow, Chang. One name only is not 
borne by any Chinese, vis,, Ngan (ft). The stones tell of nine 
of the Lee family who were Rabbis. One is tempted to believe 
they were of the tribe of Levi. With them came a Rabbi, 
bearing the Law of Moses and other Old Testament books. 
Copies extant among them in the 17th century corresponded 
with our Masoretic text, “To them were committed the oracles 
of God.” They were travelling by the wonderful overland 
trade route across Asia through Samarkand and Khorassan, 
and many another city long since buried in the desert sands 
until Dr. Aurel Stein re-discovered them for us but yesterday. 
The little band was not coming East to preach Judaism, but as 
merchants bearing rolls of cloth such as had never been seen 
in the celestial Empire. They made their way to Kaifengfu, 
now the capital of Honan but then the capital of China. 
The Emperor graciously received them and granted them per¬ 
mission to practise their own religion and to make their home 
there. Enthusiasts have seen in these Jews some of the lost 
ten tribes sent by the King of Assyria across the River Sambat- 
yon on the fall of Samaria, 731 B.C., but all is mere conjec¬ 
ture. It is gratifying to think that they lived in China for 
1800 years without suffering those persecutions which have 
been the bitter portion of their brethren in Europe. They had 
their own Synagogue which was still in existence in 1850, but 
had disappeared completely by the year 1866 when Dr. Martin 
visited the site. Their story is that of a house left desolate. 

Roman Catholic missionaries first began their work for 
China in the 13th century, but it was reserved for the Jesuits 




38 the Chinese Recorder [January 

to be the first to enter the country and live there. Francis 
Xavier, the greatest of them all, died near Canton, 1552, 
but none of them suspected the existence of this colony of 
God’s ancient people within the rock not yet opened. Matteo 
Ricci reached Peking, January 4th, 1601, and soon he was to 
receive a strange visitor. In the beautiful month of June a 
large company of literati might be seen travelling 011 the great 
road which leads from Honan to Peking. All of them have 
already gained all the provincial degrees, and they are now 
going to Peking for the grand final examination, out of 
which they hope to emerge as Doctors of literature, the 
highest literary honour of the Empire. Among them there is 
one who answers to the unfamiliar name of Ngai, perhaps of 
the tribe of Ephraim. He is a young Jew though ordinarily 
he passes for a Mohammedan and, with the exception of pork, 
he eats as the others do, naively excusing himself for not 
observing the law regarding clean and unclean food on the 
ground that he should starve on such a journey as that if he 
did. He is not long in Peking before he hears of a foreigner 
who has recently come. What a rare bird be is! Scholars 
are now pouring into the city and seething with curiosity 
to know why he has come. Young Ngai, himself a descendant 
of foreigners, is bolder than the rest and actually calls on 
Ricci. It was the 24th day of June, St. John the Baptist’s 
day. Ricci remarked that his appearance differed from the 
Chinese and led him to the chapel. Over the altar was the 
painting of the Virgin Mary and the child Jesus and John 
kneeling before them. The stranger bowed to the picture as 
he saw Ricci did, but said that he was not wont to worship 
pictures, only he thought it was a picture of Rebecca with 
Jacob and Esau. A picture of the four evangelists he thought 
was the patriarchs, though he could not understand why there 
were only four. A long conversation followed, and Ricci learnt 
for the first time of the existence of the Jewish colony at 
Kaifengfu. Ngai said there were Jewish colonies elsewhere 
also.* A Hebrew Bible was brought forth but Ngai could not 
read it, alleging that he had studied Gentile literature for the 
examination so diligently that he had 110 time to learn Hebrew. 
Three years afterwards Ricci sent a Chiuese Christian to 
investigate the truth of the story. The messenger brought back 

* At Hangchow, Chinkiaug, and Niugpo. But these have perished, leaving 
not a wrack behind them. 




SCHOLARS LEARNING ARITHMETIC ON THE ABACUS, ON AN ISLAND 
OFF THE COAST OK TENGCHOUKU 



CHURCH AT CHUNG LAN, CANTON PROVINCE, BUILT BY CHINESE AT A 
COST OF $ 12 , 000 . IT BEGAN WITH SIX MEMBERS AND 
HAS NOW NEARLY 300 








1917] The Orphan Jewish Colony of Honan 39 

with him satisfactory evidences of its accuracy. Eater, three 
Israelites from Honan visited Peking and received Christian 
instruction. When Jesus was mentioned they said they had 
heard of Jesus Ben Siracb, but of no other. They shewed no 
hatred to the cross. All fanaticism, if they ever had it, had 
passed away. They even offered Ricci the post of rabbi, if he 
would abstain from pork. 

Almost ioo years passed before anything more was heard 
of the colony. Catholic missionaries had, however, meantime 
established themselves in Kaifengfu but, according to the spirit 
of the age, had little desire to cultivate their acquaintance, 
until Father Gozani in 1706 by direct orders of the Pope began 
seriously to investigate their condition and history. Fortunately 
for us he and other Catholic missionaries sketched a plan 
of the Synagogue, copied the inscriptions upon its walls and 
published a very detailed account of their observations and 
conversations with the Jews. And this they accomplished 
before the persecution of the Emperor Yung-Cheng, in 1733, 
when the Catholic missionaries were driven out of China. 
Eater, when Protestant missionaries came to China, various 
attempts were made to get in touch with the colony by letters 
and Chinese messengers, but with little success until the year 
1850 when the t4 Eondou Society for Promoting Christianity 
amongst the Jews” was able to send two very intelligent 
Chinese into Honan who brought back a very complete report, 
corroborating the observations of the Catholic missionaries. 
At a much later period Bishop Schereschewsky, himself a Jew, 
visited Kaifengfu in order to learn the state of the Colony, 
thinking that fact would greatly help him, but in those days 
the officials were so hostile to foreigners that he left in a hurry 
without accomplishing anything. A British Consul named 
James Finn wrote letters in Hebrew and Chinese to them, 
while their Jewish fellow religionists ofEondon and America 
were not behind in this laudable quest, but with disappointing 
results. Everything pointed to the fact that the Orphan was 
moribund, "and fast losing its identity. 

Dr. Martin came too late to see anything but some vener¬ 
able stones'and a few Israelites who sorrowfully confessed that 
the knowledge of Hebrew had long been lost among them, and 
they were rapidly becoming swallowed up by the surrounding 
heathen. From the tablets, which are three in number, we 
learn various traditions regarding their coming to China and 


40 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


also many peculiarly Jewish doctrines. The inscriptions are 
entirely in the Chinese language, and in the absence of Hebrew 
compare unfavourably with the Nestorian tablet of Sianfu 
which in addition to Chinese has Syriac characters engraven 
upon it. The dates are 1489, 1512, 1663. Next to the Nes¬ 
torian tablet, these stones are the most interesting relic of a 
non-Chinese faith, well worthy of study by all missionaries. 

The Synagogue which once stood there has disappeared 
more completely than even the Temple in Jerusalem, but 
tbanks to the drawings of the Jesuit Fathers preserved in the 
Vatican, we can reproduce it down to the minutest detail. The 
general shape of the buildings followed Chinese architecture. 
In the main building, where the reading of the Law took place, 
there was in the centre a chair called Moses’ Chair upon which 
the Book of the Law was placed during the reading of it with 
the face towards Jerusalem. Near by there was a tablet to the 
Emperor such as are now found in Buddhist Temples and 
Mohammedau Mosques jg #|), but lest visitors should mis¬ 
take this for idolatry, above it in Hebrew letters was this 
inscription, “ Hear, O Israel! our God Jehovah is the only God. 
Blessed be His name. Glory to His Kingdom for all eternity ! ” 
A number of Hebrew MSS. and books were kept in an 
ornamental chamber or Bethel. Evidently there was 110 place 
for the women. In several other respects the contents of the 
Synagogue showed a departure from the old traditions. Thus 
there was provision for the burning of incense, also a sort of 
altar with caudle-sticks which bore a strong resemblance to 
that used in Buddhist Temples. It seems that in the reading 
of the Law a veil was worn by the reader in imitation of 
Moses when he descended from the Mount (Exodus 34:33*35). 
Even Jewish writers can find no reference to such a custom in 
other Synagogues save that of the Apostle Paul (11 Corinthians 
13:14-16) “Until this very day at the reading of the old 
covenant the same veil remaineth unlifted: which veil is done 
away in Christ.” The walls were adorned with many inscribed 
tablets (fiien) according to the Chinese custom in temples. It 
is interesting to find that the family of the young Jew who 
called on Ric-ci is prominent as having erected many tablets 
in the Synagogue. Some of them are evidently Jewish in 
thought, while others show plain influences of Buddhism, 
Taoism, Confucianism, and even Mohammedanism from which 
latter was borrowed the Chinese name of the Synagogue, viz. y 


1917] 


The Orphan Jewish Colony of Honan 


41 


U Pai Ssu (jg| ^ ^) and Chdng Ch£n Ssu (Jj| ^). Several 
side buildings indicate that the colonists rendered a sort of 
ancestral worship at least to the Patriarchs of their faith, if not 
actually worshipping their own ancestors as they found the 
Chinese doing. But the most peculiar building was undoubt¬ 
edly tbe one called the “Hall for Extracting the Sinew” ($Jfc 
Here all meat had to be brought and have the sinews 
extracted and be pronounced clean (Kosher) (Gen. 32:25). 
So strange did this custom appear to the Heathen that they, 
perhaps in derision, called the Jewish religion the “Pluck- 
sinew ” religion, and as far as we know it was never known 
by any other name among the Chinese. 

The large stone tablets which in accordance with Chinese 
custom had been set up 011 various occasions when the Syna¬ 
gogue was repaired or rebuilt contained the usual outlines of 
Jewish history, more particularly the fortunes of the colony. 
The Yellow River with its floods had dealt cruelly with them. 
The Jewish names from Scripture are easily identified. Various 
names for the Divine Being are used, numbering altogether 17. 
These are all borrowed from Chinese literature and Jehovah or 
Yahveh is not amongst them. There is no allusion to a 
Messianic hope. One of the inscriptions was composed by a 
heathen scholar who was anxious, apparently with the con¬ 
nivance of the Jews without whose permission the stone could 
not have been set up, to make out that the Jewish religion 
was practically the same as the Chinese. From these and 
many other evidences it is clear that the fine gold had become 
dim. Circumcision lingered 011, but the valley was full of dry 
bones, and as we shall see later, no wind of God was able to 
bring them to life again. Not only did the colony dwindle in 
number, it became very poor. The Chinese visitors mentioned 
above found that even the Sacred Courts were invaded by 
poverty-stricken families like the swallow who had found a 
nest for herself on the altar. Worse still, the knowledge of 
Hebrew was lost, and their faith suffered rapid deterioration. 
They claimed not to worship idols. If so, the lesson of the 
Captivity had burnt itself in. They also claimed that they 
did not inter-marry with the heathen when they were first 
discovered, but this is improbable especially when we consider 
how many Jews iu the Babylonian Captivity came back 
with foreign wives and had to be disciplined by Ezra and 
Nehemiah. 


42 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


We find Jewish colonies in Cochin in the district of Malabar 
on the west coast of India who very early found their way 
thither. Among them Hebrew is still studied and the Jewish 
faith held in considerable purity. Why was it different with 
the Jews who found their way to Kaifengfu? Various reasons 
have beeu assigned. Perhaps the civilization they found on 
arrival was so much superior to their own that they yielded in 
the lapse of centuries and became absorbed. Possibly the 
Chinese merchant vanquished the Jewish merchant on his own 
ground. Certain it is that the sands of the desert finally sealed 
up the great trade routes across Central Asia, and the little 
colony, shut off from communication with its western friends, 
was an orphan indeed. A Jewish writer thinks that the 
Chinese tolerance had a bad effect upon the Jews, and also 
that they were overwhelmed by the excellence of the Chinese 
ethical system. The Synagogue was sold for what it would 
bring as building material and even the precious rolls of the 
Haw were sold into the hands of the unbelievers and are scat¬ 
tered over the libraries of Europe and America. 

The early Catholic missionaries exhibited little concern 
even for their conversion, and to this day there is no evidence 
that any Chinese Jew ever really became a Christian. It was 
reserved for modern times to suggest, even to Christians, the 
possibility of reviving the colony, “beloved for the fathers’ 
sakes.” Dr. Martin did his best to stir up wealthy Jews in the 
West to build a Synagogue in Kaifeng, justly pointing out 
that without such a building as a rallying point, the community 
was doomed. In recent years the wealthy Jews of Shanghai 
have attempted to revive Judaism among them. They invited 
some Chinese Jews to Shanghai and tried to teach them 
Hebrew. But the experiment was a failure. The easiest way 
to teach them the Old Testament was by giving them the 
Chinese version published by the Bible Societies. Accordingly 
they returned to Honan well supplied with copies, but there is 
no proof that they read them. Great hopes also were enter¬ 
tained, not so much for their conversion, as from the apologetic 
use which might be made of the fact that God’s ancient people 
have been discovered even in China. Some use, indeed, was 
made of the discovery in Dr. Martin’s “Evidences of Chris¬ 
tianity,” but the fact excited little interest. 

If you were to visit the site of the Synagogue to-day a 
strange sight would meet your view. Who are these of foreign 


1917] 


Ideals for the Evangelistic Week 


43 


aspect who now are seeking health by exercise upon the once 
sacred ground ? They are the Gentiles who are heirs to the 
promise made to faithful Abraham. If you inquire where the 
examination hall is in which our young friend Ngai took his 
M.A., you will be conducted to the spot and shown a few 
remaining cells. The rest of the site is occupied by the 
Provincial Parliament buildings and by the school for the 
preparation of students for going abroad to Europe and America. 
And what of the memorial stones on the old site ? They were 
in danger of the fate of the Nestorian tablet at Sianfu, and 
worse than that, in the absence of any care-taker, irreparable 
damage could easily be done to the inscriptions by any mis¬ 
chievous or malicious passer-by. A list of the family names 
had actually been hacked off the inscription before it was 
finally taken care of by one of the missions. The stones are 
now safely housed in a cathedral compound, within sound of 
the Songs of Zion. Alas I that there are no Jews now who, 
like their brethren In Jerusalem, could at the wailing place come 
and weep over them their despairing “Icbabod.” The colony 
was early called an orphan, for it lost its father, but it is itself 
now dead. “But if some of the branches were broken off, and 
thou, being a wild olive was grafted in among them and didst 
become partaker with them of the root of the fatness of the 
olive tree ; glory not over the branches.” “Behold the good¬ 
ness and severity of Jehovah.” 

- — •— ♦ »- 

Ideals for the Evangelistic Week 

WM. MACNAUGHTAN. 

A CALL TO CHRISTIAN PATRIOTISM. 

NEW thing has emerged in the progress of the Kingdom. 
The Christian churches are coming to national self- 
consciousness and Christian movements are becoming 
international. Formerly there have been local move¬ 
ments, which may or may not have stimulated neighbouring 
churches and districts, but with the exception of Korea there 
have not been Christian movements which were national, much 
less international. The Manchurian Revival of 1908 was an 
overflow from the great Korean Revival, but it did not spread 
through the whole of Manchuria and it hardly passed beyond 







44 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


the Manchurian borders. Now we see the beginning of some¬ 
thing new which may initiate one of the greatest epochs of the 
advance of the Kingdom. It is only a beginning, but it is a 
beginning with vitality in it. The campaign movement in 
China amongst the upper classes has stimulated the churches 
in India and Japan to undertake similar efforts. The resultant 
campaign in southern India during 1915 has stimulated the 
whole Indian Church of Christ to repeat the effort on a national 
scale. The Chinese Church, in turn, is responding to the same 
movement and is endeavouring to rally her great scattered and 
disunited forces in a national effort of aggressive evangelism 
during the Chinese New Year of 1917. 

The blood of every true Christian patriot should be stirred 
at this call. It is the first attempt at national Christian action. 
It gives the possibility of moving on a mighty front, and may well 
mean the beginning of a new corporate activity which shall 
grow and intensify till it moves this great nation, and so 
moving moves the world. To carry through this great move¬ 
ment with increasing success, will undoubtedly inspire still 
other nations to follow suit, including the great Christian 
nations of the West. 

the ideals of the movement. 

Certain ideals have come to the front which are not the 
product of any one mind, but have arisen as essential parts of 
this corporate action. 

1. Prayer .—The first ideal is the enlistment of the whole 
Christian community for service in intercession. The new 
ideal is not the holding of prayer meetings to which Christians 
are invited to attend, but the enlistment of individuals who 
undertake definitely to pray and to become members of a prayer 
group. The ideal is attained when every Christian is so 
enlisted, and takes part in his or her prayer group. For these 
groups, which meet in schools, colleges, hospitals, chapels, 
churches, shops, and homes, it is advisable to appoint leaders 
and supply prayer topics. 

2. Voluntary Service.'— Another ideal is the service of all. 
The movement fails in its ideal, if the salaried agents and the 
church leaders are the only workers and the others are mere 
hearers. This being so the movement stands for the enlist¬ 
ment of voluntary workers. To facilitate this, a sheet of 
suitable activities is being used in many places, the Christian 


1917] 


Ideals for the Evangelistic Week 


45 


signing his name as undertaking some special work. Whilst 
this should be the permanent condition of church life, a 
beginning is made if Christians undertake, this voluntary 
service for the national evangelistic week. The greatest 
results will be obtained when vast numbers undertake in¬ 
dividual soul winning. Christian students, school children, 
hospital and church workers, merchants, mechanics, farmers, 
men, women, and children, should be out during the week to 
win their own kind, especially such as are already in touch 
with Christianity. 

3. Training .—Another ideal is that all such workers 
should receive a simple course of training. Those enlisted to 
win souls should be taught a short system of saving truth, 
otherwise their conversations usually lapse into a harangue 
against idolatry. Voluntary preachers should be taught an 
outline address. Those enlisted to give testimony should be 
helped to realize the type of testimony most beneficial, other¬ 
wise their testimony may be very material. For example (1) 
the difference to me since Christ freed me from superstition ; 
(2) victories over outstanding sins ; (3) changed homes, 
changed hopes, answers to prayer; (4) relief from demon 
possession, etc. Training is also required in methods of retain¬ 
ing and teaching the converts of the week. In every out- 
station or group of out-stations, a few days’ training classes 
should be held, by deputies seut to hold such classes. Some 
form of training is one of the ideals of this movement, which 
promises to be of most value to the future. It should lead up 
to every member being a student of the Bible and a member of 
a Bible study group. 

4. Gathering of Results .—Auother ideal is to lead each 
hearer to some simple decision. If they are far enough on to 
make the supreme decision, well and good, but if uot they 
should be encouraged to take some definite steps towards Christ. 
The most suitable form of doing this at present available is to 
induce the hearer to sign a card promising to enter a class for 
a short course of Bible teaching. 

5. Retaining of Results .—The ideal of this movement is 
that the Church should be trained to be increasingly able to 
retain the fruits of its evangelistic efforts. A spiritually cold 
Church cannot retain such fruits. Experience teaches that 
unless there is warm individual friendly contact with the 


46 The Chinese Recorder [January 

enquirers, they soon cease to come. For this reason individual 
evangelism is the most fruitful method, as the worker is more 
likely to cling to the friend he has led to Christ, until he is 
established in the Faith, As far as possible individuals should 
be put in charge of individuals. 

The foregoing does not deal with methods, but it shows 
that the ideals of the National Evangelistic Week are for every 
Christian, Chinese and foreign, learned and ignorant, young 
and old, to be unitedly in prayer, and to go forth together to 
bring to the Father his wandering children. 

. -*♦»- - 

3n flDenioriani: —Henry Dwight Porter 

rriR. Porter arrived in China in the summer of 1872, under the 
I I American Board, and was located in Tientsin. With the 
J_/ exception of a single predecessor of brief tenure of office, 
Dr. Porter was the pioneer medical missionary of his 
Mission, and his services were in demand in all of its five stations, 
which, under the imperfect travelling facilities of the time, were 
wide distances apart. In the spring of 1878, he assisted in dispens¬ 
ing relief in northern Shantung in the Great Famine then raging. 
Later in the year he returned to America, a year after bringing 
back a wife. 

In the spring of 1880 Dr. and Mrs. Porter, with his sister, 
Miss Mary H. Porter (after twelve years of educational work in 
Peking) were located at the new country station of P'ang Chuang, 
Shantung, whither two years later (after dwellings had been 
erected) they removed, and the station was formally opened, with 
tablets presented by various villages in gratitude for famine relief, 
and another tablet by church-members. All this was acknowledged 
by suitable feasts, and great goodwill prevailed. Dr. S. W. 
Williams (author of “The Middle Kingdom,” etc., etc.) left a 
modest sum of money to found this medical work, which was 
begun in mud huts, with few drugs, fewer instruments, and nothing 
worthy of being called equipment. Yet from this tiny seed has 
grown a flourishing and an umbrageous medical plant, recently 
opened in the city of Te Chou, a station on the Tientsiu-Pukow 
Railway. 

As an ordained as well as a medical missionary, Dr. Porter 
threw himself impartially into both the evangelistic and the medical 
developments of this great field, at that time embracing about 
twelve counties in Shantung and in Chihli. He found time, amid 
the pressure of many cares, to prepare a treatise on physiology 
which was for some decades a standard work. He also compiled a 





1917] 


Our Book Table 


47 


book oil electricity, translated some of Mr, Moody's sermons and 
several hymns for the Blodget-Goodrich hymnal. The cares and 
the anxieties of the terrible pre-boxer year of 1899 in the Shantung 
province quite equalled the storm of the disaster in the following 
spring. Dr. Porter's highly sympathetic and affectionate nature 
could not endure the strain, and his health failed. 

He and his sister, with a few friends from the London Mission, 
escaped under escort of the provincial governor, Yuan Shih-k‘ai, 
to the capital, thence by boat to Chefoo. If Dr. Porter had been 
willing to leave China at that juncture, it is quite possible that his 
health might have been restored. But an impelling sense of duty 
called him—and his sister—to Tientsin, where they cared for the 
missionary refugees when the siege in Peking was raised. Leaving 
China late in November he was able with difficulty to reach Egypt, 
and at length America. After several experiments elsewhere, he 
settled in La Mesa, near San Diego, California, where he died 
October 25th, 1916. 

Dr, Porter belonged to a rare family connected, by descent 
from Jonathan Edwards, with many other families of light and 
leading. His remarkable mother belonged to a family originally 
Huguenot immigrants. His father was the pioneer Protestant pastor 
in what is now Chicago. The whole family atmosphere was of a 
missionary character, and neither he nor anyone else among them 
ever entertained the thought that his unusual gifts and graces were 
too precious to be gladly given for the uplift of China. Such a 
life deserves to be held in permanent remembrance, as it will be by 
all the wide circle of those who appreciated and loved him. 

Arthur H. Smith. 


—• ■ mrn ~ . . 

Our Book Table 

Symbols or the Way.— Far East and West. By the How. Mrs. E. A. 

Gordon. Maruzen £ Co., Lid., Japan , 1916. 

We confess to having taken up this book in a casual sort of 
way, interested only in obtaining sufficient acquaintance with it to 
pen a decent review, but we soou found ourselves carefully and 
thoughtfully studying its contents without any thought as to 
what we should write about them. We have read these lectures 
carefully from cover to cover, and without pledging ourselves to 
the gifted authoress’s thesis that “The Doctrine of the Aum, the 
Jewel in the Lotus, was the special message of St. Thomas to the 
Far East, just as St. Paul taught justification by faith to the 
West,” we are ready to join issue with her in the opinion that 
what we now know as Mahayaua Buddhism is probably a form of 
primitive Christianity. Those who have been “offended” by 




48 The Chinese Recorder [January 

Dr. Timothy Richard’s writings on this topic will do well to 
master this new study in comparative chronology before registering 
their opinions as final. The book is a mine of suggestive 
research, which will be warmly welcomed by all unprejudiced 
scholars. We should have liked to have found a little more con¬ 
structive reasoning. Mrs. Gordon raises queries which she leaves 
unanswered. The book, which is printed on supercalender paper 
with eighteen half-tones and two woodcuts is a challenge to the 
missionary body of Korea, China, and Japan to consider their 
relations with the faith of many of the people among whom they 
dwell. 

C. S. M. 


Hidden Pictures. By Ada R. Habershon. Messrs, Oliphants and Co., 
Edinburgh and London. Cloth 1/6 net. 

The writer re-tells a number of Old Testament stories, with 
the purpose of bringing out their hidden meaning. “These 
hidden pictures,” it is explained, “are called types.” In her 
introduction the author claims that a “ study of the types is an 
unfailing antidote for the modern poison” and “ insidious attrac¬ 
tions of so-called higher criticism.” 

In typology a writer often skates over very thin ice, and this 
work is no exception to the rule. Ishamael and Isaac represent 
“ the difference between living under the law and being born 
again under grace. Those who believe on the Tord Jesus Christ 
become God’s own children . . . and nothing they can do alters 
(sic) the fact—God will not turn them out because of bad be¬ 
haviour.” p. 20. On page 24 we read, “Here the type fails or 
changes.” Joseph is a type of Christ and is sold as a slave for 
20 pieces of silver, p. 41, To all intested in typology this book 
will probably appeal, but to others it may prove a mental and 
spiritual irritant. 


Christ in Holy Scriptures. Being a study in the name of Jehovah “ The 
Lord." By the Rev. Francis E. Denham, M.A. With a Foreword by 
the Rev. Prebendary H. E. Fox. Oliphants, Ltd. Cloth 1/6. 

The author states that “ the object of the book is to show that 
the L,ord Jesus Christ is to be found in his Personal Presence 
and Power throughout the whole of the New Testament.” The 
Son of God fore-determined to become Son of man “ was Jehovah, 
the second Person in the Holy Trinity.” “That Jesus Christ is 
Lord (i.e., Jehovah) to the glory of God the Father.” The book 
contains an interesting and helpful study of the names and 
designations of God. 


Bible Battles. By Eettice Bell. Oliphants , Ltd. Cloth 3/6. 

The well known and popular author of “Go to Bed Stories,” 
“The Tuck-Me-Up Book,” and other fascinating tales for children 
has written a bright and interesting account of the battles of 
Joshua, Gideon, and Saul. In view of the fact that the author’s 





Our Book Table 


49 


1917 ] 

young friends will soon be studying astronomy and the wonderful 
law of God’s other Book, the Book of Nature, we would venture to 
suggest to the author a reconsideration of her explanation of 
Joshua x: 12-14 (p* 62): “People have often wished in vain to 
stop the clock, but God actually did it at Joshua’s desire.” 
“ Hour after hour it (the sun) blazed in its full strength, while the 
mid-day shadows never lengthened by a bair’s-breadth.” 


Children op South America. By Katherine A. Hodge. Oliphants t 
Ltd. Cloth 1/6. 

This is a most interesting volume of Oliphants’ “Other Hands 
Series.” Written by Mrs. Hodge, especially'for young people, her 
purpose is to enlist their sympathy with the sorrows and needs of 
South American childhood. There are eight beautiful coloured 
pictures. Auy boy or girl would welcome this book as a birth¬ 
day present or as a school prize. It is well written, bright, and 
instructive. 


The Political Principles op Mencius. By Francis C. M. Wei, M.A., 
Shanghai. Printed by the Presbyterian Mission Press } and on sale at the 
Mission Book Co. Price $1.50. 

Dr. Jackson in his Foreword to this work of a former pupil 
of his, at Boone School (now University), bears his testimony to 
Mr. Wei’s Chinese scholarship and to the importance of Chinese 
Christian students having an acquaintance with Western literature 
so that they may assist in supplying an effective Christian 
apologetic. 

Mr. Wei in his introduction points out that at the time of the 
Revolution many Chinese thinkers and leaders held the opinion 
that Mencius should be given the place of honour so long held by 
Confucius. He does not himself advocate this but at the same 
time he points out that the teachings of Mencius breathe a real 
democratic spirit, presenting in this a great contrast with his 
predecessor, Confucius. The book deals with “The Life and 
Writings of Mencius” ; “ His Teaching in General” ; “ His Con¬ 
ception of the State” ; “ Form and Organization of Government ” ; 
“The Function of the State,” etc. The author quotes with 
sympathy Kunz-sun Chau’s words concerning his Master’s teach¬ 
ing : “Uofty and admirable are your principles, but to put them 
into practice may well be likened to ascending the heavens; 
something which cannot be reached:” p. 98. Mr. Wei himself 
sums up his own conviction in the following words (p. 99) : 
“Mencius has given China noble ideas and magnificent principles 
of politics. But he can give China no power to put them into 
practice.” He claims that Jesus Christ alone, being both God and 
man, is the true sovereign whom Mencius declared must come and 
for whom Mencius waited in vain. He alone can endow the 
teachings of Chiua’s sages with life and power. 

We heartily commend this book to ail students of Chinese 
thought, and trust that Mr. Wei will continue his valuable studies 
along these lines and that many other Western-trained Chinese 
students will imitate his example, 




50 The Chinese Recorder [January 

In a second edition the Chinese characters of Mr. Wei’s name 
should be given. This has been done with the other Chinese 
names in footnotes and is most helpful to readers with some 
knowledge of Chinese. 

B. 


Abraham, and Other Poems. By Miss Emily King, Peking. Mission 
Book Co. 8y cents. 

It is a puzzle how a busy lady, as the authoress is, can find 
time for the writing of poetry, and a greater puzzle to understand 
that she writes so freshly and convincingly upon all subjects—for 
Abraham does not figure largely in the book—with a true poetic 
instinct amid such surroundings as in Peking. Some of these are 
little gems in their way. There may be an occasional limping line, 
but the thoughts are vividly expressed, and the language is chaste 
and virile. In some pieces the authoress rises to great heights of 
vision, but always she writes with devout earnestness and true 
conception of the meaning of the gift of poetry. She has done 
well in publishing this small book of 95 pages, and we are sure 
that all readers will thank her for the inspiration and delight of 
this booklet. We shall be looking forward to much more from this 
able peu and fertile brain. 


# & 'gr % — Chinese Officialdom, with translations, 

i$t 5?. Presidential Mandates, with translations. By Chao Shao- 
LUng. Cheng tu (.. M, M. Press. 

The first is a very handy booklet of 34 pages, which all 
missionaries should have on their desks, or, as it is so small, fn 
their pockets, for reference. The officials in Peking, with the 
boards to'which they are related, the provincial, civil, and military 
officials, officers of the navy, titles and ranks, decorations, orders 
of merit, p etc., are given in Chinese and English. Very useful. 
Our readers had better buy quickly before the titles are again 
changed! 

The second gives 36 mandates, well chosen and dealing with 
many aspects of government activities, and translations taken for 
the most part from the North Chhia Herald. It is intended 
primarily to assist Chinese students, but other students will also 
find it an exceedingly useful compilation. 


I* lit ^ fit* The Religious Work of a City Y. M. C. A. By S, C. I^eung. 

Association Press, is cents . 

An excellent guide to all who are interested in this valuable 
adjunct to the Christian forces in China. It is well written, in 
crisp language, and covers practically the whole area. It should 
prove of great assistance. 


Deeper Truths Tracts. Regeneration, ® by Dr. MacGillivray: 
WM The Divinity of Christ, and 4 K M ^ ^ A> THE 

Incarnation, by Dr. Hopkyn Rees. C. L. S., Shanghai . $2.25per 100. 

Worthy of their predecessors in every way. The style is of 
the best, the treatment is suggestive rather than exhaustive, and 






19173 


Our Book Table 


51 


they should be sent all over the country and placed in the hands of 
studious people. For the evangelistic campaigns they should prove 
of great helpfulness. 

We acknowledge with thanks the receipt of the following :— 

For the Healing of the Nations. Report of the B. & F. B. Society for 1916. 
To All the Nations. Report of the C. M. S, for 1915-1916. 

Emmanuel Medical Mission, Nanking, West River. September 1916. 
Institution for the Chinese Blind, Shanghai. Annual report 1915-1916, 
with illustrated booklets, in English and Chinese. 

Cultivation of the Home Church for Foreign Missions, New York. 
Alcohol in China, by Dr. Park, Soochow. Paper read before the Soochow 
Missionary k Association. 


H SR. The Next Life. By Rev. J. REIT) Howatt, adapted and 
translated by A. J. H, Moule, M.A., of the C. M, S. Published by the 
Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui. 15 cents. 

The Chinese title seems unfortunate, as it has a meaning 
which the author never intended. It is, as Bishop Norris states in 
the preface, a suggestive book, and deals with a subject which is 
much in the minds of people in the days of upheaval and loss, and 
when views of the future state are being recast in some quarters. 
The style, on the whole, is good, but might have been clearer in 
a few isolated places, It is profitable reading, and deserves serious 
thought which cannot fail to enlighten and comfort. 


The IyiFE and Teachings of Jesus Christ. In Modern English , with 
Commentary. Compiled by Geo. A. Fitch, B.Sc. Commercial Press, 
Shanghai. Price 40 cents per copy. 

This is an attempt to give a simple, concise, and harmonious 
account of the Life and Teachings of Jesus, but more particularly 
the Life, and is especially adapted, both the text and the notes, 
for use by Chinese learning English, or who already have a 
knowledge of English and to whom a connected and concurrent 
account would naturally appeal. The notes and explanations at 
the foot of each page are well prepared, and give just such informa¬ 
tion as a Chinese reading English would like to have. 

In the beginning there is an Analytical Outline of the whole, 
giving references to the Gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke, and at 
the close an Index to the Gospel passages used, followed by a 
General Index, all which enhance the value of the work for the 
classroom as well as for private reading. The book should have a 
wide circulation. 

G. 


“The Nrstorian Monument in China.” S. P. C. K ., London . joJOnet , 
obtainable , if desired, from England , or locally at $7,50. 

Students of ‘'things Chinese’’ will be grateful to Professor 
A. Y. Saeki, of the Waseda University, Tokio, for his most valuable 
volume upon “Tne Nestorlan Monument in China.” 

The age of patronage, like the age of chivalry, is almost dead 
and is refreshing to note that it is through the generosity of the 
Marquis of Salisbury that the Society for the Promotion of Chris- 





52 The Chinese Recorder [January 

tian Knowledge has been able to provide us with such an elaborate 
and expensive work at such a modest cost. 

Romance is not common in Chinese mission work (though 
there are some who romance about it!). Yet no one can deny that 
the Nestoriau Stone pulsates with romance. The Tablet refers to 
itself as “ the Teaching Stone” of the “luminous Religion” and 
in the hands of its enthusiastic interpreter it has much to teach, 
and makes all luminous. To congratulate this brilliant Japanese 
writer upon his Chinese scholarship would be an indiscretion, if 
not an impertinence, for all self-respecting Japanese scholars have 
as thorough a knowledge as any Chinese of every jot and tittle of 
the classics and literature of China, As well congratulate an 
American upon his acquaintance with English, and expect him to 
feel pleased! 

Professor Sayce of Oxford fame, in introducing the author, 
says rightly that “ the book is full of new light as well as of new 
facts.” Much “will be new to most of its readers, who will be 
surprised to learn that it seemed possible that Christianity would 
be the state religion of the Chinese Empire” in the T‘ang Dynasty 
(618-906 A.D.), the most brilliant period of the national history. 
The Moabite Stone and the Rosetta Stone are fairly familiar but 
bow few realize that in the Nestorian Tablet at Hsiaufu we have a 
priceless treasure—the one solitary heirloom of the Assyrian Chris¬ 
tianity which came to China in 635 A.D. ? 

The Monument itself was erected, or unveiled, in 781 A.D. 
but is unheard of after the fierce persecution of 845 A.D. It 
appears to have been buried and to have lain for nearly 800 years 
until it was accidentally dug up in 1625 A.D.—only to be denounced 
as a Jesuit imposture ! The genuineness of the inscription and its 
historic value are now beyond all question, and the exhaustive 
research of Professor Saeki has shed a flood of light upon all the 
problems connected with the stone. 

Readers of Marco Polo and other early visitors to China will 
know that Nestoriauism is described as a living Church in the 
eleventh and again in the fifteenth centuries. But like the rivers 
which are lost in the desert, this river of life was swallowed up in 
the surrounding sands of heathenism. The Syrian preachers seem 
to have tried to tone down the edges of their faith, to conform to 
their surroundings, to fraternise with Buddhism, and hence, in part, 
this dire Nemesis ! 

Professor Saeki, in a masterly introduction of 160 pages, pre¬ 
sents us with all the fruits of his own study and those of his 
illustrious predecessors, chiefly Hue, Wylie, Eegge, Moule, and 
Havret. 

Part two contains a translation of the inscription, followed 
by nearly eighty pages of elucidating notes upon the text. 

The appendices contain the full Syro-Chinese text of the 
inscription and the book is adorned with eight illustrations includ¬ 
ing those of the famous stone. 

We are furnished also with a bibliography which is valuable 
and with an index which is indispensable. We miss a bibliography 
of Chinese or Japanese works upon the theme, and mourn that, as 
yet, it is Japanese scholars rather than Chinese that have studied 


Our Book Table 


53 


1017 ] 

this ancient monument—so precious and so neglected ! Who was 
Nestorius? Is Nestorianism extinct? or is it extant in the'‘secret 
society of the Chin Tan Chiao? How far has Nestorianism Chris¬ 
tianised Buddhism? Why did Nestorianism fail? These, and a 
score of other questions find their origin and their answer within 
the covers of this arresting work. 


Helps and Hints on Christian Endeavor Topics tor 1917. (In 
English'), 23 cents. ® |@J -t? It t§ (Same as above , Chinese). 5 cents. 

$ 0 ) IS 0 4 ?- M (The same simplified for Juniors). 3 cents. Mission 
Book Co., Shanghai. 

We all recognize the importance of training the membership 
of our churches in the art of leading meetings. To have a service 
which they themselves control and conduct, means a sense of vivid 
personal interest. It means also a quickened sense of fellowship 
with the Christian movement in its working capacity, a stimulus to 
Bible study, practice for lay-evangelism, and other obvious benefits. 
In an increasing number of churches the organization of a Christian 
Endeavor Society has furnished this opportunity. In order to 
assist in the preparation for these weekly meetings, either as leaders 
or as hearers who also have a responsibility for the success of their 
meeting, two little booklets have been prepared by Dr. P. F. Price 
and his Chinese collaborator, Mr. Yu An Eoh. It is a very 
genuiue pleasure to recommend these to all C. E. Societies and 
similar groups of Christians organized for mutual growth. The 
Topics cover a wide range, but are all intimately related to practical 
questions of Christian living. The treatment is fresh and sugges¬ 
tive, while simple and popular. Illustrations are hinted at which 
can be readily enlarged, and there are numerous references to 
Chinese life, as well as familiar classical allusions. The Chinese 
style especially commends itself as being at once dear and readable. 
Another feature is the amazingly low cost. The larger book sells 
for five cents, thus furnishing fifty-two miniature sermons at about 
one cash each. The smaller book for juniors costs only three cents. 
Surely, at this rate, which is evidently less than the cost of printing, 
every member of every Society ought to have his own copy. 

J. E. S. 


In Preparation. 

New Series of Commentaries on the N. T. C. b. S. 

New Witness Series, ed. Dr. Parker. C. b. S. 

McMnrray’s Practice for Teachers. A. A. Bullock. 

Church and State. Isaac Mason. C. b- S. 

The Pocket Companion Series by Rev. A. Murray, D.D., Trans, by J. Vale. 

(1) The Secret of Intercession. 

(2) The Secret of Adoration. 

?3) The Secret of the Abiding Presence. 

(4) The Secret of Faith bife, 

D. MacG. 


The Devotional Commentary in Chinese. 

The Devotional Commentary is a publication of the Religious 
Tract Society of London which has had a wide circulation and is 
largely used by missionaries in China and in other lands. 





54 The Chinese Recorder [January 

The Devotional Commentary aims simply and solely at helping 
the spiritual life of those that use it. There is no lack of commen¬ 
taries which approach the text of Holy Scripture from the critical 
side: nor yet of those which, in addition to being critical, are 
exegetical. But it is difficult for Bible readers to find modern 
commentaries dealing with the books of the Bible solely as helps 
to belief and to right conduct. The Devotional Commentary is 
designed to fill this gap. In every case the aim is so to comment 
upon the words of Holy Scripture as to help the spiritual life of the 
reader. Every volume is primarily and distinctively a devotional 
volume—a book which the Bible reader can take up day by day 
and find it aid him in applying the words of Holy Scripture to the 
needs of his own personal character and life. 

The Chinese translation will be designed to help that large 
class of our Chinese brethren who are valuable workers though 
they have not had the benefit of theological training. Its aim will 
be to deepen the spiritual life of the reader: make him a better 
Christian and so a better worker. 

The style is to be high class Mandarin so that the book may 
be readily understanded of the common people. 

The first volumes—Genesis and Romans, by Rev. W. H. 
Griffith Thomas, D.D., are in the capable hands of Rev. J. Vale. 
Several oilers of help from skilled translators have been received 
and it is hoped soon to have a number of volumes in hand at once. 

Each volume will make a book of about 200 pages. An 
announcement as to price, etc., will be made when the work is a 
little further forward and subscription orders will be invited. 

It is believed that this Mandarin Commentary on the Man¬ 
darin Bible will be warmly welcomed and largely used. 

J. Darroch, Agent for R. T. S. in China. 


China Church Y«Ar Book, 1916, (3rdyear) ij 1 f I ^ 11 ^ i. Edited 
by Rev. C, Y. Chung, Chinese Secretary, China Continuation Committee. 

This is the most wonderful 50 cent book of the year and you 
can get it in cheaper binding for 40 cents. It contains 440 pages, 
100 articles, 20 maps and charts. 50 Chinese and 30 foreigners 
have been commaudeered by Mr. Cheng to do his bidding in 
furnishing the material. The book is a masterly summary of the 
multifarious activities of the Chinese Church during the year. If 
all our helpers read It, it would be a liberal education in itself. 
In fact, colleges should put it oh their curriculum and make their 
students take 90 per cent on an examination. This is the third 
year of issue and the circulation of the work is deservedly in¬ 
creasing. For some of the matter the English Year Book has been 
drawn on but most of the articles are original. Thus we have:— 

Eeading Events of the Year in China, Hon. C, T. Wang. 

A Year of Revival Meetings, Rev. Ding U-mei. 

Eecture Department of the Y. M. C. A., D. Z. T. Yui. 

Education in China, Rev. F. L. Hawks Pott, D.D., 

The Eeprosy Problem in China, Dr. Henry Fowler. 

Survey of Social Service in China, Prof. D. H. Kulp, II. 

Industrial Work in China, W. H. Gleysteeu, Peking. 



1917] Our Book Table 55 

The accomplished editor is the soul of the work and himself 
contributes two notable articles:— 

Reading Events in the Life of the Church. 

A Year’s New Books and Publications. 

Of course the activities of the China Continuation Committee, 
especially in matters relating to the Chinese Church, are here 
authoritively recorded ; in fact, we believe that, apart from other 
excellent service, the Chinese Year Book is the finest fruit of the 
great conferences. If the Chinese churches get the Year book 
habit and carefully study these illuminating chapters, the exercise 
will go a long way to that consummation devoutly to be wished, 
viz., a self-supporting, self-governing, and self-propagating Church. 
This Year Book will also help the scattered Christian communities 
to realize that they are one whole and the Church will find its 
soul. Already that Church has attained to a measure of self- 
consciousness. A course of reading in this series of Church Year 
Books undoubtedly minimizes the handicap of our divisions and if 
bye and bye the Chinese churches approach the ideal of one 
Chinese Church for China, the impartial historian of the future 
will give due credit to this work. As far as we know no other of 
the great Asiatic churches has as yet a similar book in their 
vernacular. Would that they might have such an excellent 
volume to be the stimulus and guide of their work as these volumes 
are in China. We congratulate Pastor Cheng on this portion of 
his labour for the general good. 

Copies of 1914 and 1915 are now offered at half price, if 
ordered with 1916 issue. We must not omit to add that even 
foreign missionaries will find things here that are deeply interesting; 
at all events they should do all they can to circulate the volume. 

D. MacG. 


We have received an advance sheet showing the Contents of 
the January issue of the International Review of Missions, such as, 
Survey of the Year 1916, including China, Japan, etc.; Japanese 
Nationalism and Mission Schools in Chosen; Realities of Missionary 
Life; the Place of the Home in the Work of Foreign Missions, etc., 
all of which give promise of a most interesting number, and is, we 
are sure, but an exponent of what may be expected all the year 
through. As this Quarterly is so ably conducted and has no higher 
aim than to serve the best interests of the missionary body, it is 
heartily recommended to all who seek to attain the greatest 
efficiency as well as proficiency in their work. 





56 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January 


Correspondence 


PROGRESS OP LUTHERAN UNION. 

To the Editor of 

“The Chinese Recorder.” 

The Recorder for July, 1915, 
contained a report of the Union 
Lutheran Conference held in 
April that year at the Central 
China Union Lutheran Theolo¬ 
gical Seminary at Shekow. It 
had for a long time been felt in 
the various Lutheran missions, 
that these, in order to contribute 
the best of which they were 
capable toward the building up 
of the Church of Christ in China, 
ought to get together among 
themselves in some kind of a 
federation or organic union. To 
this end was held the conference 
at Shekow in April last year. 
Most of the Lutheran missions 
in Ceutral China participated in 
this conference. As shown in the 
report above mentioned this con¬ 
ference really attained more than 
the promoters of it had dared to 
hope for. It revealed a strong 
desire on the part of practically 
all who were present that the 
various Lutheran missions work¬ 
ing in China might eventually be 
merged in one united “Djung- 
Hwa Sin-I-Hwei.” 

To this end the conference 
elected a “continuation com¬ 
mittee” called the Temporary 
Council of the Lutheran Church 
of China, and this Council in 
turn appointed sub-committees on 
Church Organization, Common 
Church Book, Literature, and 
Union College, these committees 
to be responsible to and work 
under the direction of the 
Council. 

During the year and a half 
since the conference the com¬ 
mittees have all been at work, 


and have reached a point in their 
work that made it seem wise to 
call a meeting of the Council. 
Such a meeting was held at 
Shekow on the 20th and 21st of 
October this year. All members 
of the Council were present. 

It being reported that ail the 
committees expected to be ready 
to present final reports some 
time during the coming year, 
the question arose of when-and 
where to hold the next General 
Conference. A proposition was 
laid before the Council by the 
Lutherans who summer on Ki- 
kungshau. Next year being the 
Quadri-Centennial of the begin¬ 
ning of the Reformation, the Lu¬ 
therans of the Kikungslian com¬ 
munity have decided to com¬ 
memorate this event in a series 
of meetings and services to be 
held during the last week of 
August (26th to 29th), and to 
suggest to the Council to call a 
General Lutheran Conference to 
be held on Kikungslian in con¬ 
nection with this Reformation 
Festival. The Council hopes, 
however, that many missions not 
represented at the last General 
Conference and having no repre¬ 
sentative on the Council,will send 
delegates to the next General 
Conference, and therefore did 
not wish to act in this matter 
without having submitted the 
question to the various missions 
for their advice. A circular 
letter is being sent to the Chair¬ 
man and Secretary (or some 
other member) of each of the 
Lutheran missions listed iu the 
Directory of Protestant Missions 
in China. It is earnestly hoped 
that all will respond, and that 
the next General Conference, 
whether held on Kikungslian in 
August, or at some other place 


19i7| 


Correspondence 


57 


later in the year, may be rep¬ 
resentative of all Lutheran 
missions in China and able to 
do much toward making the 
“Djung-Hwa Sin-I-Hwei” an 
actual fact. 

A goodly number of other 
matters were considered by the 
Council. Thus steps were taken 
to secure an authorized trans¬ 
lation of the Augsburg Confes¬ 
sion. The Literature Committee 
was requested to prepare and 
publish a book on the Reforma¬ 
tion, to be ready for the Quadri- 
Ceutennia! next year. As a 
missionary allocated to do liter¬ 
ary work will soon become editor 
of “The Lutheran/’ at present 
published as a monthly, it was 
recommended as soon as possible 
to expand the paper into a 
bi-weekly, and ultimately a 
weekly. While grateful for the 
work that has beeu done by way 
of preparing Christian hymns 
for the Chinese Church, it was 
felt that the Lutheran Church 
possesses a wealth of hymns as 
yet not accessible to the Chinese 
Church., A committee was there¬ 
fore elected to edit and add to 
the already existing material 
with a view to having the draft 
of a Union Lutheran Hymnal 
ready to lay before the General 
Conference. In all branches of 
the Lutheran Church the peri¬ 
scopes of the Ancient Church are 
used. But to these the various 
national churches of Europe 
have added series of their own, 
none of which are entirely 
uniform, and therefore not suit¬ 
able to be adopted by all parts 
of the Chinese Lutheran Church. 
In view of this fact a committee 
was appointed to work out a 
uniform system of periscopes for 
the Church in China. 

The College question called 
forth a lively debate. Two main 
propositions were discussed. The 


one plan calls for two cdlleges 
for Central China, one to be 
located somewhere in Hunan, 
the other in Honan. The other 
plan calls for one central institu¬ 
tion to be located near Hankow, 
preferably, perhaps, in the 
vicinity of the theological semin¬ 
ary at Shekow. While no vote 
was taken the debate seemed to 
indicate that the majority of the 
members favored the latter plan. 
There was only one opinion as to 
the primary aim and purpose of 
such an institution, viz., to turn 
out well-trained men willing and 
able to enter the direct serv¬ 
ice of the church as pastors, 
evangelists, teachers, physicians, 
etc., and that therefore special 
thought must be taken not only to 
thorough scholarship, but even 
more to creating and maintaining 
an atmosphere of positive Chris¬ 
tian influence. 

The Committee on Common 
Church Book reported progress. 
Drafts were ready in Chinese 
and English of (i) The Fuller 
Form for Morning Service, (2) 
The Shorter Form for Morning 
Service, (3) Order of Service at 
Out-stations where no pastor is 
present, (4) Order of Communion 
Service (Chinese only). The 
committee was urged to continue 
its work along the same general 
lines with a view to having the 
draft of a complete Church Book 
ready to submit to the General 
Conference. 

The Committee on Organiza¬ 
tion met before and after the 
session of the Council. This 
committee has its work well in 
hand. The rough draft of a 
constitution drawn up at the 1915 
conference is being revised and 
amplified. The plan calls for 
one general organization to be 
divided into Synods, each of the 
present missions constituting a 
Synod. 


58 

More might be reported but 
the above will show the reader 
along what lines the work is 
being done, and should be en¬ 
couraging to all who hope for its 
final and not very distant con¬ 
summation in “The Lutheran 
Church of China.” 

N. Astrup Larsen, Secretary . 


THE MISSIONARY HOME. 

To the Editor of 

“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir : It may be desirable 
to make it known through your 
next issue, lest any misapprehen¬ 
sion arise from reading the letter 
from Dr. Price in the November 
Recorder, that it is for the 
present intended to continue the 
Home as usual. The kindly 
written words of that letter echo 
the many such messages that 
have reached us to similar effect 
since it became known that 
in consequence of our sense of 
inability to keep it on much 
longer we had a desire to be 
relieved of its care. 

It was with the hope that an 
effort might be undertaken in 
some way to arrange for its 
being put on a permanent basis 
before we do find it necessary 
to close it, rather than wait 
till that has been done, ere 
going to work to ‘ fill the gap * 
when the Home was closed, 
that we did mention the matter 
at all. My wife and I so much 
feel what a difficulty it would 
make for those who had always 
depended on finding a ready 
access whenever necessity arose, 
to some day discover it had 
ceased to be without any other 
means having been provided to 
meet the case; this has led us to 
reconsider the discontinuance at 
ones. We cannot,however,prom¬ 


[January 

ise to continue for any length 
of time. Probably we may keep 
open to the end of next year 
(1917) or so, hoping possibly 
some persons may be found in the 
meantime who would feel led to 
undertake it after us. 

Yours truly, 

Edward Evans. 
Shanghai, December 20th, 1916. 

KIKUNGSHAN SCHOOL EOR MIS¬ 
SIONARIES* CHILDREN. 

To the Editor of 

“The Chinese Recorder.*‘ 

A recent number of the Re¬ 
corder spoke of schools for 
missionaries’ children. There 
Is one such school which your 
correspondent has not seen men¬ 
tioned in your pages, viz., Unity 
School on Kikungshan. This 
school has existed for a number 
of years, but it is only this last 
year that it has been able to 
move into its own home, a fine 
new brick building of full base¬ 
ment and two stories. The 
school has accommodation for 
fifty to sixty children. It belongs 
to four American Lutheran mis¬ 
sions working in Honan and 
northwestern Hupeh. The home 
constituency of each of these has 
allocated $1,000 gold for a build¬ 
ing. But owing to war prices 
and other unforeseen contingen¬ 
cies the building has cost nearer 
twice the original estimate of 
$4,000 gold. East summer 
several thousand taels for equip¬ 
ment were raised by private 
subscription among the members 
of the four missions. The school 
aims to give the equivalent of 
an American high school educa¬ 
tion. Last year the school had 
only two teachers. But this 


The Chinese Recorder 



$9 


1917] Missionary News 


year a pastor and his wife (a 
trained nurse) and a matron 
have been added to the staff. 
At present there are about thirty 
children in attendance. As long 


as there is room the school is 
glad to welcome children from 
outside the four cooperating 
missions. 

Correspondent. 


Missionary News 


The Thirteenth Meeting of the 
Executive of the China 
Continuation Committee. 

E. C. EOBSNSTINE. 

The thirteenth regular meeting 
of the China Continuation Com¬ 
mittee was held in Shanghai on 
November 2o~22nd, 1916. 

There were present: Rev. 
Shen Wen-ch'ing, Chairman; 
Dr. R. C. Beebe, Rev. Z. T. 
Kaung, Rev. Eiu Fang, Rev. J. 
Walter Eowrie, D.D., Rev. J. 
T. Proctor, D.D., Rev. Arthur 
H. Smith, D.D., and David Z. 
T. Yui, Esq,, and the Secre¬ 
taries. 

Reports of Secretaries: The 
Chinese and foreigu secretaries 
presented reports covering the 
Committee's work since the 
Annual Meeting. This included 
the printing and mailing to 
every missionary family in 
China, and to the home offices 
of societies carryiug on work in 
China, the “Proceedings” of 
the Fourth Annual Meeting; the 
preparation and issue through 
the Christian literature Society 
of the “China Mission Year 
Book” and the “Directory of 
Protestant Missions”; the prepar¬ 
ation of most of the material for 
the third issue of the “China 
Church Year Book,” and the 
printing of statistics furnished 
by tbe Missions; the work of 
Rev. A. E. Warnshius in connec¬ 
tion with the Forward Evangel¬ 


istic Movement, and the big 
task of beginning to classify and 
make available for ready refer¬ 
ence the information regarding 
missionary and church work 
that has thus far been gathered 
by the Committee. During 
these months both the Chinese 
and foreign secretaries and the 
national evangelistic secretary 
have attended a number of con¬ 
ferences and meetings of various 
kinds in different parts of China 
and have delivered addresses 011 
the Committee’s work. 

Resignations: Resignations 

from the Committee, of Rev. 
Bishop J. W. Basliford, EE.D., 
and of Rev. J. T. Proctor, D.D., 
owing to their expectation of 
being out of China until after 
the next annual meeting, were 
accepted. The vacancy thus 
made on the Executive Com¬ 
mittee was filled by the election 
of Rev. G. A. Clayton, and on 
the General Committee, by the 
election of Rev. C. H. Fenn, 
D.D., and Rev. J. V. Eatimer. 

Mr. Hoste’s resignation from 
the Chairmanship of the Com¬ 
mittee on Comity, owing to the 
unexpected delay in his return 
to China, was not accepted. 

Additions to Special Com¬ 
mittees : The following persons 
were elected members of Special 
Committees, their names having 
been recommended by members 
of these Committees. 


60 

Forward Evangelistic Com¬ 
mittee : Rev. J. H. Blackstone, 
Nanking, Ku.; Dr. Frank A. 
Keller, Changsha, Hunan; Dr. 
F. J. Tooker, Siangtan, Hunan ; 
Rev. A. J. Brace, Chengtu, Sze., 
(corresponding member). Cur¬ 
riculum Bible Study: Arthur 
Rugh, Esq., Y.M.C.A., Shang¬ 
hai ; Rev. W. M. Smith, Soo- 
chow, Ku.; Rev. H. G. Brown, 
M.A., Chengtu, Sze., (corres¬ 
ponding member); and Rev. H. 
F. Rudd, Ph.D., Suifu, Sze., 
(corresponding member). Bible 
Study for Preachers and Pastors: 
Rev. Alexander Paul, Wuhu, 
Anhwei. Survey and Occupa¬ 
tion : Rev. H. J. Openshaw, 
Yachowfu, Sze., and Dr. F. J. 
Tooker, Siaugtau, Huuan (both 
corresponding members). Ad- 
minis tration of Mission Organi¬ 
zations on the Field: Rev. F. 
W. Bible, Hangchow, Cbe. 
Administrate of Union Insti¬ 
tutions: Rev. J. Iy. Stewart, 
Chengtu, Sze., (corresponding 
member). 

A dominating Committee : la 
view of the difficulties which the 
Nominating Committee expe¬ 
riences at each Annual Meeting, 
in its endeavor to make the China 
Continuation Committee and its 
Special Committees truly repre¬ 
sentative of the many different 
interests represented by the 
Missions and Churches in China, 
it was voted to instruct the 
Secretaries in consultation with 
the Chairmen of the Special 
Committees, to make a full study 
of the problems connected with 
the work of the Nominating 
Committee at the Annual Meet¬ 
ing, and to report at the next 
meeting of the Executive. 

Associate Chinese Secretary: 
Correspondence with the Wesle¬ 
yan Methodist Missionary So¬ 
ciety regarding the call to Rev. 


[January 

Shell Wen-ch'ing to become 
Associate Chinese Secretary, was 
read. Mr. Shen stated that it 
would probably be necessary to 
wait until the next meeting of 
the Synod, in February, 1917, 
before a final answer could 
be given. The whole matter 
was entrusted to the Committee 
appointed at the previous 
meeting of the Executive, with 
power. This Committee con¬ 
sists of: Rev. J. Walter Eowrie, 
Mr. David Z. T. Yui, Dr. R. C. 
Beebe, and the Secretaries. 

Religious Liberty and the 
movement to make Confucianism 
the State Religion: A letter 
from the Kiangsu Federation 
Council to the China Continua¬ 
tion Committee, in connec¬ 
tion with the present move¬ 
ment to make Confucianism 
the State Religion in China, 
was read. Rev. Ch'eng Ching- 
yi and Dr. J. Walter Lowrie 
were appointed a Committee to 
confer with Rev. R. T. Bryan, 
D.D., aud Rev. Ku Cliiai Sli'ing, 
the Chairman and Secretary of 
the Kiangsu Federation Council, 
regarding the thought of the 
Council in the matter, and to 
draft a suitable reply. 

The Executive Committee 
spent a large part of the time at 
this meeting discussing this 
important question aud the 
possibility of its rendering any 
assistance to the efforts of 
the Chinese pastors in different 
parts of China, in their endeavor 
to safeguard the religious liberty 
created by the Constitution. 

It was voted that in view of 
the seriousness of the situation 
created by the pending action of 
the Chinese Parliament on 
questions closely related to 
religious freedom, and the 
general movement of Chinese 
Christian leaders to influence 


The Chinese Recorder 


Missionary News 


61 


19171 

the action of Parliament, all 
members of the China Continua¬ 
tion Committee in and near 
Shanghai be urged to meet with 
the Executive Committee on 
Wednesday morning, November 
22nd, at io o'clock, in the office 
of the Committee, to confer as 
to whether or not any action on 
the part of the Executive 
Committee is possible and 
desirable. 

The following additional mem¬ 
bers of the China Continuation 
Committee were present at a 
session on Wednesday, Novem¬ 
ber 22nd, from 10.15 to 12.15, 
to discuss this matter : Dr. H. 
Fowler, Rev. Hwang Sui-ch'iang, 
Dr. P, F. Price, Dr. W. Hopkyu 
Rees, Rev. Otto Schultze, Arch¬ 
deacon Shell Tsai-sheug, and 
Rev. A. L- Warnshuis. 

Dr. F. L. Hawks Pott ex¬ 
pressed his regret at being unable 
to be present and gave his 
opinioa in regard to the nature 
of the action which the China 
Continuation Committee might 
well take. 

As a resuit of this conference, 
the following two actions were 
passed: (1) That Rev. Cheng 
Ching-yi be set aside for a time 
to proceed to Peking in a private 
capacity, in order to render the 
churches throughout China such 
service as he can and as they 
may desire, towards the safe¬ 
guarding of their religious 
liberty. (2) That Mr. Cheug 
be authorized to print and 
circulate among church-members 
and members of Parliament a 
collection of such articles bearing 
upon religious liberty as he may 
deem wise. 

Mission Comity: Correspon¬ 
dence was read from a number 
of different Missions regarding 
the work of certain societies 
with whom there had been 


friction, and asking the China 
Continuation Committee’s assis¬ 
tance in securing some agree¬ 
ment. The foreign secretary 
was instructed to confer with 
representatives of these Missions 
regarding their policy in relation 
to the work of other societies. 

It was also voted to call the 
attention of the Special Com¬ 
mittee on Comity, in the prepara¬ 
tion of its Annual Report on the 
principles of comity, to the 
desirability of making a careful 
study of the extent to which 
breaches of comity exist in China 
at the present time. 

Christian Literature: The 
Executive Committee made an 
appropriation of $250 for the 
expenses connected with the 
work on the Survey of Christian 
Literature until the Annual 
Meeting in May, 1917 ; and also 
that in the event of Mr. Clayton 
becoming Genereral Secretary 
of the Religious Tract Society 
of North and Central China, an 
additional grant of $115 be 
made, if necessary, for the rent 
of an office in the Religious Tract 
Society building in Hankow. 

Medical Education for Women: 
A letter was read from Rev. H. 
S- Galt, D.D., Secretary of the 
North China Council of the 
American Board of Commis¬ 
sioners for Foreign Missions, 
containing the following resolu¬ 
tion passed by that Council: 

“Voted that tlie Council, through 
its English secretary, express to the 
China Commutation Committee its 
conviction of the importance of 
medical education of the highest 
grade for Chinese women, and urge 
that until such time as the China 
Medical Board is ready to undertake 
the support of such work, generous 
provision be made for it in connection 
with some of the Union universities.’' 

Voted to refer the letter to 
the China Medical Missionary 


62 

Association for such action as it 
may deem wise, with the request 
that it point out what service, 
if any, the China Continuation 
Committee can render in the 
matter. 

Correspondence with Japan 
Continuation Committee: A 
letter was read from the foreign 
secretary of the Japan Con¬ 
tinuation Committee notifying 
the Committee of its acceptance 
of the Committee’s invitation to 
send delegates to attend the next 
Annual Meeting of the China 
Continuation Committee, and 
inviting the China Continuation 
Committee to send representa¬ 
tives to attend the Annual 
Meeting of the Japan Continua¬ 
tion Committee, which will be 
held next in October, 1917. 
The Committee expressed its 
gratification that such a depu¬ 
tation was assured. 

Proposed Missions' Building: 
A report of the developments 
connected with the proposed 
Missions’ Building in Shanghai 
was made by the foreign secre¬ 
tary. 

The following action was 
taken by the China Council of 
the American Presbyterian Mis¬ 
sion, North, at its meeting in 
October, 1916 ; 

“ The Council would express its 
appreciation of the services of Mr. 
Lobeustine in acting as our represent¬ 
ative during the past years in carry¬ 
ing on correspondence and in making 
plans looking toward the securing of 

a union Missions' Building at 18 Pe¬ 
king Road, or at some other suitable 
place, and would ask him to continue 
to act in this same capacity for an¬ 
other year iu conference with our ad 
interim Mission Press Committee. 

“ The Council would express its 
earnest hope that satisfactory arrange¬ 
ments can be made with the British 
and Foreign Bible Society for the use 
of their property at 17 Peking Road, 
in providing, with our own, a suitable 
eite for the proposed building; for 


[January 

both pieces of property will be needed 
to furnish the approach and adequate 
building space. 

“ If, however, the British and For¬ 
eign Bible Society is not favourable to 
the plan, we would favour the sale of 
our property on 18 Peking Road and 
the use of money thus set free, in 
securing elsewhere suitable property 
for the erection of this important 
building.” 

The Executive of the China 
Continuation Committee passed 
the following resolutions: 

VOTED to express the Com¬ 
mittee’s appreciation of the fact 
that the movement to secure a 
Missions’ Building has been 
materially advanced by the 
action of the China Council 
of the American Presbyterian 
Church Mission, iu regard to 
the use of its property at 18 
Peking Road. 

VOTED that in view of the 
fact that both Bishop Bashford 
and Dr. Proctor are about to 
visit the United States, they be 
requested during their stay iu 
America to co-operate with the 
Treasurer of the Board of For¬ 
eign Missions of the Presbyterian 
Church in America, and others 
interested in the proposed Mis¬ 
sions' Building, and that the 
foreign secretary be instructed 
to keep them informed of any 
further developments in China. 

Emergency Fund: The For¬ 
eign Secretary reported the receipt 
in May, 1916, through Dr. Mott, 
of G. $2,000, in response to a 
cablegram from the Committee. 
It was voted to express to Dr. 
Mott the Committee'3 very 
hearty appreciation of his as¬ 
sistance in this matter. 

Finances: The financial state¬ 
ment of the Treasurer for the 
first six months of the fiscal 
year (April 1st to September 
30th), was read and found 
satisfactory. 


The Chinese Recorder 


19171 

The secretaries were author¬ 
ized to transfer from unexpended 
items in the budget a sum of 
Mex. $500, for the use of the 
Special Committees, if this is 
found necessary. 

It was also voted that a sum 
not to exceed Mex. $100 be 
appropriated as a subsidy to the 
Mission Book Company on sales 
of the “China Church Year 
Book” to retailers outside of 
Shanghai, such subsidy to equal 
10% of the list price of the 
book. 

The Next Annual Meeting: 
It was voted to accept with the 
hearty thanks of the Committee, 
Dr. D. Duncan Main’s very 
cordial invitation that the meet¬ 
ing be held in Hangchow. (The 
date of the meeting: April 
26th-May 1st, 1917.) 

The Next Meeting of the 
Executive : It was decided that 
the next meeting of the Execu¬ 
tive be held in Shanghai during 
the latter part of February or 
some time in March, so as if 
possible to take advantage of 
the Chairman’s presence as he 
returns from America. It was 
left to the secretaries to deter¬ 
mine the exact date of the 
meeting. 

Report of the Committee o?i 
Religious Literature: Adopted 
by Foochow Methodist Annual 
Conference, November 28th, 
1916. We recommend : 

1. That each District Super¬ 
intendent, in co-operation with 
the missionary-in-charge, provide 
a depot for the sale of Bibles, 
hymn-books, and tracts. 

2. That preachers urge mem¬ 
bers to undertake the sale of 
single copies of gospels and 
other single books of the Bible 
among their acquaintances. 


65 

3. That every candidate for 
baptism and church membership 
should be required to have his 
own Bible and hymn-book. 

4. That preachers urge mem¬ 
bers to subscribe for church 
papers, especially the Chinese 
Christian Advocate and the 
Young People's Friend . 

5. That in each District a 
person be designated to manage 
the circulation of literature. 

6. That the Manager of the 
Methodist Publishing House be 
requested to make the Foochow 
Branch a Conference depot for 
the selling of the books recom¬ 
mended in this report and, in 
general, of books needed in our 
church work. 

7. In addition to books al¬ 
ready in stock at the Press in 
Foochow, we recommend especi¬ 
ally the following books in 
Chinese for publication and sale 
there: 

(1) Prof. Ford's Handbook 
for the Study of Matthew (MS. 
now nearly ready). 

(2) Bishop Henderson’s pam¬ 
phlet of methods in the Forward 
Evangelistic Movement. (Al¬ 
ready printed.) 

(3) Mrs. Sites’ pamphlet on 
the Korean plan of Bible Study. 
(Already printed in Chinese and 
English.) 

(4) China Continuation Com¬ 
mittee’s Bulletin No. 5 on the 
Forward Movement and Special 
Week of Evangelism. (In Chi¬ 
nese and English.) 

(5) The'new Romanized Pri¬ 
mer prepared by Mrs. Brewster. 
(Already printed.) 

The Bible Success Band Cal¬ 
endar and the Distribution So¬ 
ciety’s leaflets are free, but 
should be kept in stock. 


Missionary News 


64 

8. That a persou be appointed 
to promote the distribution of 
Religious Literature to all the 
Districts of the Conference. 

Early in November, Rev. F. 
H. Lieo aud Rev. S. H. Litlell 
were invited to the Y. M. C- A. 
building to meet a group of more 
than twenty men who have 
decided to become Christians 
and have indicated their pref¬ 
erence for the Sheug Kung Hui. 
They found that forty young 
men, including these new con¬ 
verts, have formed a society for 
the purpose of religious study, 
and under the direction of church 
communicants are preparing for 
baptism and confirmation. 

Rev. R. E. Wood of Wu¬ 
chang was asked by the Scotch, 
Swedish, and American Church 
Missions, Ichaug, to be the 
missioner for a series of eleven 
days’ evangelistic meetings held 
there this month (November). 
He preached twice daily to an 
audience of from 100 to 200 in 
the afternoon and 500 to 1,000 
in the evening. At the latter 
there were two speakers, one 
from each mission daily, in turn, 
besides the missioner. The 
meetings were held In the 
Temple of the God of Fire, 
loaned especially by the magis¬ 
trates for the purpose. 

The order w T as splendid and 
much interest was manifested. 
373 names of possible enquirers 
were enrolled by the Chinese 
Christian workers, who mingled 
freely with the people before 
and after the services, talking 
with them singly or in groups. 
Later the enquirers were visited 
in their homes, and about 100 of 
them were gathered together at 
the first meeting for instruction. 

Meetings for women were held 
during the mission at the various 
chapels, with equally encoura¬ 
ging results. 


[January 

Report of Committee on the 
Forward Evangelistic 
Movement. 

Adopted by Foochow (M. E.) 
Annual Conference, November 
1916. We recommend the fol¬ 
lowing : 

That this Conference heartily 
endorse the general plan of the 
Forward Evangelistic Movement 
and the Special Week of Evan¬ 
gelism. In preparation for the 
work we ought all to unite on 
the following: 

1. That each district make 
definite plans, immediately, for 
the Special Week of Evangelism 
and the preparatory work. 

2. That we try as far as pos¬ 
sible to get each member to 
work and pray definitely for 
one person and to win him to 
Christ this year. 

3. That each circuit hold a 
special weekly prayer-meeting 
for Intercessory prayer,—aud 
Saturday evening is suggested. 

4. That we make it our 
prime ideal in our evangelistic 
work to bring into the church 
the whole immediate family of 
every church-member. 

5. That each district appoint 
an Executive Committee to pro¬ 
mote these objects both before 
and after the il Special Week.” 

6. That each preacher be 
asked to buy Bulletin No. 5 of 
the China Continuation Com¬ 
mittee on the Forward Evange¬ 
listic Movement (price two 
cents per copy), and that each 
district superintendent receive 
them for the preachers of his 
district. 

7. That the present Com¬ 
mittee be continued, and author¬ 
ized to act as an Executive 
Committee to promote that work 
throughout the Foochow Con¬ 
ference. 


The Chinese Recorder 


1917] 

Biennial Conference of the China 
Medical Missionary Association, 
and the National Medical 
Association. 

The Biennial Conferences of 
the China Medical Missionary 
Association and the National 
Medical Association of China 
are to convene in Canton from 
the 20th to the 27th of January. 

Joint sessions will be held for 
hearing papers read, and for 
discussions of same. 

Arrangements have been made 
with the s.s. “China” to take 
delegates from Shanghai to 
Hougkong, and return for the 
reduced rate of $40.00 U. S. 
gold, s.s. “China" will leave 
Shanghai on the afternoon of 
January 17th, and leave Hong¬ 
kong on its return trip at 1 
p.m., January 31st. 

The Conference will open on 
the evening of January 20th, 
with a reception at the new 
Y. M. C. A. building. 

On the following day—Suuday 
—a sermon will be delivered by 
the President, Dr. W. H. Ven¬ 
able of Kashing. 

Monday morning the first 
business session will open at 9 
o’clock in the auditorium of the 
Y. M. C. A. 


Our readers will thank us for 
calling their attention to an 
advertisement appearing in this 
number. The Rev S. Couling, 
M.A., is about to issue a large 
and comprehensive book deal¬ 
ing with China and things 
Chinese. He has given long 
years of careful study to the 
work and, as Secretary of the 
Asiatic Society (North China 
branch), he has had unique 
opportunities of keeping in touch 
with all the best books and of 


65 

gleaning largely from a mul¬ 
titude of works which are in¬ 
accessible to the general reader. 
His wide experience as a mis¬ 
sionary among the people is 
here laid under tribute to serve 
all. Mr. Couling, who has the 
instincts of a scholar, has delved 
deeply and wisely, and the result 
is a book which cannot fail to 
be invaluable. The range of 
topics is itself a proof of this. 
We feel sure that the missionary 
body in particular will welcome 
this thesaurus, with its key to 
many doors hitherto closed or 
only accessible to the few., A 
few friends have assisted in 
preparing articles on special 
subjects, and Mrs. Couling has 
prepared a very careful synopsis 
of the history of Christian mis¬ 
sions. 


F. H. Hawkins, Esq., EE.B., 
Foreign Secretary of the Eondon 
Missionary Society, is expected 
in China this summer on a visit 
to the stations of the Mission, 
and more particularly iu con¬ 
nection with developments in 
educational union work. 

Dr. E. J. Peill, Rev. A. G. 
Bryson, and other members of 
the E. M. S. staff, are leaving 
for the 11 front ” for non-combat¬ 
ant service. 

The China Medical Board has 
now taken over the compound 
of the E. M. S. in the East City 
of Peking, the Mission having 
moved its schools and residences 
to the West City. Plans for 
the erection of a new Church 
building in close proximity to 
the old compound are maturing, 
and this will be an independent 
church, purely Chinese, which 
owes so much to the activity of 
the Rev. Cheng Ching-yi. 


Missionary News 



66 

Evangelistic Items. 

The Special Week of Evangel¬ 
ism, January 28th-February 4th, 
will probably be observed in all 
the provinces of China. Kwei¬ 
chow and Yunnan are the only 
two provinces from which no 
letters have yet come to say that 
there also the churches will 
unite in this concerted move¬ 
ment, and this is probably due 
only to the long distance and 
the time required for the mails 
to come. Such a nation-wide 
united movement should bring 
great blessing to the churches 
and should also result in leading 
large numbers to decide to be¬ 
come followers of the Christ. 
Such fruitfulness, however, will 
be the result not of mere external 
organization but will be measured 
by the depth and strength of the 
spiritual life of the Christians. 
The emphasis must not be 
misplaced. 

The special series of eight 
evangelistic articles prepared for 
publication in the daily news¬ 
papers during the Special Week 
of Evangelism have been applied 
for by missionaries in practically 
every large city in China that 
has had time to reply since the 
announcement of these plans in 
November. It appears therefore 
that with very few exceptions 
every important newspaper in 
the whole country will publish 
these articles. Brief suggestions 
regarding successful methods of 
following up such advertising 
have also been sent to each of 
these cities. This special effort 
should enlist the prayers of the 
whole church in China, that 
these newspaper articles may 
lead many to come to the 
churches to inquire further 
whether these things are so. 

The Presbyterian Synod in 
Manchuria has appointed Rev. 


[January 

Chuang Cheu-sheiig and Rev. 
Wm. MacNaughtan as full-time 
secretaries of the Forward Evan¬ 
gelistic Movement. They have 
been visiting all the centers in 
the Scotch and Irish Missions, 
meeting with the leaders and 
holding evangelistic meetings. 
Three or four days are spent in 
each center. The meetings for 
the church members consist in 
Bible study for the deepening 
of the spiritual life, and in the 
discussion of plans of evangel¬ 
istic work, in which the aim is 
to secure the appointment of a 
responsible local committee and 
the adoption of a definite pro¬ 
gramme of work. The evangel¬ 
istic meetings have been fruitful 
in enlisting enquirers, and have 
also encouraged and stimulated 
the Christians. 

The article on “ Is the Korean 
Plan of Bible Study Workable 
in China?” which was published 
in the October number of the 
Chinese Recorder has been 
translated into Chinese, aud can 
be obtained from the Mission 
Book Company, Shanghai, and 
the Methodist Publishing House 
in Foochow. 

The Handbook of the Meth¬ 
odist Forward Movement has 
been translated by Rev. W. S. 
Bissounette of Kutienhsien, 
Fukien, aud can be obtained 
from the Mission Book Com¬ 
pany, 18 Peking Road, Shanghai, 
as well as from the Methodist 
Publishing House, Foochow. 
The price is two cents a copy. 
The Handbook is full of sugges¬ 
tions regarding methods in ag¬ 
gressive evangelistic work, which 
can be applied in other than 
Methodist churches. 

A. E. W. 


The Chinese Recorder 


67 


Missionary News 


1917] 

Notes from the Field. 

Chinese Christian leaders 
throughout the country have been 
deeply stirred by the proposal to 
introduce into the Constitution 
a clause making Confucianism 
the basis of all moral character 

( ?L JESiiFlP Jfc # ) • Telegrams 
and letters have been sent from 
many parts of the country and a 
number of local Christian organ¬ 
izations have sent men to Peking 
to seek to safeguard the religious 
liberty of the Chinese. Roman 
Catholics and members of other 
religions are co-operating with 
the Protestants in this movement 
and have organized a local com¬ 
mittee in Peking, which meets 
from time to time and reports on 
the progress made and makes 
plans for the future. President 
Id Yuan Hung granted au inter¬ 
view to representatives of this 
committee a short time ago. 
There were four members elected 
to represent the committee and 
the two Protestant members 
were Rev. C. Y. Cheng and 
Rev. S. C. Hwang. The Pres¬ 
ident expressed himself as in 
sympathy with their purpose and 
as favouring religious liberty for 
his people. 

Plans for the Week of Evan¬ 
gelism are steadily progressing. 
Each week brings word of new 
organizations and churches that 
are deciding to co-operate. Each 
church and local community is 
planning in a way best calculated 
to make it a success. It will be 
most instructive to learn of the 
methods followed and of the 
results of the year’s work in pre¬ 
paring for, carrying through, and 
following up the plans of the 
“Special Week of Evangelism.” 

In one mission college the 
regular “ Sunday school ” period 
of the students for the month 


preceding the week of evan¬ 
gelism will be given over to a 
training class for Christian work¬ 
ers. A Christian Home Club 
has been organized, the object 
of which is to help the members 
of the students’ families to be¬ 
come Christians, and on their 
own marriage to establish 
Christian homes. Special prayer 
meetings are being held and 
regular efforts are being made by 
the students to win the non- 
Christian ex-students to Christ. 

The importance of the “ family 
altar” in fostering the Christian 
life is recognized by all, yet it is 
to be doubted whether mission¬ 
aries and Chinese pastors know 
how far regular family worship 
exists in the homes of Christians. 
One lady missionary has devised 
a simple little card which the 
pastor is using with members of 
the congregation in order to find 
out how regularly family wor¬ 
ship is being held. It is a small 
inexpensive Chinese card, two 
by eight inches, with a hole 
punched at the top for conveni¬ 
ence in hanging up the record 
card in the home. At the top 
are the following words g$$||8 
On two lines below 
follow these words 

Then there 
are three columns, headed 
respectively, M — 

H ^ • Each time worship is 
held the head of the family or 
some one definitely appointed 
marks a cross in the proper 
column. 

The Sub-committee on Family 
Worship, most of the members 
of which are in Nanking this 
year, has secured the hearty 
co-operation of most of the Chi¬ 
nese pastors of the city in study¬ 
ing the extent to which family 
worship exists in the homes. 
The foreign secretary of the 


63 

committee is Mr. E. P. Gish, 
Foreign Christian Mission, Nan¬ 
king. 

Mr. Sherwood Eddy writes 
that he hopes to be able to return 
for a series of evangelistic meet¬ 
ings in the early part of 1918 or 
during the fall of 1917. Mr. 
Eddy has spent ftie last six 
mouths working for the soldiers 
at the front or amongst those in 
training in England. His work 
is being greatly blessed. 

Rev. G. A. Clayton of the 
Wesleyan Methodist Missionary 
Society has been released by his 
Society for a period of five years 
to act as the agent of the Relig¬ 
ious Tract Society of North aud 
Central China, a task for which 
he is peculiarly well qualified. 

The interest in the subject of 
some simplified writing of the 
Chinese colloquial continues. A 
number of different systems exist 
in addition to the several systems 
of Romanized, Like the Roman¬ 
ised these make use of the same 
general plan of using Initials aud 
finals, but differ in that they are 
generally parts of Chinese char¬ 
acters instead of Roman script. 
A prominent Chinese Christian 
informs us that “A movement 
was started by Mr. Wang Hsiao 
Hang about ten years ago to 
secure the use of some simplified 
form of Chinese writing. Later, 
in the second year of the Repub¬ 
lic, the Ministry of Education 
took the matter up and called a 
Conference on the subject, and a 
new system was formed. There 
is a head office for this system 
in Peking. Many normal schools 
have been started. Books and 
magazines have been published, 
and many schools exist in Pe¬ 
king, Tientsin, and other metro¬ 
politan cities, the expenses of 
the work being borne by the 
government. 


[January 

Rev. Samuel Zwemer, the well 
known missionary to the 
Moslems, and author of numer¬ 
ous works on Mohammedanism 
and kindred subjects, is hoping 
to visit China during the coming 
year. At present Mr. Zwemer 
is resident at Cairo where he is 
at the head of a large and most 
influential Mission Press, which 
supplies evangelistic aud apolo- 
getical literature for the entire 
Moslem world. It is the hope of 
Mr. Zwemer that, during his 
visit to China, he will be able to 
visit the Mohammedan com¬ 
munities here and do consider¬ 
able evangelistic work amoug 
them. The time of his visit and 
the evangelistic campaign among 
the Mohammedans in China is 
not definitely known, but it will 
doubtless be some time in the 
early fall. 

E. C. L. 

Mr. Chang Po Ling's Visit to 
Kirin. 

Mr. Chang arrived in Kirin 
on Friday, October the twenty- 
seventh. That afternoon he 
addressed a meeting gotten up 
to welcome him by some of the 
principal teachers and leaders 
in educational circles. The 
meeting was held in the govern¬ 
ment Middle School. There were 
eighty present. It was easy to 
see the esteem in which he was 
held, and the attention given 
to his words was marked. 

On Saturday he spoke in four 
of the principal boys' schools, in 
the chief girls’ school, and in the 
Y. M. C. A. Everywhere he had 
a splendid reception. Before 
his arrival it was doubtful whe¬ 
ther he would be received in the 
Normal School or not. The 
headmaster has been distinctly 
inimical to the Y. M. C. A. The 
headmaster of the Agricultural 


fhe Chinese Recorder 


69 


Missionary New 


1917 J 

School refused the offer of a 
visit, yet on Friday the Normal 
School brought particular pres¬ 
sure on him to go and speak to 
the students, and on Saturday 
before seven thirty a.m. the 
Agricultural School proctor ar¬ 
rived with a similar request and 
would take no refusal. Chang 
went and delivered very fine 
addresses, particularly iu the 
former. It was a great sight to 
see that audience, a great room 
packed to overflowing with close 
upon four hundred excited boys. 
At the agricultural school there 
was an audience of eighty. The 
scene at the Middle School was 
another like the one at the Nor¬ 
mal School. Four hundred boys 
in their teens and early twenties 
were packed close in a large room, 
all standing, all eager. At the 
Provincial Model School there 
was an audience of a hundred 
and twenty to a hundred and 
fifty attentive pupils; in the 
Girls’ Normal School, one of 
three hundred. 

That night, for the great meet¬ 
ing of Chang’s visit, the Hall at 
the Y. M. C- A- was packed with 
three hundred and fifty students. 
A splendid apologetic for Chris¬ 
tianity was offered and an appeal 
made for enrollment for further 
study. Ninety-one students 
handed in their names. 

The next morning, Sunday, 
Mr, Chang addressed a meeting 
of eighty of the primary school 
teachers in the Mo Fan Chu. 
It was a very fine meeting. At 
eleven o’clock he preached in 
the church, and in the afternoon 
made an evangelistic appeal in a 
public hall. Two hundred were 
present and thirty-nine (twenty- 
one of whom were students) 
handed in their names for fur¬ 
ther study. 

For five weeks before Mr. 
Chang’s coming, a leaders’ class 


met regularly twice a week, for 
teaching, discussion, and train¬ 
ing in Bible class leadership, and 
prayer. There were eighteen 
Chinese members of this class. 
It was conducted by Dr Grieg. 
The discussions were profitable, 
and the meetings distinctly 
successful. 


“ Retreat Conferences,” 

The General Secretary of the 
China Sunday School Union has 
just returned from a series of 
three so-called ‘ * Retreat-Con¬ 
ferences,” for Chinese and for¬ 
eign leaders, each lasting two 
weeks, held in Chuchow, Kai- 
feng, and Hankow, during Octo¬ 
ber, November, and December. 
Each gathering contained certain 
features of a “ retreat ,” a “ con¬ 
ference” and a “school". 

A'” retreat,” in that the church 
leaders, withdrawing from the 
stress of their regular duties, 
sought the Master Teacher, that 
by a fuller indwelling of His 
Spirit they might become “ apt 
to teach.” Special devotional 
sessions were held each day for 
this purpose, from g to io a.m., 
and from 7 to 7.30 p.m. 

As a “conference ” the leaders 
discussed together various solu¬ 
tions of the * * Conference Prob¬ 
lem,” viz., “How to enlist, train, 
and use the adult lay members of 
the church, for effective Bible 
study and teaching, personal 
evangelistic work and Christian 
service.” 

As a “school,” they studied 
and sought to master the tech¬ 
nique of certain definite forms of 
Bible study and teaching. (Many 
of these methods, and especially 
the so-called “ problem method,” 
are outlined in the September 
1916, China Sunday Sckoo» 
Journal.) 



70 


The Chinese Recorder 


The need of study and work 
along the lines suggested is of 
course evident to all. This need 
is shown specifically in the statis¬ 
tics of some thirty-eight congre¬ 
gations which were reported upon 
and surveyed at one of the Con¬ 
ferences. These churches were 
typical and represented not only 
a metropolitan centre but out¬ 
lying country districts as well. 
The thirty-eight congregations 
contained 2,400 male and 1,300 
female communicants, making a 
total of 3,700 communicant mem¬ 
bers, or an average of 100 in 
each church. In connection 
with these churches there were 
approximately 1,400 inquirers 
reported, making a total Chris¬ 
tian community of some 5,000. 
Of these only 1,300 were reported 
as in Sunday schools, 500 in 
adult Bible classes. These figures 
emphasize the need of both Sun¬ 
day school work and adult Bible 
class work. 

Inasmuch as probably 80 per 
cent of the 3,700 communicant 
members are adults we would 
hope to find at least that number 
attending adult Bible classes. 
There would seem no reason 
why inquirers also should not 
be included in these classes. A 
conservative estimate would thus 
call for at least 5,000 adult Bible 
class members in the thirty-eight 
churches. 

A minimum Sunday school 
membership would include the 
total number of Christians, 5,000, 
plus the children and youth in 
the homes of the church member¬ 
ship. The communicant mem¬ 
bership was reported to be con¬ 
tained in 1,200 homes: reckoning 
three children to a home, we 


[January 

would have at least 3,600 children 
to add to the 5,000 Christians 
above. Non-Christians would 
also be sought as Sunday school 
members, making a conservative 
call for a 10,000 Sunday school 
membership in these thirty-eight 
churches instead of the present 
report of 1,800 ! 

The delegates looked forward 
on their return, to work along cer¬ 
tain definite lines, for example : 

(1) A survey of the tasks, 
workmen, incentives, appliances, 
and material available in the 
individual church. 

(2) A definite enlistment cam¬ 
paign to secure members for the 
Sunday school and adult Bible 
class work. 

(3) Adequate preparation in 
the individual churches for the 
training and use of the member¬ 
ship in carrying the Bible lesson, 
as studied in the Sunday school 
and Bible class, into specific lines 
of Christian activity. 

(4) The observance of the 
“ Week of Evangelism ” as sug¬ 
gested by the Forward Evangel¬ 
istic Movement special committee 
of the China Continuation Com¬ 
mittee. 

(5) A determination and 
methods for increasing the num¬ 
ber and ability of Bible teachers 
from the lay membership. To 
that end at least two “Teacher 
Training Preparation Classes ” 
were urged, for each church: 
one to consist of the young people, 
who would there be in training 
and use as helpers in the Primary 
and Junior departments of the 
Sunday school; and the other 
for adults, for work in all depart¬ 
ments of church activity. 


1917] Missionary News 71 

EAST CHINA EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 


FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING 


Martyrs' Memorial Hall, Shanghai 

Thursday, January 25, 1917, at 9 a.m. 

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION and THE CONSIDERATION BY 
THE SCHOOL OF THE START IN LIFE 

9-9.15 Devotional Exercises. 

9.30 “ Vocational Education. That is, under the 

social and economic conditions which 
confront us in China, what are the possi¬ 
bilities of vocational education ? ” ... P. W. Kuo, B.A., Ph.D. 

10.00 Discussion. 

10.45 Science in Elementary Schools ... Mr. John H. Jennings, B.A. 
11.15 Discussion. 

Thursday Afternoon, at 2.00 

2x0 Business .—Reports, Appointment of Committees on Auditing, Nomi¬ 
nations, and Resolutions. 

2.30 How Educate Girls for Life Duties . 

Lower Primary . Miss E. A. Love. 

Higher Primary . Miss Juniata Ricketts, 

3.15 Discussion. 

Friday, January 26, at 9 a.m. 

MIDDLE SCHOOL PROBLEMS 


9.00 

Devotional Exercises. 


9.15 

Functions of the Principal 

... Rev. D. W. Richardson, M, A., B.D. 

9-45 

Discussion. 


10.15 

The Teaching of Chinese 

.K. S. Liu, Ph.D. 

10.45 

Discussion. 



Friday Afternoon, at 2.00 

2.00 

School Records . 

... Mrs. Lawrence Thurston, B.S. 

2.30 

Discussion. 


3.00 

Teacher Improvement 

. Rev. Chas. S. Keen, M.A. 

3-30 

Discussion. 



Saturday, January 27, at 9 a.m. 


SECTIONAL 

CONFERENCES 

9.00 

Devotional Exercises. 


9.15 

Business. 


10.00 

Sectional Conferences 

.Chairmen. 


Elementary Schools 

.Miss Katherine Abbky, B.A. 


Middle Schools 

Rev. D. W. Richardson, M.A., B.D. 


Science Teachers 

. E. V. Jones, M.A., Ph.D. 


College Presidents aud Deans ... Rev. J. W. Cltne, B.A., D.D. 




72 


The Chinese Recorder 


[January, 1917 


Missionary Journal 


BIRTHS, 

AT Peking', September 26th, Ruth 
Busbiiell Wylie, daughter of Dr. 
and Mrs. J. Herman Wylie, A. 
P. M. 

AT Paoning, October 19th, to Dr. and 
Mrs. C. C. Elliott, C. I. M., a 
daughter (Zoe Archdale). 

At Tsunjen, October 22nd, to Mr. 
and Mrs. F. Gasser, C. I. M., a 
daughter (still-born). 

AT Peking, November 4th, George 
Humphrey Hadley, sou of Rev. and 
Mrs. L. S. B. Hadley, A. P. M. 

AT Wuchang, November 7th, to Rev. 
and Mrs. A. M. Shkrman, A.C.M., 
a son (Arthur Mason). 

AT Tingchow, Fuk., November 13th, 
to Mr. and Mrs. A. SeipKl, 
a daughter (Henrietta Elfrede). 

AT Swatow, November 17th, to Dr. 
and Mrs. Robert Chalmers, 
E. P. M.j a daughter. 

AT Hongkong, November 17th, to 
Mr. and Mrs G. F. Turner, Y. M. 
C. A., a son (Frank Joseph Ewart). 

AT Nanking, November 18th, to Rev. 
and Mrs. A. A. Bullock, A. P. M., 
a daughter (Beatrice May Cullock), 

ATj Peking, November 18th, James 
Lippencott Lyons, son of Rev. and 
Mrs. John R. Lyons, A, P. M. 

AT Nanking, November 27th, to Mr. 
and Mrs. N, Ostkrgaard, a son 
(Harold). 

AT Hinghwa, November 30th, to Rev. 
and Mrs. George Hollister, M. 
E. M., a son (William Wallace), 

At Wusih, December 2nd, to Dr. and 
Mrs. Julian Petit, A. C. M., a 
daughter (Esther Helen). 

At Tsinanfu, December 12th, to Dr. 
and Mrs. Harold Balms, School 
of Medicine, E. B. M., a daughter. 

AT Wuchang, December 14th, to Rev. 
and Mrs. G. Tonn£r, Swedish 
Missionary Society, Hwangchow, 
a daughter. 

Ar Foochow, December 16th (?), to 
Mr. and Mrs. R. A. Leake, Y, M. 
C. A., a daughter, 

AT Shanghai, December 18th, to Dr. 
and Mrs. W. W. Peter, Y. M. 

C. A., a daughter (Margaret Par- 
man). 

MARRIAGE. 

AT Anking, December 7th,- Rt. Rev. 

D. X. Huntington, D.D., and 
Miss V. E. HatsT, A. C. M., by the 
Rt. Rev. F. R. Graves, D.D, 


DEATHS. 

On November 13th, at Greenford, 
Middlesex, Caroline Jane, the 
beloved wife of Rev. A, r A. Phillips, 
C. M. S., Mienchow, Szechwan. 
Interred at East Dereham on No¬ 
vember 16. 

At Nanking, December 8th, Mar¬ 
gery, daughter of Mr, and Mrs. 
Alexander G. Small, A. P. M. 

At Kioslian, Honan, December 9th, 
George Hilmar Holm, son of 
Rev. and Mrs. Geo. 0 . Holm; aged 
four years and three months ; from 
dysentery. 

AT Toronto, December 16U1 (?), Mr. 
J. S. Hblmer, C. I. M. 

arrivals. 

October 5th, from U. S. A., Mr, and 
Mrs. J. Bradshaw, Y. M. C. A. 

November 6th, from England, Mrs, 
T. B. Partington, E. P. M. 

November nth, from U, S. A., Mrs. 
Jacob SpEicher, and Mrs. E. S. 
Burkkt and infant, A. P. M. 

November 13th, from England, Mrs. 
M. Mackenzie, E. P. M. 

November 23rd, from U. S. A., 
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Wheeler and 
children. 

November26th,from England, Rev. 
and Mrs, E. W. BURT, E. B. M. 

December 1st, from England, Mr. 
and Mrs. D. Smith and Miss Pol* 
lard, E. B. M.; Rev, E. H. Livesley, 
and Mr. J. H. REED, Eng. Wesleyan 
Mission. 

December 4th, from U. S. A., Dr. 
and Mrs. N. Bell, A. P. M., So. 

December 6th, from U. S. A., Mr. 
G. G. Hrldh, Y. M. C, A.; Mr. and 
Mrs. Wm. J. Campbell and children, 
and Miss Mary H. Taggart, So. 
Chihli Mission ; Miss Katherine 
Willis, M. E. M. 

December gtli, from U. S. A., Miss 
Helena Waterman, Boat Mission, 
Canton. 

DEPARTURES. 

November 13th, to England, Mr. 
and Mrs. D. J. Mills and Grace 
EmsliE, C. I. M. 

November r6tb, to Norway, Mr. and 
Mrs. Nicolai Kiabr, Y. M. C. a. 

December 2nd, to U. S. A., Mr. and 
Mrs. J. H. GklDArT and children, 
Mr. and Mrs. S. B. Collins and 
child, Y. M. C. A.; Mr. J. A. Wilson, 
A. C. M.; Rev. J. T. Proctor, D.D., 
A. B. F. M. S.; Rev. and Mrs. Thos. 
F. Carter, A. P. M. 


THE CHINESE 

RECORDER 

» m m m 

VOL. XLVIIT. FEBRUARY, 1917. No. 2 

Registered at the Chinese Post Office as a Newspaper. 

American Congregational Methods 

The Best Approach to the Chinese Mind 

Social Problems in China and Agencies of Relief 

Working Together in Hangchow 

Robert Morrison Memorial 

The late Dr. W. A. P. Martin 

Materia; intended for Publication should be addressed. 

Editor, Chinese Recorder, 5 Quiusau Gardens, Shanghai.'* 

Advertising and Business Matters should be addressed to 

“ Presbvterian Mission Press, iS Peking Road, Shanghai. 11 


Published monthly by the American Presbyterian Mission Press, 
18 Peking Road, Shanghai, China. 

Subscription $4.00 Mexican (Quid $2.00 or & shillings) per annum, postpaid. 


















THE CHINESE 

R ECOR DER 

YOU XLVIII. FEBRUARY, 1917. No. 2 


CONTENTS 

PAGE. 

EDITORIAL COMMENT. 73 

Evangelism.—Dr. W. A. P. Martin.—Mr. G. McIntosh.—A By-product of Christianity.—A 
Correction. 

The Promotion of Intercession . 78 

CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES: 

American Congregational Methods in Mission Ad-1 

ministration in North C hina, and Modern > Murray S. Frame. 79 
Tendencies in Mission Work.) 

The Best Approach to the Chinese Mind. ... A. H. S. 93 

Social Problems in China and Agencies for Relief ... W. D. Boons:. 95 

Working Together in Hangchow .J. Mercer Beain, D.D, 107 

Robert Morrison Memorial . Geo. H. McNeur. iii 

The Life and Work of the Late Dr. W. A. P. Martin .. 116 

OUR BOOK TABLE.124 

CORRESPONDENCE .128 

Gift of $5,000 for Canton Hospital.—Final Year, Opium Prohibition.—New Series of New 
Testament Commentaries.—Pray for Students. 

MISSIONARY NEWS .131 

Week of Evangelism in the South India United Church.—Forward Evangelistic Movement. 
Norwegian Mission. Hunnn.—Evangelistic Meetings in Shensi planned for March and 
April, 1917: in charge of Miss Jessie G. Gregg.—Extracts from the Report of the 
Foochow Evangelistic Committee for the First Half of the Year 1916.—Self-support in 
South Fukien Presbvterian Church.—Medical Missionary Conference in U. S. A.— 

Boys’ Conference.—News Items.—Dates of Important Meetmgs.-Personals.—State¬ 
ment of Social Faith of the Federal Council of the Churches ol Christ in America. 

PERSONALS. 139 


ILLUSTRATIONS. 


A Christian Wedding (•'ice Editorial) 
The Late Rev. W. A. P. Martin, D.D. 


frontispiece. 
Page rtf 




NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS 


Rev. Murray Scott Frame, M.A., B.D., of the American 
Board Mission, T’ungchou, after two years in language study 
(1910-1911) has been largely engaged in evangelistic work in 
T’ungchou and Peking. A part of his time during 1913-1916 
was also given to teaching in the North China Union College, 
T’ungchou. His work is now entirely evangelistic. 

Rev. Arthur Henderson Smith, D.D., UU.D,, missionary- 
at-large, American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, 
T’ungchou, has been in China since August, 1872, engaged in 
evangelistic and literary work. (Tientsin, 1872-1880, P’ang- 
chuang, Shantung, 1880-1905, missionary-at-large, 1906.) He is 
well known to many of our readers, not only as the author of 
numerous books and articles on China, but also as American 
Chairman of the China Missionary Centenary Conference, 1907; 
member of Peking Sectional Conference, 1913, Shanghai General 
Conference, 1913; and a member of the China Continuation 
Committee, 1913. 

Wiemot DeSaussure Boone, B.A., son of W. D. Boone, 
M.D., A. C. M., has been at work among government students in 
China since 1912 as a secretary of the Young Men’s Christian 
Association, spending 1912-1913 in Nanking, 1914 in Tientsin, 
and 1915-1916 in Tsinan, Shantung. He is a member of the 
American Presbyterian Mission. 

Rev. J. Mercer Brain, D.D., a member of the Southern 
Presbyterian Mission, has been in China nearly twenty years. In 
Kashing he established and conducted for fourteen years the 
Kashiug High School. He is now engaged in evangelistic work 
in Hangchow. 

Rev. George Hunter McNeur, a member of the New 
Zealand Presbyterian Mission, has spent nearly fifteen years in 
China, engaged for the most part in evangelistic work in Canton 
and neighboring markets and villages, though also, for three years, 
teaching in the Theological College, Canton. His work at present 
is entirely evangelistic, with the expectation that as soon as the 
evangelistic staff of his Mission can be strengthened he will be 
transferred to the Union Theological College. 




CHRISTIAN WEDDING 




THE CHINESE RECORDER 


Published Monthly at the American Presbyterian Mission Press, 
1 8 Peking Road, Shanghai, China 


Editorial Board. 

Editor - in - chief : Rev, Frank Rawdinson. (On furlough.) 

. r . , f Rev. W. Hopkyn Rees, d.d. 

Associate Editors j Rev G p p ITCH) D D 

Rev.RoBBRTC.B eebe,m.d. Rev.O.L. Kieborn, m.d. Rt. Rev, F.L. Norris,d.d. 
Rev. Ernest Box. Rev. E- C. Lobrnstink. Rev. O. Schudtze. 

Rev. G. A. Crayton. Mr. Gilbert McIntosh. Rev. A. H. Smith, d.d. 

Rev. J. C. Gibson, d.d. Rev. G. H. McNeur. Miss Laura M. White. 


VOL. XLVI1E FEBRUARY, 1917 


NO. 2 


Review of 1916 

(Continued) 

^ No reports of great campaigns during the year 

have been published. Ihe effort in most places 
has taken the form of making existing agencies more thor¬ 
oughly evangelistic and more effectively fruitful. Of work 
that is specially noteworthy, mention may be made of the 
fruitful evangelistic work done by Miss Jessie G. Gregg, of the 
China Inland Mission, who has held special missions for women 
in the provinces of Shansi, Honan, and Auhwei. In Anhwei 
alone she travelled 2,300 miles, conducting thirteen missions, 
at which 422 women and girls made decisions for Christ. In 
Shansi, 280 women and girls professed conversion, and in 
Honan the number was 253. A series of visits by Miss Ruth 
Paxson, student secretary of the Young Women’s Christian 
Association, to the Christian girls’ schools in the southern 
coast cities was noteworthy in that 484 students decided for 
Christ in response to her appeals. The visits of Rev. Ding Li- 
raei to Shantung, Fukien, Kwangtung, Hupeh, and other 
places have been fruitful both in winning converts and in 
arousing the church-members to greater evangelistic activity. 
The Danish Missionary Society in Manchuria has begun a 
“crusade,” with encouraging results. The whole of their 
field has been divided up into five areas to be covered one by 
one in the course of five years. In each area three or four 









74 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


centres are chosen, and for a period of three months the 
strongest evangelistic forces of the mission. Chinese and foreign^ 
are gathered together in these centres in turn, to unite with 
the local churches in a great common effort. The work 
already done has shown how general and fair a hearing 
Christianity gets from all classes of society if these are appealed 
to in a suitable way ; and this has greatly stimulated the 
Christians to do more. 

In many of the larger cities, the evangelistic work of the 
year has been characterized by the efforts made to conserve the 
results of the extensive campaigns of 1914 and 1915. Most of 
the places in which those campaigns centred have maintained 
Bible classes for the “investigators” then enrolled and those 
added later. This work seems to have been done most 
thoroughly in Tientsin, Peking, and Foochow, and correspond¬ 
ingly large numbers of men have joined the churches in these 
cities. Union Evangelistic Committees, representing all the 
Christian forces in each city, have been permanently organized 
in Tientsin, Peking, Hangchow, Foochow, Amoy, Swatow, 
and Canton, and these will help the churches to be more 
successful in this continuation work, and iu preparing for 
larger work in the future. The Tientsin Committee has been 
specially resourceful in its intensive work iu the churches. 
At the time of the “Chinese New Year ” in February, a special 
series of meetings was held to arouse the church-members to 
active service. The addresses were by Rev. Wang Shau-sliih 
and Rev. C. Y. Cheng. These meetings were carefully followed 
up, and large benefits are reported. The Christians promised 
to enter Bible classes, to visit fellow-Christiaus, to do personal 
work, to observe a whole Sabbath, to conduct daily family 
prayers, aad to increase their church contributions. Seventy- 
five new inquirers were also enrolled. The first value of the 
meetings was a marked sense of unity. Self-support received 
a strong'push forward. The Independent Church opened a 
new out-station. Recruiting from all the churches, a union 
Preaching Band was organized and is officered by laymeu. 
There are sixty members, of whom twenty are reported to be 
working two or three days every week. In April another 
series, of “Home Welfare” meetings, was held, and again 
with good results, especially in emphasizing the importance of 
winning whole families, not individuals only, to the Christian 
faith. 


1917] 


Editorial 


75 


The experience of recent years has demonstrated the 
unparalleled opportunities facing the Christian Church in 
China. The lesson of insufficient preparation on the part of 
the church to receive large accessions at one time has been 
learned by very many, and there has been evident a willingness 
to learn better methods of teaching Bible classes and of other 
forms of Christian service. The China Sunday School Union 
has giveu most timely aid in the training conferences which 
have been led by Mr. Tewksbury, and in the suggestive methods 
that have been published in the China Sunday School Journal . 
Following those held in 1915 in Killing and Moukden, six 
conferences were held iu 1916, in Swatow, Canton, Foochow, 
Chuchow (Anhwei), Kaifeng, and Hankow. These were 
attended by more than 500 men and women, who iu many 
places organized local conferences in which the lessons learned 
in the larger conferences were repeated. 

In many places this training and preparation for more 
aggressive evangelism has had a definite objective in proposed 
forward movements to be begun iu the winter of 1916, or 
carried into 1917. So the Presbyterian and Baptist Churches 
of East Kwangtung, which centre around Swatow, have united 
in plans for special missions during the winter of 1916, extend¬ 
ing through 1917. The Presbyterian Churches of Manchuria 
have plans for larger efforts in 1917, and have appointed two 
executive secretaries, one foreign and one Chinese, to give 
their whole time to the organization of the movement. All the 
missions in Honan province, in continuation of the special 
work among the students iu the meetings led by Dr. MacGil- 
livray and Dr. Peter, have united in province-wide plans for a 
five-year program of concerted action. The Szechwan and 
Kwangtung committees were preparing similar plans when the 
political disturbances of the summer interrupted them. Special 
plans in other places might be mentioned. The suggestion of 
a Special Week of Evangelism in the first week after the 
Chinese New Year has been favorably received by missions and 
churches in all parts of the country, which during the autumn 
months have been enlisting and training their church-members 
with the aim of helping every member to be a successful 
Christian evangelist. The principal motive in proposing such 
a Special Week is that suggested in the following quotation 
from an address made by Bishop T. S. Henderson of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church : “ There are vast resources in our 


76 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


churches that are noil-productive solely for the lack of the 
challenge of a definite task.” In evangelism it is definiteness 
that counts, and it is definiteness that is the heart of the various 
movements which have taken shape under the title of “ Per¬ 
sonal Evangelism,” So the year closed with this wide-spread 
and concerted effort to awaken in the Chinese churches a 
deeper missionary zeal and stronger evangelistic activity by 
means of a call to enlist every Christian for some definite 
Christian task. 

With this aim, the necessity now devolves upon the 
churches to maintain this as a continuous effort, to not only 
conserve the results already obtained but to set in operation 
the working capacity of the churches to secure the largest 
possible additional gains. The church membership will not be 
enlisted and trained for active service in a week or a month or 
six months, and the present year should see still greater efforts 
in intensive work by means of Bible study and training classes. 
Complementary to this there must necessarily be a large 
extensive work both in individual effort and by the holding of 
public meetings. The church needs to discover and use men 
and women in larger numbers who are able to give a strong 
evangelistic message, vitally related to the recognized needs of 
Chinese people to-day. The present force of pastors, preachers, 
and missionaries will do well to strengthen their evangelistic 
appeal by means of united study in evangelistic conferences 
specially called for this purpose. The period has passed in 
which it is necessary to popularize Christianity. It is now 
surprisingly easy to enroll men in classes for the study of the 
Bible, and everywhere there is shown a great readiness to give 
the gospel a fair hearing. The call is now for such work as 
will lead men to definite decision to become followers of the 
Christ, and to ally themselves with the Christian Church. 

* * * 

5 >t M % IP ate SUre tbat ° Ur readers welcome, and 
* read witb a P eculiar pleasure, the sketch of this 
great man in the current issue. Dr. Smith 
has had for many years unique opportunities of knowing the 
inward life of the great missionary who has just entered into 
rest. Their friendship was a close and intimate one, and no 
one is more suited for writing this sketch than Dr. Smith. We 
are glad to be able to add that Dr. Martin’s “ Autobiography” 
had been completed before his death, edited by Dr. Arthur 


191 7 ] 


Editorial 


77 


Its r, <3. d&cfntosb* 


Smith, who is the literary executor. It will be published in 
the United States at an early date. We feel sure that it will 
be read with avidity by a large circle, for no missionary in 
China has ever had such a long and noble record of a life 
filled with so many activities. 

* * * 

The many friends of Mr. G. McIntosh will 
hear with unfeigned regret that owing to 
the long continued ill health of his wife, and the fact that 
there is no prospect of her ever being able to return to China, 
he has felt constrained to tender his resignation to the Pres¬ 
byterian Mission, with which he has been connected for the 
past twenty-five years and more, and to remain with Mrs. 
McIntosh in the home land. His help as a member of the 
Editorial Board of the Recorder has been invaluable, and his 
labors in connection therewith unselfish and unstinted, and 
few will ever know the debt they are under to his self-denying 
services. The Recorder would express its sincere sympathy 
with Mr. McIntosh in this great trial, and its sense of deepest 
loss in being deprived of his fellowship and counsel, and wishes 
him every blessing in the new work to which the Providence 
of God may call him. 

* * * 

The photograph of a Christian wedding 
which appears as our frontispiece is worthy 
of more than a passing remark or casual 
observation. The bride is a grand-daughter of one of the first 
Presbyterian ministers in Shanghai, and daughter of a Presby¬ 
terian elder connected with the Commercial Press. The groom 
is a Christian lawyer, hailing at present from Manila, but a 
native of Amoy. Neither understands the dialect of the other, 
but, both having been educated in America, they can converse 
readily in English. The surrounding group, of over sixty, 
are all relatives, either by kin or by marriage, and the picture 
goes to show what the Gospel does to produce happy homes 
and prosperous families. 

* * . * 

B Correction ^ ev * -^ stTU P Larsen wishes us to correct 

a mistake which occurred in his letter which 
appeared in our last issue on “Prayers of Lutheran Union,” 
the printer having put “ periscopes M for “pericopes,” a 
difference of but one letter to be sure, but au important one. 


a ^ptoouct ot 
GbriotianitE. 


78 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February, 1917 


Ube promotion of intercession. 

I SAY UNTO YOU, THOUGH HE WILL NOT RI9E AND GIVE HIM BECAUSE HE IS 
HIS FRIEND, YET BECAUSE OF HIS IMPORTUNITY HE WILL RISE AND GIVE 
HIM AS MANY AS HE NEEDETH. AND I SAY UNTO YOU, ASK AND IT 

SHALL BE GIVEN YOU. 

Tube xi. 8,9. 

Iii the latest Committee letter, the Secretary of the China Continua. 
tion Committee’s Evangelistic Committee, Dr. Warnshuis, under the title, 
“More Prayer” quotes the following impressive paragraph from the 
“Japan Evangelist”: “In the deepest sense, we can do nothing. We are 
utterly helpless, and to confront our helplessness will do us good. Does any 
one with an adequate view of God in history believe, for example, that Paul 
is by himself sufficient explanation of that mighty missionary movement in 
the early church; that it was in fact Athanasius contra niundum; that St. 
Francis alone accounts for what his biographers tell of him; that Speyer 
explains German pietism; that Luther really was the chief of evangelicalism 
in England; that Newman by himself opened the eyes of the English clergy 
to whither they were drifting; that the three youngsters under the haystack 
at Williamstown and William Carey at his last in an English village by 
themselves brought forth the modern missionary movement? To merely 
mention such propositions is to reveal their absurdity. In all these move¬ 
ments God worked unseen. He was the power, the irresistible force made 
manifest in great awakenings, in vital movements. In a sense, therefore, 
beyond which it seems to me we cannot go, it is ours to wait upon God. 
When be moves, our Christ-like purposes will be brought to realization.” 
He adds pertinently, What can we do to keep this truth foremost in all our 
Committee discussions, correspondence, and reports? 

As we go to press, the week of nation-wide evangelism is being observed 
in many quarters. Besides the public gatlierings for the quickening of 
believers and others, it is to be largely characterized by individual witness 
and tactful approach to those who are in the family circle and within the 
range of near acquaintance—an evangelistic work face to face with one or 
two. Probably tens of thousands will be started thinking about the need of a 
changed life, the claims of the Lord Jesus, the helpfulness of his church, the 
life beyond, and the love of God. Do we not need to pray that those who 
have made a first appeal may not be faint-hearted, nor be satisfied with a 
single effort, and that those who have been approached may reflect and 
receive and pray and be joined to the Lord, 

Let us pray that the series of eight evangelistic articles, now being inserted 
in secular newspapers far and near throughout China, may arouse the interest 
of myriads who are beyond the reach of the public evangelist or the individual 
worker, and make them searchers after eternal life who shall find it in Christ. 

Some of the friends of the writer are bitterly oppressed with the sense of 
a fierce onslaught of the powers of darkness seeking to ruthlessly sever the 
believer from his Lord—a more horrible conflict than they have ever known 
before. And they are driven to meet together for united prayer and sup¬ 
plication that they may be able to withstand in this evil day. Are others of 
our readers similarly beset? The rulers of the darkness of this world cannot 
overcome two or three gathered in the name of Christ for supplication in the 
Spirit. 

“ Thai the Father may be glorified in the Son : it is to this end that Jesus 
on his throne in glory will do all we ask in His name. Every answer to 
prayer He gives will have this as its object; when there is no prospect of this 
object being obtained, He will not answer. . . . The glory of the Father must 
be the aim and end, the very soul and life of our prayer.” 

Andrew Murray, 

With Gon all things are possible. 


Matt, xix, 26 


Contributed Articles 


American Congregational Methods in Mission 
Administration in North China, and Modern 
Tendencies in Mission Work 

MURRAY S. FRAME. 

I. 


matters of mission business that Chinese-foreign co-opera¬ 
tive control which had long been increasingly the rule in the 
conduct of the work of each of the eight individual stations of 
that mission. The reasons for doing so were the same which 
have animated nearly every mission in all parts of the world¬ 
wide mission field to make an advance in this direction within 
the past ten or twenty years, namely, (i) a desire to develop a 
body of Chinese preachers and laymen more conversant with 
and more keenly interested in local station problems , through 
practice in bearing real responsibility in the deciding of the 
wider questions of mission policy and in transacting mission 
business; (2) a desire to secure sounder conduct of these larger 
inter-station affairs of the missions themselves by eliciting 
responsible Chinese opinion; (3) a desire to deepen the sense 
of fraternity between Chinese and foreigners, and to make 
service in the mission attractive to our most talented and 
independent and inventive young men; and (4) a desire to 
secure the interest of growing churches in the financial 
support of a widening missionary effort outside their own 
borders. 

I have been asked to give a brief description of the 
organization through which we have been striving to realize 
the above ideals. Since, in accordance with the decentralizing 
genius of Congregationalism, there is considerable diversity in 
local organization among the eight stations of the mission, 
and a healthy variety both in thought about the new co-opera- 


m 


|N the summer of 1914 the North China Mission of the 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions 
(an American Congregationalist mission) extended to all 


Note.-— Readers of the Recorder are reminded that the Editorial Board 
assumes no responsibility for the views expressed by the writers of articles 
published in these pages. 






80 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


tion and in the hopes entertained for its future, I shall, for 
the sake of simplicity, describe the entire organization from 
the point of view of the theory and practice of it in the 
Tungchou station. 

The entire mission is now a joint organization of Con¬ 
gregational churches in the United States, on the one hand, 
and of churches formed under the auspices of the mission of 
these American churches in North China, on the other. The 
purpose of this organ is to promote the gospel through all the 
usual forms of mission activity—evangelistic, educatioual, 
medical, and literary—in the sections of North China allotted 
to the American Board Mission, outside the borders of 
those Chinese churches. I have already, in this paper, 
italicized those last words, to emphasize the fact that the 
mission organization which I am describing exercises no 
control over any self-supporting church, each such church 
being completely autonomous. Thus for the Congregational 
churches in the United States the enterprise is a foreign mis¬ 
sionary enterprise, while for the churches in North China it 
is a home missionary enterprise. The American churches, 
in their relations with this organ, act through a Foreign 
Missionary Board, the A.B.C.F.M. The Chinese churches 
do not, as yet, act through a Home Missionary Board. On 
the contrary, each church appoints delegates directly to the 
Station Association of that station within the territory of 
which it is situated. 

Bach Station Association is made up of three classes of 
members. To the first class belong all the missionaries of the 
station, who have fulfilled certain requirements of language 
study (including, I need not say, all lady missionaries, married 
and single). These missionaries are representatives of the 
American Congregational churches, chosen by the Foreign 
Missionary Board of those churches. To the second class 
belong the delegates of the Chinese churches connected with 
the station, whether wholly self-supporting or only on the 
way toward complete self-support. To the third class belong 
certain clearly specified groups of Chinese evangelists, teachers, 
and doctors who, like the foreign missionaries, are wholly 
engaged in the prosecution of the work of the Station 
Association. The Station Association is a thoroughly demo¬ 
cratic body, all members being on terms of complete equality. 
The Chinese members already far outnumber the American 


American Congregational Methods 


1917 ] 


81 


members, and the ratio of the former to the latter naturally 
increases from year to year. 

Of the functions and regulations of the Station Association 
I may call attention to a few : (a) It prepares each year 
estimates of that share of its proposed expenditures for the 
following year which it desires the churches in the United 
States to supply, to be presented, in the first instance, to the 
Provincial Association (see below) and, ultimately, with pos¬ 
sible revision, to the Board in the United States. It prepares 
also, each year, estimates of that share of its proposed expen¬ 
ditures for the current year which it desires each church 
that elects delegates to it, to supply. Thus eveu the churches 
which are not wholly self-supporting make appropriations to the 
work of the Station Association. It is as if a growing church 
in the United States, still in annual receipt of aid from the 
Home Missionary Board, should make an annual contribution 
to the work of that Board. From one point of view it is an 
empty form; from another point of view it is the founding of 
a good habit. In addition to income from these two sources, 
the Station Association receives annually gifts made directly 
both by foreigners and by Chinese, whether in China or 
abroad. (&) The Tungchou Station Association has a large 
enough body of intelligent Chinese members so that its admin¬ 
istrative functions can profitably be divided among three 
mutually independent committees—evangelistic, educational, 
and medical—directing both the work for men and the work 
for women. At least two of the six members of each com¬ 
mittee must be ladies. Each committee has a large measure of 
authority which, however, it must exercise in accordance with 
bylaws approved by the Station Association. The expendi¬ 
tures of the committee, also, must be made in accordance with 
a budget approved by the Association. The Tungchou field 
being small in territory, five meetings of the entire Association 
are held each year, to listen to reports, to transact business 
and to plan for the expansion of the work. Between meetings 
a committee ad interim may exercise for the Association such 
functions as have not been delegated to the executive com¬ 
mittees named above, (c) Each Station Association elects 
delegates to the Provincial Association and nominates four 
persons, from among whom the Provincial Association elects 
two as representatives of the Station on the North China 
Council, 


82 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


The eight stations of the North China Mission are located 
in the three provinces of Chihli, Shantung, and Shansi, For 
several reasons it was considered wisest not to invest all 
inter-station functions in a single body representing these 
eight stations. The most important of these reasons was the 
desirability of leaving the Station Association of each province 
free to form close alliances with other missions and churches 
of the same province. Accordingly three Provincial Associa¬ 
tions and a North China Council were formed. 

The Provincial Associations and the North China Council 
together exercise, with the exception of “ matters concerning 
missionaries’ salaries, furloughs, care of the Board’s property, 
language study, schools for missionaries’ children, and other 
matters manifestly relating only to the missionary body,” all 
the functions that used to be exercised by the foreign mission¬ 
aries assembled in Annual Meeting. The North China Council 
is the supreme body on the field, but a major part of the total 
business transacted is done by the Provincial (or District) As¬ 
sociations. 

The Provincial Association locates missionaries within the 
province (transfers from one province to another being deter¬ 
mined by the Council) and determines whether a missionary 
on furlough shall be invited to return or not. I need not take 
time to classify its routine business, which is not essentially 
different from that of any other mission. In 1916 the Chihli 
Provincial Association consisted of forty-seven members, of 
whom thirty-one were Chinese. Any Station Association 
dissatisfied with a vote of the Provincial body may appeal 
directly to the North China Council. So also a Provincial 
Association, dissatisfied with any action of the North China 
Council that requires the approval of the Board in the United 
States, may appeal directly to that Board. All meetings of 
the Station, Provincial, and Tri-provincial bodies are conducted 
in the Chinese language, but minutes of the proceedings of the 
latter two are published in English as well. Ad interim 
correspondence is sometimes conducted only in Chinese, but as 
a rule is bi-lingual. 

As has been already indicated, the North China Council 
consists of two representatives from each of the eight stations, 
sixteen in all. To avoid the tendency in each station on the 
part of the Chinese to insist on electing Americans to important 
offices and vice versa> it was stipulated in the Constitution, 


1917] American Congregational Methods 8$ 

which was drawn up in a convention the majority of the 
members of which were Chinese and afterwards ratified 
separately by the foreign missionaries, the Chinese churches, 
and the Board, that one of the two representatives of each 
station should be a Chinese and one a foreigner. 

It has been pointed out to the author of this paper that, 
in the English translation of the Constitution, appended below, 
the name, “Congregational Union of Shansi, Shantung, and 
Chihli,” is not appropriate to a Union which includes only 
a mission and churches affiliated with Congregational Churches 
of the United States. This arrogant infelicity of nomenclature 
does not, of course, appear in the original Chinese, and we 
heartily apologize for it to any of our British Congregational 
friends whose eye may fall on the English version. We wish 
the exigencies of mission administration gave room for hope 
that our missions might in future enjoy some such measure of 
organic union as is indicated by the term, and as seems not at 
all impossible for the Chinese churches affiliated with them. 
This wish leads me to the second part of my subject. 

II. 

The new organization is doing for our mission, iu rich 
measure, all that we hoped it would do, at the start. What 
of the future ? If there were no other churches in China than 
those that are growing up under the fostering care of this one 
mission, the future would be plain. Contributions from the 
Chinese churches for the missionary work of the joint organiza¬ 
tion, as also Chinese membership in that organization would 
increase till the foreign members and the foreign gifts would 
be a negligible fraction of the whole and could be diverted 
ultimately to other fields of service, leaving the present 
organization, with only the slightest of changes, as the Home 
Missionary Society of the Chinese Church. But there are 
other churches. And these other churches are all split up 
into many groups, one of which consists of the independent 
churches (“independent” being here used in its narrow, 
quasi -technical sense, and not, as would seem more natural, to 
indicate any self-supporting, self-governing church, of which 
sort there are more than one affiliated with the North China 
Mission) and cannot yet properly be called a “group,” while 
the others are affiliated with the various missions at work 
in China. 


84 


the Chinese Recorder 


[February 


Under these circumstances, (i) what hope is there of a 
Universal Chinese Church, nation-wide, and how many churches 
that have grown up tinder the care of the missions associate 
themselves with it? (2) What relation ought the home 
missionary activity of such a Chinese National Church bear 
to the joint home and foreign missionary activity of such a 
co-operative mission as I have been describing, or to the 
exclusively foreign missionary activity of certain missions in 
China, during that apparently long period of years which 
must elapse before the foreign element of the last-named two 
kinds of organization can be dispensed with ? 

As far as I know, our mission lias hardly begun to think 
on such topics, save in the two cities, Peking and Tientsin, 
where the establishment of “ independent ” churches by the 
side of churches affiliated with the various missions is generat¬ 
ing discussion. I hope, through the brief statement of these 
two questions in the Recorder, to draw out from those who 
have given thought to the subject expressions of opinion which 
may lend weight to a paper I have promised to prepare for the 
Tungchou Missionary Association and may clarify the thought 
of a far wider circle. The following paragraphs merely 
indicate how the problem is shaping itself in my own mind. 
The first question has to do, primarily, with churches; the 
second, with missions. 

I do not think the answer of the North China Mission of 
the American Board to the first of these questions would be in 
doubt for a moment. So devoutly to be desired a consummation 
as one great National Chinese Church must be possible, and 
the most cordial aid will be rendered by the mission to every 
hopeful move in that direction. Toward “independent” 
churches the attitude of the mission has always been 
sympathetic : (a) The only three churches of this sort with 
which I am acquainted are in Chihli province ; all have 
pastors who were trained in the mission of which I am 
writing. Their relation to the mission remains most cordial, 
one of them occasionally serving as a co-opted member of the 
mission, which does not begrudge tlie going of some of its 
strongest men into such service, (b) One of these churches 
began its existence, with every good wish from the mission, 
in premises which had been a street-chapel of the mission. 
(c) Any self-supporting church affiliated to the mission is at 
entire liberty to enter into ecclesiastical connections with such 


1917] American Congregational Methods 85 

“ independent” churches of the province, or of all China, and 
with all other “mission” churches which have arrived at the 
point of self-support and possess the right and the purpose 
likewise to graduate into a Chinese National Church. For 
such a step the self-supporting churches fostered by the 
American Board Mission are the better prepared because, to 
the present moment, they have formed no Church Council 
among themselves. The freedom of the individual church is 
of the essence of Congregationalism, and no one would eye 
askance the exercise of that freedom in the direction I have 
indicated. Approval would be the more hearty because the 
“independent” churches are so steadily growing in member¬ 
ship, in efficiency of organization, and in strength of mission¬ 
ary pm pose. 

This brings us to the more difficult question of the two. 
With a view to the future, what relation ought the home 
missionary activity of a weak but growing Chinese National 
Church bear to the foreign missionary activity of the various 
missionsf The difference in the names “home” and “foreign” 
does not disguise the perfectly obvious fact that the missionary 
activities of such a church and of the missions would have 
the same end, the same problems of method, and the same 
field , China. A solution of the question of the relationship 
between the two might be sought along either of two widely 
divergent lines. Solutions of the first class would involve the 
division of territory and independence of operation; solutions 
of the second sort would involve co-operation. The choice of 
a solution would lie with the Chinese National Church, subject 
to ratification by the missions, if that choice should involve 
co-operation with them. Yet surely any member of a mission, 
whether Chinese or foreigner, is quite at liberty to discuss 
frankly which method would, in his judgment, be ultimately 
most to the good of that church. 

I note first some implications of any solution involving 
division of territory and independence of activity. 

(a) All expansion of the work of a mission , in so far as it 
involves increasing expenditures, would depend exclusively 
upon added foreign gifts from abroad, since each church 
fostered by the mission would, upon reaching the stage of 
self-support, be graduated from the mission into the church, 
into the Home Mission Treasury of which its gifts for mission¬ 
ary work would go, instead of into the treasury of that 


86 The Chinese Recorder [February 

mission which had for years borne a share of its support. In 
order even to maintain the work of the mission at its present 
level of equipment and expenditure, without increase of funds 
from abroad, it would be necessary to request each church, 
upon “graduation,” to reimburse the mission for such share of 
the property the church holds as was provided from mission 
funds, the proceeds to be used by the mission to start new work ; 
and a corollary of this regulation would be the necessity of the 
exercise of great caution on the part of every mission not to aid 
in the equipment of any church to such an extent as would 
make it unduly difficult for that church to effect such a purchase. 

( b ) Since, in the absence of a hardly-to-be-expected 
increase of gifts from abroad, no mission would be increasing 
its annual budget of expenditure, while the Chinese National 
Church would be growing in strength both by its own labors 
and by the constant accession of churches from the missions, 
and hence would be increasing its gifts to missionary work, 
there would need to be a progressive shifting of territory from 
the missions to the Church. Perhaps it would be simplest to 
begin by turning over to the Church missionary work in the 
great cities where more missions than one are now at work, 
to the hindrance of that unity which, under the present 
relations of comity between missions, already exists in various 
large tracts of territory outside such cities. The cities would 
remain centers for the institutional work of the missions, but 
as a missionary field would belong to the Chinese Church. 

(c) As the Home Missionary Society of the National 
Church would grow, the Foreign Missions would have to 
expect to surrender at call their most serviceable young men to 
the friendly, rival institution ; which would mean a constant 
weakening of the Chinese personnel of the Foreign Missions 
and a corresponding strengthening of the personnel of the 
Home Missionary Society engaged in precisely the same work. 

( d ) The Foreign Mission could hardly hope to retain the 
services, in the direction of the mission’s affairs, of its 
strongest pastors and laymen, those, namely, of the self- 
supporting churches, who would be drafted into the missionary 
organization of the National Church ; unless, indeed, the 
judgment of one of the stations of our mission be proved 
correct, that the services of such pastors and laymen can be 
permanently available both in the councils of a Home 
Missionary Society to which they would, through their 


1917] American Congregational Methods 87 

churches, be contributing financial support, and in the 
councils of a Foreign Missionary Society to which they would 
not be contributing. (In the station I refer to, which holds 
an entirely different theory of the new mission organization 
from that which I have described above, even now all gifts, 
for missionary work, of the Chinese churches of that station, 
whether wholly or only in part self-supporting, go, not to the 
co-operative mission in which their delegates hold a majority 
control, but to a Home Missionary Society exclusively under 
Chinese control, which divides with the mission the territory 
to be served. The fundamental unsouudness of such an 
arrangement, a heritage of a bygone day when the churches 
had no voice in the affairs of the mission , has hitherto been 
disguised by the intimate co-operation between the Home 
Missionary Society and the mission. But if the self-supporting 
churches were to carry over with them into a National Church 
their Home Missionary Society, as would seem a natural 
procedure, it is a serious question whether it would be possible 
or desirable, either for the mission or the church, that they 
should continue to elect delegates to a mission no share of the 
support of which they would be bearing.) The loss of the 
responsible counsel of its wisest pastors aud laymen would be 
a serious blow to a mission, and every weakening of a mission 
engaged in ‘ bringing up 1 churches for the National Church 
would, in the last analysis, be a loss to the latter. 

(e) The author is, at present writing, quite unable to 
fashion in his mind any arrangement for division of territory 
in so-called ‘country’ fields which would not dissipate the 
energies of both Church aud mission. Under the present 
happy relations between missions, there is many a thickly- 
populated hsien in which, fortunately, only one mission is at 
work. The hsien city or some large town forms the natural 
center for the effective evangelization of the entire district. 
The central church of the town is a rallying point for the 
churches of market towus and villages, and evangelistic work 
in the city makes itself felt throughout the district. The 
whole work is a unity. If there is to be such a National 
Church as some, perhaps all, of us, Chinese and foreigner 
alike, are eagerly hoping for, it ought to be possible for a 
church m a hsien town, when it becomes self-supporting, to 
enter that National Church. But surely the major share of the 
missionary work of such a hsien church ought to be done in 


88 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


the territory lying all round about it, not in some distant field 
in a great city nor in some remote hsien allotted to the 
National Church, The evangelistic equipment of the mission 
in the town, could, if it were exclusively for the service of the 
town, be turned over to the church. But that equipment is not 
for the town alone, it is for the entire district. To divide the 
district between the Home Missionary Society of the Church 
and the mission seems equally unfeasible. I need not go into 
detail to show that such a divisiou would have practically all 
the advantages of the presence of the foreign missions 
operating in the same territory. 

If divisions of territory and independence of operation 
between the Home Missionary Society of the Chinese National 
Church and the foreign missions are to be the order of the 
day, some solution of this difficult situation in a hsien , here 
outlined, must be found. Discussion must not be limited to 
the comparatively narrow problem of “independent ” churches 
in the great cities. 

The alternative is co-operation in missionary activity. 
Every self-supporting church would, in complete freedom from 
all mission control, join the Chinese National Church. Individ¬ 
ual churches of that body would ally themselves for missionary 
work with the churches abroad which are doing such work in 
China, in some such co-operative organization as the present 
organization of the North China Mission. It would be easy 
for a given “independent” church to choose, preferably on the 
basis of its location, with what mission it would ally itself. 
In consultation with the Chinese National Church some re¬ 
adjustment might be made, where desirable, in the present 
allotment of territory to the various missions. Each mission 
would then be jointly a Home Missionary organ of the Chinese 
National Church and the foreign missionary organ of some 
denomination abroad, working in a certain part of China. 

It seems not impossible that statesmen of the China 
Continuation Committee, Chinese and foreigner, representing 
“independent” and “mission” churches and the various 
missions, might evolve and prepare a plan of co-operation that 
would be welcome alike to Church and mission and which, 
ratified by those bodies, might, in operation, prove immeasur¬ 
ably superior to any system of divisions of territory and 
complete separation between Church and mission in the 
conduct of missionary activity. 


1917] American Congregational Methods 89 

CONSTITUTION OF THE NORTH CHINA COUNCIL OF THE CON¬ 
GREGATIONAL UNION OF SHANSI, SHANTUNG AND CHIHLI. 

1. Name. The name of this body shall be “The North 
China Couucil of the Congregational Union of Shansi, Shan¬ 
tung and Chihli.” 

2 . Object. The object of this organization shall be to 
promote all forms of Christian work, evangelistic, educational, 
medical and literary, in the three provinces. 

3 . Organization. The Council shall consist primarily of 
sixteen members, two representatives—one Chinese and one 
American Board Missionary—from each of the eight Stations. 
The two representatives from each Station shall be chosen in 
alternate years. Each Station Association shall, at the annual 
meeting of each District Association, nominate two persons, 
and election shall take place by vote of the District Association. 

The Council may co-opt additional members, not exceeding 
four, whose term of membership shall be determined in each 
case by vote of the Council. Co-opted members may hold 
office and take part in discussion, but shall not exercise the 
right to vote unless specially conferred by the Council. 

The Treasurer of the American Board Mission shall be 
one of the four co-opted members. 

4 . Term of Membership. The term of membership shall 
be two years, one-half of the members being elected each year. 
Members may be re-elected. 

5 . Officers. The officers of the Council shall consist of a 
Chairman and vice-Ckairman, whose term of service shall be 
one year; one English and one Chinese clerk, whose term of 
service shall be one year; and one English and one Chinese 
Secretary, the two to be elected alternately, for a term of two 
years, and subject to re-election. The Secretaries may be 
chosen from outside the sixteen regular members of the 
Council. 

6 . Committees . 

A. The Committee on Estimates shall consist of six persons, 

a Chinese and a missionary from each of the three 
Districts, and shall be elected by the District Associa¬ 
tions preceding the annual meeting of the Council. 

B. The Business Committee shall consist of three persons, 

one elected by each District Association; and the 
member from the District where the annual meeting of 


90 The Chinese Recorder [February 

the Council is to be held shall act as chairman of the 
Committee, 

C. The Committee on Theological Education shall consist of 

six persons, one Chinese and one missionary from each 
of the three Districts, to be elected annually by the 
Council; but the members of the Committee need not 
be limited to the membership of the Council. The 
Committee shall make an annual report to the Council. 

D. The Committee on Literature and Publication shall consist 

of four members elected annually by the Council, not 
necessarily from its membership, and shall make an 
annual report to the Council, 

E. The Auditing Committee shall consist of three persons 

elected annually by the Council, not necessarily from its 
membership, and shall make an annual report to the 
Council. 

7 . Time of meetings. The Council shall hold one meet¬ 
ing annually between the first and fifteenth of May. Special 
meetings may be called by the Chairman, or at the request of 
one-third of the members, or at the request of all of the 
members from one District. 

8 . Place of Meetings . Regular annual meetings shall be 
held in the three Districts in rotation, but once every two 
years the annual meeting shall be held in the Chihli District. 

9 . Expenses of Meetings. Expenses incident upon atten¬ 
dance at the annual meetings shall be provided for in the 
estimates of each Station Association, or of the Council. 

10 . Authority. If an action of the Council be not 
satisfactory to any District, said District may, by a two-thirds 
vote, refer the matter to the American Board. 

11 . Functions. The functions of the Council shall be as 
follows : 

A. To decide upon the estimates from each District, and 

transmit them to the American Board. 

B . To determine the transfer of workers from one District to 

another. 

C. To pass upon the needs of each District and communicate 

them to the American Board. 

D. To devise means for the better organization and progress 

of all forms of Christian work. 

E. To consider such ad interim business as may arise during 

the intervals between meetings. 


1917 ] American Congregational Methods 9i 

12. Amendments . This Constitution may be amended by 
a two-thirds vote of the Council. 

CONSTITUTION OF THE CHIHU DISTRICT, NORTH CHINA 

MISSION. 

1. Name . The name of this body shall be the Chihli 
District Association. 

2. Object . The object of this association shall be to unite 
the members of the Congregational churches in the proviuce 
in advancing the evangelistic, educational, medical, literary, 
and other work of the churches. 

3. Membership. The members shall consist of the del¬ 
egates appointed by the Station Association. 

4. Limitation of Membership. 

A. Each Statiou Association shall be entitled to eight 
delegates, and Associations whose church membership exceeds 
800 shall be entitled to one additional delegate for each addi¬ 
tional hundred members. 

B. From the faculty of each school established by the 
stations of the district conjointly, the Station Association in 
which the school is located shall elect two delegates. 

5. Officers. The officers shall consist of a Chinese Chair¬ 
man and an English Chairman, whose term of service shall be 
two years ; two Chinese and two English Secretaries, whose 
term of service shall be two years (one Chinese and one English 
Secretary to be elected each year). The elections shall be by 
ballot at the first session of the Annual Meeting, and the officers 
shall begin to serve at once. All are eligible for re-election. 

6. Committees. 

A. A Committee on Nominations ) consisting of one mem¬ 
ber from each of the four Stations, shall be appointed by the 
Chairman at the opening of the Annual Meeting. This Com¬ 
mittee shall nominate for officers and committees double the 
required number of members, and from the names thus 
proposed the Association shall elect by ballot. 

B. The General Co?n?nittee (Tsung Wu Wei Pan) 
shall consist of the eight Chihli members of the North China 
Council. The Chinese Secretary who has been longest in office 

Notes:— 1. The above Constitution was adopted in 1914, and revised in 

1915- 

2. For the relation of the Council to the Districts and the Stations, see 
the Minutes of the Joint Meeting, and the Constitution adopted, in June 1914. 



92 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


shall sit with this Committee at each session. This Committee 
shall have charge of the location of workers where more than 
one Station Association is concerned, of the ordination of 
pastors and granting licenses to preach, and of all ad interim 
business, An annual report of all actions taken shall be made 
to the Association. 

C. A Committee on Estimates of eight members, consist¬ 
ing of one man and one woman from each Station, shall be 
elected by the Station Associations before the time of Annual 
Meeting. The Mission Treasurer shall be ex-officio Chairman 
of this Committee. 

D. A Business Committee of five members shall be chosen 
when the officers are elected to prepare the program for the 
next Annual Meeting, and to serve as a Business Committee 
for that meeting. 

E. A Committee on Needs shall be elected in the same 
way as D. to serve for the following year. They shall consider 
the needs of the District, both for workers and special funds, to 
be asked from the American Board, and shall devise means for 
the unification and progress of work in the three provinces, and 
shall report to the District Association for approval and trans¬ 
mission to the North China Council. 

7. Time of Meetings. The District shall hold one meet¬ 
ing annually between the first and fifteenth of April. Special 
meetings may be called by the Chairmen or at the request of 
any Station Association. 

8. Place of Meetings. The place of meetings shall be 
determined by the District Association. 

9. Ordinations. 

A . Any place desiring to ordain a pastor or license a 
preacher shall first get the approval of the Station Association 
in which it is located, also of either the District Association 
or the General Committee before carrying its action into 
effect. 

B. Churches ordaining pastors should aim at self-support. 
If complete self-support cannot be attained, churches furnish¬ 
ing six months 5 salary (not including permanent funds, as 
endowment, rents, etc.) may ordain a pastor with the hope that 
the aim of complete self-support may soon be attained. 

C. Men to be ordained as pastors should hold diplomas 
from a Theological Seminary and license to preach, and should 
possess ability and character. 


1917] 


The Best Approach to the Chinese Mind 


93 


E, Licenses to preach shall be of first and second grades, 
the first grade to be given to those who have diplomas from 
both College and Theological Seminary, the second grade to 
those who have only Theological Seminary diplomas, 

10. In case any Station Association is dissatisfied with an 
action of the District Association appeal may, by a two-thirds 
vote, be made directly to the North China Council. 

11. This Constitution may be amended by a two-thirds 
vote of the District Association in case said amendments are 
approved by the Council. 


The Best Approach to the Chinese Mind 

A. H. S. 


officials, ex-officials, scholars, gentry, etc., was general, 
and nowhere more marked than in the capital of Shantung. 
A former governor of Honan living in Tsinanfu led the 
opposition and directed its attacks. Riots were instituted 
against the few missionaries. No premises were to be bought 
or any longer leased. Appeals to Peking were vain. It was 
only when Mr. Denby, then the American Minister, had done 
the Tsung Li Yamen (the Chinese Foreign Office) a good turn 
that orders were sent down from Peking that the Presbyterian 
Mission should be provided with a suitable location, which was 
assigned them in the east suburb. At a later period the 
foreign settlement was opened in the west suburb, many miles 
distant, and all the government schools were placed as remotely 
as possible from the mission premises. 

Work for scholars and officials, but at the same time 
reaching all classes of people, had been carried on in Tsing- 
choufu from 1887 to 1904 through the agency of a small 
educational museum with reception room. It was decided to 
greatly enlarge the scope of this work on the principles and 
methods on which it had been carried on in social, educational, 
aud evangelistic lines. In 1904 the Tsinanfu Institute was 
begun and now consists of an educational museum on a much 




GENERATION and more ago it was difficult to get an 
adequate hearing for the gospel almost everywhere in 
China, The inflexible hostility of the upper classes, 


Note.—T he above constitution was adopted in 1914, and revised in 1915. 






94 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


larger scale than the one in Tsingchoufu, two lecture halls, 
seating two hundred and six hundred respectively, reading 
room, reception rooms with workshops for producing exhibits, 
also a separate department for students of government colleges, 
consisting of recreation room, reading room, and class room. 

As a permanent site Mr. Whitewright was fortunate in 
securing a suitable piece of land in the south suburb which had 
the reputation of being “unlucky ” and so was procured for a 
reasonable price. Now that the precedent had been set, the 
Chinese were quick to appreciate the desirability of the new 
situation. Wealthy men began to build for themselves dwell¬ 
ings adjacent regardless of “ luck.” 

Some years later when the site of the Shantung Christian 
University was decided upon, the practical value of the Institute 
was shown. By acquaintances and friendships formed through 
the agencies of the Institute, difficulties that seemed insuperable 
were overcome. Up to April 2, 1916, there had been purchased 
seventy-four different lots of laud, belonging to as many 
different owners, making a total of more than fifty English 
acres, while good relations with neighbors had been intensified 
instead of weakened. Such an experience if not unique is in 
China certainly very unusual. The Tsinanfu Institute seems 
to have solved the problem of approach to the Chinese people, 
whether officials or gentry, students, farmers, craftsmen or 
merchants, soldiers or civilians, railway men or coolies, per¬ 
manent residents or peripatetic pilgrims, men or women. 

An average attendance of perhaps 750 every day that the 
Institute is open (it is closed to all but women every Monday), 
and a frequent attendance of 1,000 or more, make a total for 
ten years of 2,400,000 ; or, reckoning to March, 1916, more than 
2,695,000 persons. This incessant stream of visitors eager to 
see and more than willing to hear does not have to be sought 
but flocks in of itself, keeping the self-registering turnstiles 
clicking from morning till night, year in and year out. 

To make a thorough study of the countless inscriptions, 
the samples of books, of merchandise, of curiosities, the models 
of buildings like the Capitol at Washington, a section of the 
city of Bristol and its public institutions, the Model Homes, 
the great Yellow River Bridge, of systems of irrigation, of 
afforestation, of sanitation, of hygienics; really to comprehend 
the diagrams, charts, maps, pictures and illustrative explana¬ 
tions, is an education in itself. No wonder that after his last 


1917 ] Social Problems in China and Agencies for Relief 95 

visit in 1915 Dr. Robert Speer pronounced it “the most 
effective piece of university extension work which can be found 
in Asia, if not in the world.’* It is not every provincial 
capital, nor even every strategic city that could produce a 
Tsinaufu Institute, or could conduct it if it were produced. 
This complex of educatioual activities from its original 
inception has been in an important sense an inspirational 
evolution. The need for others of a similar type is deep as the 
needs of human nature ; the opportunity wide as the dominions 
of China. But to make the potential actual requires vision, 
supervision, and a liberal supply of hard cash. 


Social Problems in China and Agencies for Relief* 

W. D. BOONE. 

[Tbe purport of the following article is to restate in summary such 
material as has been presented during 1915 touching upon the field of Chinese 
social problems and their relief,] 

m HE following are some of the most evident pathological 
conditions prevailing iu Chinese society that call for 
unified effort on the part of the leaders of the people :— 
The presence of the poor, sick, maimed, insane ; the 
abuses of the prison system ; the present state of inefficient 
labor and the approaching modern industrial problem ; the 
dense ignorance ; the lack of knowledge of the simplest rules 
of living ; the need of wholesome recreations; increasing im¬ 
morality ; the absence of social conscience and the failure to 
appreciate individual responsibility. 

As individuals who are interested iu the problem of relief 
we should acquaint ourselves more thoroughly with that field of 
work called social service. This has been broadly defined as 
“Any service on the part of the individual or group foi the 
betterment of humanity.” Social service, whether individual 
or collective, must start with au appreciation of present needs 
and with the ultimate aim of making such work unnecessary. 

We of the West who have come among this people with a 
conception of better social relationships as developed in our 
home lands have, and should undertake, the leadership iu such 
constructive work. I11 attempting to multiply the number of 


* Paper read at Tsinan, January 15th, 1916. 





96 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


educated Chinese endowed with a social conscience we shall 
find that social service in itself develops leadership, and as 
developed in connection with the churches, schools, ana hos¬ 
pitals will call forth initiative and effort on the part of the 
people themselves. Our own responsibility is increased by the 
fact that the West has in art met and solved these problems ; 
hence it is for us to teach this as well as other things. 

Results to be effected by our work may be summarised 
under the following heads : 

(a) Organized institutions of social service. 

(b) Incessant personal maintenance of ideal social condi¬ 

tions with all classes of society. 

(r) The awakening of social interest. 

Among the earlier studies of Chinese life such books as 
Arthur H. Smith’s “Village Life in China,” and Macgowan’s 
“Lights and Shadows of Chinese Life,” illustrate fairly 
typical conditions. One phase notable for its lack of adequate 
treatment is that of Chinese charities. Comparatively little 
has been done either in earlier or more recent years along the 
lines of investigation of purely Chinese social service agencies. 
Two surveys, such as have been attempted, will illustrate the 
scope and also the inadequacy of native relief. 

In 1893 the institutions existing in the Wu Han cities were 
reported by David Hill to be thirty in number. These 
included such activities as The fire engine, preaching of 
the Sacred Edict, the distribution of coal and caudles, the 
care of the aged, widows, and orphans, rice kitchens, vaccina¬ 
tion, dispensing drugs, and almsgiving. Mr. Hill stated that 
the object of the Chinese philanthropist was as much to win 
merit as to relieve distress. 

During the past year a similar investigation of purely 
Chinese agencies was undertaken by Mr. Wesley M. Smith in 
Sooehow. The National Review comparing these reports 
writes: “We see that things remain practically unchanged. 
Th^ same features are found, the same methods, the same 
absence of method, the same abuses.” 

Among the rules for social workers, summarized by 
Mr. W. W. Lockwood in the Chinese Recorder, there is 
this principle; “Strengthen existing agencies rather than 
create new.” Aside from foreign institutions, what are the 
existing agencies of a Chinese community to which we may 
look for co-operation? As those listed for Sooehow are 


97 


1917] Social Problems in China and Agencies for Relief 

fairly typical of other cities Mr. Smith’s report is valuable 
to all. 

The institutions of Soochow are classified as Official, 
Semi-official, Public Charities, and Private Charities. Those 
of the first class are heavily endowed, mostly with hundreds of 
mow of land and with several hundred thousand dollars, 
providing large annuities. Some of these have been established 
for more than a hundred years. These are :— 

(i a ) The Public Granary which has been empty for years 
though having resources of not less than $20,000 annually. It 
issues no report and has doled out only a pittance of grain or 
assistance of any kind during recent years. Needless to say 
the management is much sought after. 

( b ) The Home for Aged Men. This has been charac¬ 
terized by a former head as “a night lodging for beggars and 
thieves. ’ ’ 

{c) The Home for Foundlings. This institution enjoys 
an income of approximately $40,000 a year. It now cares for 
upwards of 450 children, mostly undesired infants, and provides 
for their adoption. The mortality is extremely high. 

(d) The Home for Aged Widows is the only organization 
of this class reported as “ doing good work.” The endowment 
is estimated at $700,000. 

The second group, or Semi-Official Institutions, includes :— 

( a ) The Reform School. This is of the industrial type, 
has few inmates, and is calculated to reform negatively. 

(£) The Public Clinic, which is expensive, antiquated, 
and unpopular. 

(c) The Home for High Class Widows. This institution 
is poorly managed and has inadequate revenue, but nevertheless 
provides shelter and food for about one hundred and fifty women. 

( d) The Door of Hope is theoretically conducted on 
modem lines. There are about twenty-five youthful inmates 
engaged in light industrial occupation until “purchased” as 
wives. 

( e ) The last institution of this group is the School for 
Unemployed. It has seventy inmates who can learn a trade 
during one year if diligent. The School is practically self- 
supporting and is reported “as doing good work.” 

The third group, classified as Public Charities, includes :— 

(«) The Industrial Orphanage. This is a new institution 
at the high tide of prosperity and is also classed as doing a 


98 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


useful work. Educational training and industrial occupation 
are given to 180 boys and about 20 girls, but as these are 
mostly refugees from Nanking it does little to assist the orphans 
of Soochow. 

{b) The Loan Bureau. This is uow hunting for those 
who have borrowed money and departed for points unknown. 
The annual revenue is about $200. 

(£) Tlie Helping Hand Society distributes about $4,000 
annually in various forms of assistance to the widows of men 
who, under the old system, passed the first official examination. 

(a) The Life Saving Society enrolls doctors who volun¬ 
teer their services in case of attempted suicide. Fifty-one men 
and one hundred and thirty-seven women were saved last year. 

Of Private Charities three of the old type are :— 

(a) The Home for Young Widows. This institution has 
resolved itself into a hotel of questionable nature whose 
inmates are largely concubines of men in the city. It gives 
little aid to the poor and should, perhaps, not be classed as a 
beneficent enterprise. 

(b) The Hotels for the Dead. There are about fifty of 
these in the city ; they undertake furnishing coffins to the 
poor, the heightening of grave mounds, and the covering of 
exposed coffins. Medicine is furnished for the sick in summer, 
and in winter the naked are clothed and the hungry are fed. 
These agencies call forth a greater expenditure on the part of 
the common people than any of the previously-named activi¬ 
ties. The sum total of such charity must total hundreds of 
thousands of taels each year. Linked with these is a very 
practical line of endeavor, the Distribution of Free Rice 
Tickets. Although a great amount of good is done by this 
means the misuse of funds is notorious ; soft rice is issued and 
a large part of it is said to be enjoyed by the donkeys and pigs 
of those having control of the tickets. 

(<;) The last item listed is Alms-giving to Beggars. 

Mr. Smith summarises the work of these Soochow institu¬ 
tions as follows : 44 First, there are enormous sums of money 
set aside for charity in Soochow ; second, that where there are 
enormous endowments there is danger of individual needs be¬ 
ing overlooked. Third, that all public charities should report 
clearly and frequently as to the nature and extent of the work 
done, and that records of private institutions doing benevolent 
work as well as all other institutions should be open to public 


99 


19171 Social Problems in China and Agencies for Relief 

inspection. Fourth, that until there is an educated public to 
visit and inquire into the work of all charities no great 
dependence can be placed upon their records and working. 
Lastly, there is not yet a high enough moral atmosphere 
centered about this very difficult work.” 

Charities in China include the building of bridges, roads, 
and the like. Free private schools are maintained by wealthy 
individuals and by guilds, but there is a general tendency to 
allow these to deteriorate in value because of leakage of funds. 
Trade guilds do much, the commercial class generally under¬ 
taking the most useful of the many forms of work. 

The schooling and sheltering of dependent relatives is 
perhaps the most general and beneficial activity that can be 
labelled charity. The tendency to parasitism that this fosters 
is, however, a recognized evil. As such aid is usually temporary 
in nature it seldom provides for later independence. 

The great class of defectives has been left practically 
untouched. The insane, the feeble-minded, blind, deaf, 
dumb, lepers and cripples had no provision made for them 
until the establishment of the Republic. Since then thirty 
schools have been opened by the Government for these millions 
of defectives. In recent years occasional effort of some official, 
such as the founding of two middle schools in Peking by Mr. 
Yung Tao, has called forth commendation, but we can count 
such enterprises on our fingers notwithstanding that China 
has benefited by a hundred years of contact with Western 
ideals. 

Such national reforms as have affected the prisons, 
torture, opium traffic, and slavery have done a great amount 
of good, but the public conscience can scarcely be said to have 
awakened to the fact of individual responsibility and the need 
for reform in the daily life and environment of the people. 

The following is an enumeration of the most evident 
needs to which we should turn the attention of greater 
numbers of the educated class ; 

Education is the primary factor of social uplift. Many of 
us fail to appreciate the actual depth of ignorance of the 
Chinese. David Z. T. Yui shocks us with his ribbon chart 
demonstrating that 97 per cent of the people are illiterate. 
According to the statistics issued by the Peking Board of 
Education in 1915 one and one-third per cent of the population 
are now students in the schools, an average expenditure of 


100 The Chinese Recorder [February 

ten dollars per student per annum being made. According to 
Fong F. Sec, “The new figures show progress and are 
encouraging.’’ The present Minister of Education, Chang Ih 
Ting, assumes less than one per cent of the population as 
literate. In Shantung not more than one person out of every 
five hundred and fifty is a student, or less than 70,000 are 
receiving instruction. 

Knowledge of such facts as these warns us to beware of 
too hasty generalization as to the imminent ‘Rebirth of 
the Nation.’ 

The future progress of the masses is intimately correlated 
with the youth of to-day, and since the existing educational 
facilities cannot solve China’s problems the social worker must 
turn his attention to other forces that will assist in developing 
the social conscience. 

An instance of the utter lack of individual responsibility 
in the sharing of the good and assisting the community is 
seen in the case of a little town on the island of Nan Tai. 
This place is the home of one of China’s most famous scholars. 
It boasts of having sent out more than twenty students for study 
abroad ; but what of the reflex benefits we might justly expect ? 
There has been no visible effect on the community. 

China has yet to adopt a system of education that will 
teach, uplift, and develop all the major activities of the people, 
and such new activities as will forward the interests of the 
masses. This can be accomplished by broadening the scope 
of the present educational system ; for the intimate association 
of the vocational and non-vocational will guarantee the best 
results in both cases. Not only the financially independent 
or the fractional educated class need to join in the creation of 
better conditions, but the fundamentals of wholesome living 
must ultimately actuate the farmhand and the apprentice as 
well as the merchant and the scholar. Popular education, 
especially the education of mothers, will aid in meeting this 
need. A Bureau of Publicity is needed. 

Another fundamental need is economic independence. 
This may not make decent civilization but is a necessary 
condition for any civilization. 

One of the retarding factors of China is that a majority of 
her citizens are incapable of independently supporting their 
families. A typical family ekes out a comfortless existence 
partly because it must support one or more parasitic sons, with 


1917] Social Problems in China and Agencies for Relief 101 

their families, while all are hanging on the income of the one 
who has secured a regular income. 

All movements that look forward to a change in the 
methods of production or promise increasing efficiency in the 
producer, are movements that command our interest and 
support. The problem in China is not how to divide some¬ 
thing but how to produce something. To quote C. T. Wang, 
“The demand for Western manufactured articles is so 
enormous in China as to cause most of the native industries to 
be paralyzed if not killed outright This simply means that 
hundreds and thousands of people are being pushed out of 

their own trades.As a means of inducing economic 

independence, vocational training is necessary ; this must not 
stop at the production of experts hut also aim at the production 
of skilled laborers sufficient in proportion to work under them. 
To meet this need there is need for more manual-training 
schools.” 

The Chinese need to develop a sense of shame for idleness. 
This is a new though fundamental attitude that will do much to 
rectify present conditions. The attitude of the average Chinese 
family of middle class is to discourage ita members who wish 
to learn a trade, for that would degrade them socially. Wrong 
notions about manual labor must be uprooted and practical 
training be given to boys and girls that will stand them in 
good stead in whatever walks of life they choose to lead. 

The system of apprenticeship binds boys by contract from 
three to five years as mere slaves. Boys who are expected to 
learn trades should be properly taught. 

With the great need for teachers and preachers in mission 
work Christian schools have largely left out of account the 
industrially competent lay constituency which in Christian 
lands is the backbone of the church. 

To secure economic independence readjustment is also 
necessitated along the foliowiug lines :—Child labor ; labor 
by women; exploitation and lack of protection in industry ; 
farming out of taxes still exists, involving incalculable waste 
and hardship; there must be development and control of 
waterways ; opening of mines, regardless of apparent exploita¬ 
tion at the present; development and conservation of forest 
lands ; the building of public highways ; improved methods 
of agriculture and refertilization of the soil ; reclamation of 
waste lands, including grave-lands; the prevention of cattle 



102 The Chinese Recorder [February 

plague ; the breeding of better live-stock ; scientific control 
of fisheries ; modern systems of banking and book-keeping. 

The problem of sex-relations, especially in regard to 
marriage, is of especial importance. The contracting of 
marriage on the basis of desire for male heirs, for financial aid, 
or for providing an able-bodied housekeeper, fails to recognize 
the fundamental principle of mutual affection between husband 
and wife and hence does not create the ideal home. 
Monogamy, the basis of the best form of family life, is 
essential. An advanced marriage age for both sexes is also to 
be urged. This will tend to decrease the birth-rate and will 
assist in securing the economic independence of the family. 

China’s millions are not conserving their vitality. Inferior 
parentage and bad food never yet produced a good physique. 
There is need for a national sanitary conscience. It is becoming 
realized that the building up of physical efficiency is the 
greatest aid iu the development of mental and moral efficiency. 
Furthermore, disease has been proven one of the greatest causes 
of national waste. China needs to learn this. 

To effect comprehensive benefits there is needed joint 
effort of all in the prevention of disease and injury and in 
promoting and conserving health. By both Government and 
voluntary methods the following activities are imperative : 

Educational propaganda of preventive medicine. 

Health and medical surveys. 

Vital statistics. 

Medical inspections and regulations. 

Application of sanitation and disease prevention work. 

Laboratory service. 

Safety appliance regulations. 

Bureau of information and general health service. 

Provision and supervision of medical practice and nursing. 

Remedial and corrective medicine. 

An immediate campaign of education can be undertaken 
on the fundamentals of hygienic living. This should emphasize 
personal cleanliness, pure air, light, digestion, exercise, and 
sleep. A suggestion that should be followed up is that a 
weekly sheet of preventive medical material be prepared to go 
out over the country through the medium of the Sunday 
schools, churches, students, and through the native press. 

Another of China’s needs is social purity. Not only is 
the double sex standard generally accepted but there is little 


1917] Social Problems in China and Agencies for Relief 103 

effort to inculcate male chastity. Sex education has yet to be 
introduced. Prostitution, licentious fiction and theatricals are 
said to be increasing. Moving pictures that are barred in the 
West are now corrupting Chinese audiences. The Chief of 
Police in Shanghai traces the late increase of highway robberies 
carried off “in civilized style” to this demoralizing influence. 

Healthful recreations are lacking in China. The following 
are urgent needs :— 

Provision for play for the young. 

Reasonable physical development for students of both 
sexes. 

Physical recreations introducing the competitive element 
and spirit of ‘sportsmanship’ in group and team activities. 

Individual recreative interests, such as music. 

Provision for healthy public amusement, social centers, 
parks, and art galleries. 

Charities should be correlated for more efficient relief. 
Available funds should be diverted to the essential needs, thus 
weeding out unwise relief. Effective use of sums squandered 
at present should at least be demanded. Specialists must be 
trained to direct and advise poor relief. To meet the need 
there should be classes in every city for social workers. Existing 
models of good institutions, such as the Tsinanfu Institute and 
the Canton Hospital for the Insane should be brought to the 
attention of the public. 

Dishonesty is one great drawback to the betterment of 
Chinese social life. This is manifested in the misuse of public 
funds, in corrupt official practices, in bribery and “squeeze” in 
every walk of life. Reform in this regard cannot wait for the 
day of “change of heart ” through Christian propaganda and is 
a need even in the Chinese Church that cannot be disregarded. 

Among the numerous outstanding demands on the social 
worker the following may also be briefly enumerated :— 

The combating of the cigarette evil. 

The final suppression of the opium and morphine vices. 

The foot-binding evil. 

Waste due to ancestor worship. This is estimated at 
hundreds of million of taels per annum. 

The abolition of slavery. 

The training of the growing Christian community iu lives 
of practical (individual or church) endeavor in community 
welfare. 


104 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


A vigorous campaign for extension of social work into the 
1,227 Chinese cities of various ranks that are without mission¬ 
ary representation. 

This list of unwholesome conditions is, as a whole, un¬ 
doubtedly alarming. As we face these singly we are, as a rule, 
only vaguely concerned. We are specialists on a certain 
problem. As “familiarity breeds contempt 5 ’ we have as our 
consolation the catch-word “Sufficient unto the day is the 
evil thereof.” To the Chinese this is the established order: 
change may come. . . . “Fine if it helps me, but why worry 
about the other fellow ? ” 

In attempting the alleviation of China’s many ills what 
line of procedure shall we follow that the greatest gain may be 
attained through our effort ? As social workers let us again 
review our work in the light of the principles summarized by 
Mr. Lockwood. 

Our first axiom is, “Know the facts.” We have them 
around us, in our homes and in our schools, mostly finding it 
hard to comprehend our desire for high standards. 

Our second principle is, “Begin with the most urgent 
work that resources give promise of being able to meet satis¬ 
factorily.” We have been attempting this and are not 
altogether discouraged with the beginnings. 

What are our resources? First, ourselves. Second, a 
small but growing body of Chinese in every community with 
natural and implanted social interests. These leaders of the 
people we can trust to carry forward the reformation. We 
have also the educational system, the churches, the hospitals, 
the good-will of the people, their latent talents and generosity. 

As a third working axiom we have, “Use the resources at 
hand.” This calls for immediate action along lines more 
extensive than we have as yet attempted. Are we using the 
resources at our command to the extent to which they might 
be put? Should we not call forth the support of all those 
willing to co-operate by giving them definite service to do, 
however great the errors made in first attempts, their little 
knowledge of methods, and the weight of inertia that holds 
them back ? 

In the work in which we are engaged we would do well 
to remember that it is ours to give health as well as wisdom, 
self-respect as well as independence, a social conscience as well 
as individual morals. 


1917] Social Problems in China and Agencies for Relief 105 

The fourth principle of social work is, ‘‘Use the least 
possible machinery.’ 5 This is a wise caution in China where 
we find over-capitalizatiou of officers and committees. 

The fifth and sixth principles are, “Strengthen existing 
agencies rather than create new,” and “Seek and accept 
assistance from every possible Christian and non-Christian 
organization.” The value of stimulating interest already 
created is the keynote of successful teaching and to social 
workers this is a long step toward realization of the aim. 

“Seek the advice and co-operation of officials” is the 
seventh rule; and the eighth, “ Set up models of good rather 
than criticisms.” 

To the missionary body of China must be given credit for 
most of the existing agencies that are doing effective work, 
few of which have been critical. As a whole, effort has been 
in the right direction but on the part of the individual the 
accusation has been made that forces for good are often 
curtailed in merely following the routine of school, church, and 
hospital, where continual opportunity has beeu offered for 
initiative along lines calling forth the whole man—linking him 
up in service for others. 

“Use people of a class to help that class,” is the next 
principle. As examples of the application of this we have the 
excellent work of Shanghai boys among Shanghai boys, and 
such men as David Yui calling forth a response from ‘unap¬ 
proachable 5 gentry and students. 

Another rule is ‘ ‘ Use the strongest appeal for the ends in 
view”. . . though these may not always seem the most rational 
at the time. 

The eleventh rule for those engaged in social work in 
China is, “Bring together in common work different nation¬ 
alities”; and with this is the precaution, “Do those things 
approved by those who do the work .. . with the foreigner in 
the background.” Onr only hope is in interesting our Chinese 
associates in these various lines of service. To do this we 
shall need to have them in our counsels from first to last and 
we might as well count that form of social service unfeasible 
which does not commend itself to our Chinese colleagues. 

Many of the agencies assisting in the relief of Chinese 
social problems have already received mention. The Christian 
Church in China has already introduced the leaven that we 
believe is essential in meeting the need for purer life, for 


106 the Chinese Recorder [February 

honest living, and for healthy, happy lives. We have faith 
to believe that this is bringing to China the solution of her 
many difficulties. The mission forces in China are without 
questiou the greatest asset for reform to which the nation may 
look. There are many, however, who forget that re-forestation, 
health campaigns, and ‘ better babies ’ are as Christian in 
expression and as necessary in the ultimate scheme as the 
chapel and theological school. 

Christian education has aided iu the realization of the 
present government system of education ; still the Christian 
school has its mission in the upholding of standards and can 
give greater returns iti laying more emphasis upon the social 
training given its product. 

Medical work along modern lines is practically confined to 
Christian agencies. The initiative has been taken in awaken¬ 
ing a public sanitary conscience, and we are seeing the begin¬ 
nings of extension work by means of health lectures, 
exhibits, institutes, and the like. The Government has 
introduced public health bureaus, street cleaning, and health 
instruction in the schools. The Board of Public Health in 
Shanghai has set before the nation au example of effective 
work along preventive lines. 

The following is a partial enumeration of other forms of 
social work being attempted in China. 

There is uow vocatioual training in agriculture, carpentry, 
brass and iron work, canning, weaving, pottery, lace-making, 
knitting, silk-culture, shoemakiug, tailoring, straw-plaiting, 
and carpet-weaving. Self-help for students is being introduced. 
Catholic schools have laid special emphasis on these lines. 

Physical education is receiving increasing attention and it 
is noteworthy that as a result of the Far Eastern Olympic 
Games a committee has been appointed to promote the play¬ 
ground movement in China. 

The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals has 
been doing effective work for more than thirty years in Shang¬ 
hai. The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children is 
likewise gaining support. 

The Shanghai Reformatory for Juvenile Offendors is well 
known throughout China. 

The Slave Refuge and the Door of Hope in the same city 
are proving as valuable as object lessons as in the assistance 
that they give, 


107 


1917] Working Together in Hangchow 

Famine relief, and the Red Cross Society with its con¬ 
servancy schemes, are now awakening the interest and co¬ 
operation of great numbers of Chinese. 

The suppression of opium and morphine has passed to 
native hands and similarly the anti-footbinding movement has 
been recognized as a national matter. 

Reforestation and the colonization of refugees is making 
excellent progress. 

Newspapers and magazines are becoming increasingly 
valuable in moulding public opinion for betterment. 

A campaign for social purity and an anti-cigarette crusade 
have been inaugurated. 

There is agitation for further prison reforms and the 
Ministry of Education is combating the publication and circu¬ 
lation of obscene literature. 

The foreign settlements have introduced the idea of better 
roads, parks, ventilated aud lighted buildings, drainage, the 
removal of garbage, the regulation of markets, have provided 
isolation hospitals and are undertaking the control of contagious 
diseases. 

Literature touching upon these and other lines of work 
and upon China’s need is increasing in volume and in practical 
value. Translations and contributed articles from purely 
Chinese sources are available. Let us aid in their distribution. 


-. . — 

Working Together in Hangchow 

J. MERCER BLAIN, D.D. 


mission work. Some missionaries have changed with 
the times, some are changing, aud some have not changed. 
The remark of a lady missionary was apropos of one character¬ 
istic of the old way, “ It has always been a point of honor not 
to let the Chinese know how much money the missionary 
handles.” The Chinese Church was then, not in point of 
years but of development, a mere babe and the babe had to be 
nourished and cared for and practically under control of its 
spiritual fathers, especially as the fathers in the persons of the 


m 


HE old way and the new, “Old things are passed away 
and all things have become new.” Twenty years have 
witnessed a great change in methods and couduet of 





108 


The Chinese Recorder 


[Februai 


missionaries controlled the cash necessary for its sustenance. 
The babe has now become a youth and in many ways a 
precocious one, quite able to look after its own affairs. The 
spiritual fathers recognize the growth of the child and admit 
that the time has come for them more and more to decrease. 
The time has not yet come for the missionaries to withdraw 
from this section, but the work has developed to such a point 
that a fuller co-operation with the Chinese workers in all 
matters of administration is essential to the welfare of the 
church. Hangchow has led in this section in sharing with the 
Chinese brethren the responsibilities of the work and we are 
reaping the benefit of the combined wisdom of Chinese and 
missionaries in the making and executing of plans for progress 
as well as in expenditure of money. 

CLOSER CO-OPERATION BEGUN IN EDUCATIONAL WORK. 

The Hangchow Christian College, conducted by the 
American Presbyterian Mission, North, for forty years, has 
become a union institution under the American Presbyterian 
Missions, North and South, its management being in the hands 
of a Board of Directors consisting of three missionaries from 
each Mission and three Chinese appointed by the Synod. The 
former Hangchow Girls’ School, conducted for forty years by 
the American Presbyterian Mission, South, has united with 
smaller schools in the Hangchow Union Girls’ High School 
under the auspices of the two American Presbyterian Missions 
and the American Baptist Missionary Society Woman’s Board. 
It is managed by a Board of Directors consisting of one man 
and woman missionary from each mission and three Chinese 
chosen by the Synod and the Baptist Association. The Chinese 
on these Boards have the same authority as the missionaries in 
the handling of funds and in all things pertaining to the 
conduct of the institutions. Experience and observation go to 
show that the judgment of the Chinese brethren on all 
questions of the curriculum, rules and regulations, and general 
policy is invaluable. When it comes to a question of finance 
the Chinese are in a somewhat embarrassing position because 
they realize that the funds practically all come from the 
foreign churches supporting the missionaries. They favor 
making the schools the best possible and not stopping short of 
any equipment necessary for efficiency and to make them 
appear well in comparison with the non-Christian schools. 


1917 ] Working Together in Hangchow 109 

Missionaries, of course, agree with them in this idea when it 
is possible to obtain the money and when the expenditures of 
funds for the institutions are not out of proportion to expendi¬ 
tures in other parts of the work. Not realizing or appreciating 
the'difficulty of obtaining these funds from the home churches 
and the necessity of dividing the funds so as to support all 
branches of the work, as a rule the Chinese brethren will vote 
with the party urging the greater expenditure of money. So 
far as this is true, it is a weakness in the administration. The 
advantages of taking the brethren into full confidence and 
putting on them a full share of the responsibility for the 
institutions, however, so far outweighs this weakness that most 
of us heartily favor the present policy and feel that after a 
while the Chinese Church will become partners financially also. 

An interesting experiment is being tried in a trade school 
in the city. The American Presbyterian Mission, North, has 
turned over $5,000 Mexican, and allowed the use of its 
buildings for five years free of rent, to a self-supporting Presby¬ 
terian churcb. The cburcli has elected a Board of Directors to 
establish and control the school. On this Board they voluntarily 
chose three missionaries and asked one of them to take charge 
of the school. He and his Mission have consented to this plan, 
but the whole management of the school is in the hands of 
this Board. Time will try out the scheme. 

Arrangements are now being made for opening union 
Bible classes for women in the city and a few from the country. 
This will probably result in a women’s Bible school of 
intermediate grade. 

Perhaps our most important co-operative scheme is in the 
evangelistic work. There was a strong feeling that what the 
three self-supporting churches and a number of others not so 
far advanced were trying to do on a small scale might be better 
done and with more far-reaching results by combining forces 
and helping each other. The result of consultation was the 
Hangchow Union Evangelistic Committee. The purpose as 
stated in the constitution is “to furnish a medium to the 
Christian agencies in Hangchow for the united presentation of 
the Gospel to all classes throughout the city.” The committee 
is composed of one missionary from each mission, one Chinese 
man and one woman (either Chinese or foreign) from each 
church organization or mission, and one representative from 
the Y.M.C.A. Representatives serve for three years. An 


HO The Chinese Recorder [February 

executive committee of seven saves the time of the full 
committee by attending to all ad-interim busiuess. The Union 
Committee does its work through sub-committees consisting of 
its own members and other Christian workers in the city. 
Rev. R. F. Fitch has consented to give all his time to the 
committee and his mission has released him from other work 
to become General Secretary of the Union Committee. Of 
course individual workers for the committee on sub-committees 
are under the sole control of their own missions or other 
Christian organizations. The committee is in no sense a 
separate organization making another unit in the city, but is 
the representative of all the churches collectively, helping the 
separate units to co-ordinate and unify their work so as to 
administer it more efficiently, avoid overlapping, and give all 
the benefit of the best talent available among the Christian 
forces of the city. <l While the committee can have no 
mandatory powers over the constitutent bodies, it shall be 
empowered to plan and execute policies and methods for the 
evangelization of the city.” The committee works out an 
annual budget and the funds come from the missions, the 
churches, and private gifts. 

Within the last two years quite a number of very definite 
thiugs have been accomplished through the committee. One 
was the conduct of the Eddy meetings and the follow-up work 
connected with them. Another was an interchange of pulpits 
by all the ministers of the city, Bible classes were organized 
at different centers, taught almost exclusively by Chinese, who 
were themselves in a normal class taught by a missionary. 
These classes did not thrive as had been hoped and it is thought 
that a mistake was made in not connecting them up from the 
beginning with the separate churches. A union reading room 
is running, which is attracting a goodly number of men every 
day. Negotiations were put through and a book-store opened 
in the city by the Mission Book Company. All arrangements 
for the great Christian Endeavor Convention were made by 
this committee. The sub-committee on tract distribution has 
put more than 300,000 tracts into the homes of the city. 
Tract distribution takes place periodically. The city is divided 
into districts and the distributors are voluntary workers. On 
Sunday afternoon the workers meet for prayer and consultation 
and the distribution takes place the next Saturday afternoon 
simultaneously all over the city, fifty thousand tracts being 


1917] 


Robert Morrison Memorial 


111 


distributed in two hours. A “Fellowship Club” composed 
of missionaries and leaders in the churches, men and women, 
meets every two mouths and, after a social hour, has a paper 
on some practical topic, followed by free discussion. The 
General Secretary is making use of the Chinese secular press 
to further moral reforms and civic righteousness. A series of 
illustrated lectures on the Life of Christ, Pilgrim’s Progress, and 
other helpful themes is being given in all the churches. The 
Social Committee has gatherings of Christians at Christmas 
and on other special occasions. A large patriotic meeting of 
Christians was held in the largest hall in the city on “Inde¬ 
pendence Day,” Best of all an extensive evangelistic 
campaign is being planned. A missionary and Chinese 
minister, especially gifted on these lines, will speak in each 
church by way of preparation for the campaign. The aim is 
to revive Christians and enlist as many church members as 
possible in personal work and thus reach outsiders through 
both the regular and special meetings. The Committee on 
Survey and Programme has been at work for some time and 
has made a partial report, which has brought out some interest¬ 
ing facts. The Sunday school committee is helping to 
reorganize old schools and organize new ones along progressive 
lines. 

With the growth towards independence and self-support, 
in which we all rejoice and which brings us into new relations 
with the Chinese, and the union of Christian forces, which 
brings us into new relations with other missionaries as well as 
with Chinese, mission administration is quite a different 
proposition from what it formerly was. We believe that under 
the blessing of God there is a great future for the forces of 
righteousness in this famous old Chinese city. 

-—«««- - 

Robert Morrison Memorial 

GEO. H. MCNEUR. 

rr-IN old miracle play directed Adam to pass across the stage 
I LX I “going to be created.” Some will read the title to 
|i this article with a smile, and their minds will hark 
back to the Centenary Conference at Shanghai in 1907, 
and reflect that its subject has taken a long time to cross the 
stage. I sometimes remind my Chinese friends that the trees 




112 


The Chinese Recorder 


(February 


which are slow in growth produce the most enduring timber. 
We ask all who have had a part in the task to rejoice with us 
in its completion. The Morrison Memorial Y. M. C. A. 
buildings were formally opened on Saturday, November 2nd, 
and on the following day they were solemnly dedicated to the 
glory of God and the salvation of Canton’s young manhood. 

On the evening of May 3rd, 1906, five Canton missionaries 
met in the home of one of their number to discuss the erection 
of a fitting centenary memorial. It was decided that because 
of its international and interdenominational character nothing 
would be more fitting than an up-to-date Y. M. C. A. In¬ 
stitution, with an auditorium in which union gatherings could 
be held. On Sunday, July 1st, of that year, the movement 
was fairly launched at a mass meeting in the Canton Hospital 
Church, when Rev. T. W. Pearce and the late Mr. Su 
Fung Chi delivered addresses and many Chinese Christians 
pledged their support. Appeals for monetary help were sent 
to all parts of the Christian world. The then Viceroy of the 
Province—-Chan Fu—contributed 1,000 taels and commended 
the scheme to his fellow-compatriots. His advisor, H. E. Wu 
Ting Fang, expressed his most hearty approval and sent a 
substantial cheque. He knew something of what the Y. M. 
C. A. stood for in the U.S., and said no institution was better 
fitted to produce a friendly understanding between his own 
people and foreign visitors. Sir Robert Hart forwarded £100 
and wrote a fine appreciation of Robert Morrison. This, with 
essays by the veteran missionaries, Rev. R. H. Graves, D.D., 
Rev. H. V. Noyes, D.D., and Rev. T. W. Pearce, was printed 
and widely distributed. 

The movement was brought prominently before the whole 
missionary body during the Centenary Conference in Shanghai. 
Rev. T. W. Pearce addressed one of the evening public 
meetings, on the life of the pioueer Protestant missionary, and 
an appeal on behalf of the scheme followed. 

In 1908 Mr. F. 0 . Leiser was sent by the International 
Committee of the Y. M. C. A. to inaugurate their work in 
Canton. Two preachers belonging to the London Mission 
were chosen for training as Chinese secretaries. 

About this time the American Baptist Mission (South) 
vacated its old compound on the river-front beside one of the 
city gates, for a new location outside of the city. It was felt 
by the Morrison Memorial Committee that the vacated com- 


Robert Morrison Memorial 


mn 


1*3 


pound would be an ideal site for the Memorial building. The 
new bund under construction had brought it into the centre 
of the main thoroughfare of the city. It was practically 
certain that years would elapse before such an opportunity 
came again. Bnt the funds in hand were altogether inadequate 
for the purchase. The Baptist Mission offered to wait two 
years for full payment, and with the abandon of faith bargain 
money was paid. 

The movement met with many difficulties. In launching 
it the committee had reckoned on the immediate support of 
the International Committee of the Y. M. C. A. But that 
wise body refused to be committed to a scheme that had not 
been submitted to it for approval. A call came from New 
York urging the committee to postpone its appeal. The 
International Committee had undertaken the founding of 
institutions in South America and the claims of Canton would 
conflict with pledges already given. The committee sent a 
representative from Canton to interview the International 
Committee and explain that the appeal must be associated 
with the Centenary which could not be postponed. A 
compromise was effected but the movement missed the full 
sympathetic co-operation of the Y. M. C. A. movement in 
America. On February nth, 1907, Dr. J. R. Mott, with Mr. 
R. C. Morse, Chairman of the International Committee, paid 
a flying visit to Canton and discussed plans with the local 
committee. Certain influential Mission Boards were asked to 
allow their Canton missionaries on furlough to make appeals, 
but it was considered that such would be detrimental to their 
own denominational work. In spite of all this there were 
many generous responses to the printed appeal. 

There were other obstacles. Some objected to the site 
chosen. The district around was a hot-bed of temptation for 
young men. Again, from time immemorial the city gate in 
the neighborhood had been an outlet to the river for the 
removal of night-soil. Smoke and dust and noise were 
associated with its proximity to the electric light works, the 
bund, and the river. The biggest problem that arose was the 
sale of a narrow strip reclaimed by the Government and lying 
between the old compound and the new bund. The loss of 
that meant practically the loss of the site. Just at this 
juncture a large sum of money came into the almost exhausted 
treasury, and through the good offices of a Christian Chinese 


114 The Chinese Recorder [February 

merchant the committee was able to buy this strip from the 
purchaser at its original cost. 

There were difficulties regarding the title to the property. 
It had never been properly registered, owing to the opposition 
of the magistrate. Following the example of their neighbors, 
the Baptist missionaries had filled in part of the foreshore, and 
the area of the property enclosed was greater than shown by 
the deeds. An account of the negotiations concerning this 
point alone would fill a fair-sized volume. 

But enough has been said. The Y. M. C. A. took over 
the site and the old buildings, inherited the committee’s 
successes and difficulties, and through prayerful persistence ou 
the part of secretaries and directors every obstacle has been 
overcome, and the Morrison Memorial stands complete—the 
best equipped institution of its kind in China. 

The official opening on November 4th furnished a 
ceremony which will not soon be forgotten by the 1,400 people 
privileged to attend. The President of the local Y. M. C. A. 
occupied the chair with grace and dignity. The presenting of 
the keys and custodianship of the new building to the local 
Board of Directors by the representatives of the National 
Committee evoked most hearty applause. This is the first 
Association property in China to be held in trust, not by the 
International Committee in New York, but by the National 
Committee of China. Sympathising with the national aspira¬ 
tions of the progressive Chinese connected with the Y.M.C.A., 
one can understand how much such action must mean to them. 
It can never be said that the Y. M. C. A. of Canton is a foreign 
institution. The Civil Governor delivered a cordial speech, 
and opened the main door of the building. The British Consul- 
General expressed his appreciation of the generosity of his 
fellow-subjects in Canada who bad given a large proportion of 
the money represented in the building. The United States 
Consul also voiced his warm sympathy with the purposes of the 
Association. In the evening the Physical Department was 
inaugurated when Admiral Tam of the Conservancy Bureau 
gave an address. 

On Sunday afternoon the auditorium was again filled for 
the dedication. Mr. C. W. Harvey of Shanghai, representing 
the National Committee, delivered an address which was 
interpreted by Mr. S. C. Leung. It was mainly biographical, 
outlining Dr. Robert Morrison’s life and work and that of Sir 


1917 ] 


Robert Morrison Memorial 


115 


George Williams, the founder of the Y.M.C.A. His application 
of the message the lives of these pioneers brought to the young 
men of Canton to-day was both searching and inspiring. The 
all-round Christian ideal of the Association was emphatically 
stated. The audience joined in a specially prepared dedicatory 
prayer led by Mr. Mok of the Church Missionary Society. 

It was a happy thought to make the union foreign service 
in the evening part of the day’s programme. This service has 
an unbroken history running back through many years. It is 
hallowed by many associations. It was a fitting link between 
the present and the past that a room should be set apart in the 
new building to be kuown as “The Morrison Room,” where 
the union English service will in future be held. Rev. T. W. 
Pearce, senior missionary of the London Missionary Society in 
South China, unveiled a copy of Chiunery’s famous portrait of 
Robert Morrison, which had been presented to the Committee 
by Dr. Morrison’s sou. Then singing that inspiring hymn, 
“The Son of God goes forth to war,” the audience of 200 
marched in procession, two by two, down to the lower story 
and out to the auditorium, where the remaining part of the 
service was conducted. As Mr. Pearce interpreted to us so 
effectively the message the life of our great pioneer seemed 
to be uttering in the splendid building in which we met, 
the century and more seemed to slip away, and the present 
clasped hands in intimate fellowship with the distant past. The 
Bible which is the impregnable rock on which our work as 
Christian missionaries and the young Chinese Church stands, 
is the Bible that Morrison translated both into his life and 
into the new tongue, and the secret of Morrison’s patience and 
perseverance and power is the heritage of his successors—“the 
practice of the presence of God.” 

The thrill of the closing hymn still remains with us: 

“For all the saints who from their labours rest, 

Who Thee by faith before the world confessed, 

Thy Name, 0 Jesus, be forever blest. 

Alleluia!” 


116 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


The Life and Work of the Late Dr. W. A. P. Martin* 


make a “Free State ” out of a wilderness. His father, 
Rev. W. W. Martin, was of Scotcli-Irish stock, born in 
Pennsylvania, but educated in Kentucky. He was converted 
at the age of twenty-four, took a four years’ classical course in 
an academy in Kentucky, and then with the same teacher 
studied theology for two years in addition. He moved to the 
southern part of Indiana when the state was but two years old, 
one of the first three Presbyterian ministers, but lie lived to 
see two Synods, eleven Presbyteries, 130 ministers, and nearly 
ten thousand members of the old School wing alone, and 
perhaps as many more in the New School. In this develop¬ 
ment he is said to have been more active than any other man. 

He was an excellent classical scholar, especially in Latin, 
and it was doubtless due to him that his sons, Sam and 
William, both of whom came to China as missionaries, had so 
good an intellectual foundation. There were in the family 
ten children, of whom William was the eighth. Mrs. Martin 
was a Virginian, inheriting a number of slaves in her own 
right, three of whom she took with her to Indiana where, 
although legally free, they continued to serve her, one of them 
being William’s “mammy.” Mrs. Martin was unwilling to 
manumit her slaves in Kentucky until her children were 
educated (when they were sent to Liberia). Uuwilling to be 
longer dependent upon the avails of slave labor, William left 

♦William Alexander Parson Martin, son of Rev. William W. and Mrs. 
(Depew) Martin; born Livonia, Indiana, April 10th, 1827. A.B., Indiana 

University, 1846; studied theology at Presbyterian Seminary, New Albany, 
Indiana (D.D., Lafayette, i860 ; LL. D., New York University, 1870, Princeton, 
1899). Married Jane Vansant, of Philadelphia, 1849 (died 1893). Missionary 
to Ningpo, China, 1850-60; acted as interpreter for William B. Reed, U. S. 
Minister, in negotiating treaty with China, 1858; missionary at Peking, 1863-8; 
president and professor of international law, Thing Wen College, Peking, 
1868-94; first president Imperial University of China, 1898-1900; was in the 
siege of the legations in Peking, June 20th-Aug. 14th, 1900 ; Adviser of Chinese 
authorities oil matters of international law in several international disputes 
with European powers; made a mandarin of the 3rd class, 1885, and of the 
2nd class, 1898. Mernbre de l'lnstitut de Droit International; Membre 
Correspondent de la Socidtd de la Legislation Compare, etc. Author : The 
Lore of Cathay; A Cycle of Cathay ; Siege in Peking ; The Awakening of 
China ; Chinese Legends and Lyrics ; also works in Chinese on Evidences of 
Christianity; International Law; Natural Philosophy, etc., etc. Died Peking, 
December 17th, 1916. 


D jR. Martin was born at a time and educated in an environ¬ 
ment in which foreigii missions occupied very little of 
the attention of the hardy pioneers who were trying to 







THE LATE REV. W. A. 1\ MARTIN, D.D. 



1917 ] The Life and Work of the Late Dr. W. A. P. Martin 117 


the Indiana University in his senior year and was able to make 
his way by teaching in a school. But he did not tell either 
his father or his mother his reasons for leaving college, nor 
even the president of the institution who was the means of 
securing for him a place to teach, where he could keep up 
with his studies and still graduate with his class. Mrs. Martin 
must have received from some source a strong missionary bias, 
for she named each of her three sons for missionaries, Sam for 
Samuel Newell, one of the earliest missionaries of the American 
Board to India, William for William Alexander, his uncle 
(being half-brother of his mother) who went to the 1 ‘ Sandwich * * 
(Hawaiian) Islands and was the progenitor of a distinguished 
family ; and also for Levi Parsons, a missionary to the Jews in 
Palestine *, and Claude for Claudius Buchanan and Henry 
Martyn, famous missionaries to India. When she was inclined 
to object to letting two of her sous go to China she was reminded 
of their dedication to this service at their christening. While 
engaged in his theological studies at New Albany in a Presby¬ 
terian Seminary (now McCormick Seminary in Chicago) Mr. 
Martin found the atmosphere depressing, for the students were 
not of high grade, and there were not enough teachers. He 
left to take charge of a Presbyterian parochial school in 
Louisville, Kentucky, not intending to return. His mother 
coming to visit a sister at a town higher up the Ohio River, he 
went there to spend a Sunday with them, buying a French 
novel to while away the time on the boat. But he had not 
turned many pages before he perceived that despite its 
historical title it was not fit company for a decent man. He 
threw the book into the river aud sat down to reflect on a 
vital question of personal duty. Was lie right in dropping or 
abandoning his purpose to go abroad ? Before the boat reached 
the landing he had arrived at a conclusion on the subject. 
In his autobiography Dr. Martin relates this incident with 
the suggestive comment: “Had the book been edifying, or 
merely decent, how different might have been the complexion 
of my subsequent life.” 

Mr. Martin and his brother Sam, with their wives, 
reached Hongkong on the 23rd anniversary of his birth, 
April 10th, 1850, full of enthusiasm. Instead of taking the 
easiest way to his station at Ningpo, that he might com¬ 
prehend existing conditions in China he preferred to entrust 
himself to a Chinese craft and to visit every mission station on 


118 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


the way. To accomplish this comparatively short journey 
required three weeks ! Struck with the usefulness of the new 
plan of romanizing the sounds of Chinese characters which he 
found in Amoy, Mr. Martin—iu the face of much indifference, 
ridicule, and opposition—set himself to introduce the method iu 
Ningpo, which he successfully accomplished, and it has been 
an important adjunct of missionary work ever since. Mr. 
Martin got himself appointed to a church in the Chinese city, 
away from the “Settlement,” that he might have better 
opportunity for language study and for street-chapel preaching. 
It was there, in a carefully planned effort to reach the more 
intelligent auditors as well as the common run of attendants, 
that he gave a series of addresses on Natural Religion, the 
Nature of Man, and Revelation. These were of course 
delivered in the colloquial dialect, but the author at once turned 
them into the literary language. They were published in 
Shanghai when Dr. Martin had been in China only a little 
more than five years, under the title : Investigation of the 
Sources of the Heavenly Doctrine, % $} jjg, or Evidences of 

Christianity. This at once sprang into a popularity which it 
has never lost. It has been reprinted in no one knows how 
many editions. Mr. Burdon of Peking (later Bishop of Hong¬ 
kong) translated it into excellent mandarin. It was reproduced 
in successive editions in Japan, where it was the means of the 
conversion of a prominent Japanese statesman. In 1910 it was 
reported that in that year 21,260 copies were put into 
circulation in that empire. Before the Centennial Conference 
of 1907 the chairman of the Christian Literature Committee 
stated that this volume had more votes than any other as the 
“ best single book,” a phenomenon all the more remarkable 
since it had already been in circulation more than fifty years. 
To have produced a volume with such a history would have 
been worth the lifetime of any missionary. It was at Ningpo 
that, with no special incitement to do so, Dr. Martin became 
convinced of the importance of learning the mandarin language, 
and carried his conviction into execution. This may serve as 
a spur to some of the younger missionaries who find it a tax to 
become familiar with more than one form of Chinese, an 
acquisition for which there are now more helps and far stronger 
reasons than existed in Dr. Martin’s day. 

His knowledge of mandarin was the link in the chain of 
events which altogether changed Dr. Martin’s career in China, 


1917] The Life and Work of the Late Dr. W. A. P, Martin 119 


He was invited to become the interpreter to Hon. Wm. B. 
Reed, U. S. Minister to China, who had been sent to negotiate 
the important treaty of 1858. In this service Dr. Martin 
became known to many prominent Chinese officials. After a 
well-earned furlough iii America, Dr. Martin was unexpectedly 
placed in charge of the Presbyterian Press in Shanghai, where 
he made excellent use of his time in preparing a list of char¬ 
acters for the study of beginners (still in use) and also in 
translating Wheaton’s International Daw. Returning with 
this to Peking, where he had been appointed to open a new 
mission of his Board, the U. S. Minister, Mr. Burlingame, 
introduced Dr. Martin to the Tsung Li Yatnen, or Chinese 
Foreign Office. Prince Kung (then the head of the Chinese 
Government) appointed a Commission of four expert Chinese 
scholars (one of whom was a Doctor of the Hanliu degree) to 
put the work into proper official form. 

Sir Frederick Bruce lent his assistance, remarking that the 
work would do good by showing the Chinese that the nations 
of the West have principles by which they are guided, and 
that force is not their only law. The French charg'e d'affaires , 
ou the contrary, expressed the views of many at that time when 
he said to Mr. Burlingame : “ Who is this man that is going to 
give the Chinese an insight into our European international 
law ? Kill him—choke him off; he’ll make us uo end of 
trouble.” Following this work, with the aid of his students, 
Dr. Martin gave to the Chinese translations of De Marten’s 
Guide Diplomatique, Woolsey’s Elements of International Law, 
Bluntschli’s Volkerrecht, and also a manual of the laws of war 
compiled by the European Institute of International Law. 
Most of these books were reprinted in Japan, and so far as known 
for several decades nothing additional on the law of nations was 
rendered into the language of either empire. 

Dr. Martin was the organizer and the first president of the 
International Law and Language School in Peking, known as 
the T‘ung Wen Kuan, the original little rill from which the 
refreshing waters of Western learning trickled into the minds of 
the coming statesmen of China. How great a service this was 
both to China and to the world was ofteu underestimated at the 
time by those who—unlike Sir Robert Hart and Mr. Burlingame 
—were incapable of forecasting the horoscope of the coming 
China. At the present day when China is potentially revolu¬ 
tionized it is still more difficult to take the correct measure of 


120 The Chinese Recorder [February 

what was then accomplished in the face of what appeared to be 
insuperable obstacles. To gain an adequate view of the times 
and the nature of Dr. Martin’s work it is necessary to study the 
chapters in Dr. Martin’s Cycle of Cathay, in which the events 
are narrated in their appropriate setting and with due explana¬ 
tion. At the time of the publication of that work in 1897 it 
seemed a pity that such a life-story should have been given out 
in instalments. But the total destruction of all Dr. Martin’s 
papers in the Boxer outbreak of 1900 would have prevented a 
narrative of like fullness for the remainder of his long career. 
Yet his extraordinary memory enabled him to recall the leading 
events and their relations, as at a later time he actually did. 

At the time of the outbreak Dr. Martin bad been for two 
years the first President of the Imperial University of China. 
Like Sir Robert Hart (whose knowledge of China was sup¬ 
posed to be greater than that of any other mortal) he was taken 
altogether by surprise, and they shared the mortification of 
being penned up in the British Legation for 56 days in the 
summer time, together with the staffs of eleven legations and 
the foreign community in general. After the relief of Peking 
by the Allied Forces (August 14th) Dr, Martin returned to 
America. At Vancouver, however, he received a telegram 
from H. E. Chang Chili-lung, the Governor-General of the 
two provinces of Hunan and Hupeh, asking him to return to 
China (which he might not otherwise have done) and lecture 
on International Law in a university there to be established. 
Dr. Martin spent three years in this task. Before the end of 
that time his high patron had been transferred to Nanking, and 
the budding university was blighted. 

Upon invitation of the Presbyterian Mission in Peking, 
which more than forty years previously he had himself founded, 
Dr. Martin again joined their ranks on the same footing as 
any other member, but drawing no salary. 

The most remarkable feature of Dr. Martin’s mental 
equipment was its extensive range, together with the thorough¬ 
ness with which he grasped both principles and details. 
Unlike many students, what he had once known he seemed 
always to know. As an illustration of this an incident may be 
cited which he occasionally related with more or less glee. 
Dr. Martin paid a visit to Tengchoufu, the seat of the Presby¬ 
terian College, now incorporated with the Shantung Christian 
University, of which Dr. C. W. Mateer was president, himself 


1917 ] The Life and Work of the Late Dr. W. A. P. Martin 121 


a great scholar in many lines, and then the most prominent 
educator in China. Even before Dr. Martin had time to climb 
out of his mule-litter Dr. Mateer greeted him with a mathematical 
problem which had recently appeared in the Scientific American, 
and to which answers were invited. Given a sphere of wood of 
a specified size, the problem was to ascertain the diameter of an 
auger which should bore out exactly one half of the spherical 
contents. Thus peremptorily challenged, like a war-horse 
scenting the battle, Dr. Martin presently addressed himself to 
the investigation, and ere long handed to Dr. Mateer a paper 
covered with complex calculations, concluding with the answer 
to the problem. Dr. Mateer’s lynx-eyed scrutiny, however, 
detected a mistake in one of the computations, and (perhaps 
with a little secret joy) he returned the paper as unsatisfactory. 
Piqued at his hasty error, Dr. Martin revised his work, soon 
handing back the sheet with the remark: “You will find 
nothing to criticize in that/” Dr. Mateer was so delighted 
with this demonstration of skill in a department of learning 
which was not Dr. Martin’s specialty that he shook his hand 
with great fervor as a tribute to his mathematical attainments. 
The report of this triumph made its way to Peking, where one 
of the Chinese teachers in the T‘ung Wen Kuan was an expert 
in the higher mathematics, and it greatly added to the prestige 
of the versatile and accomplished president of the institution. 

When a college student he cherished the unusual ambition 
of mastering the leading European languages so that he might 
read the great works of each in their original tongue. To a 
large extent this purpose was realized. German he learned 
from a kind-hearted Lutheran pastor in one of his village 
homes, and French he got from books, leaving the pronuncia¬ 
tion until he visited France. Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish 
he acquired in the busy days when he was president of the 
T l ung Wen Kuan. His large contributions to Chinese knowl¬ 
edge of international law have been mentioned. As soon as 
this was done, Dr. Martin set about the preparation of a similar 
text book on Natural Philosophy. Upon this he spent two 
years of work, the output of which was seven thiu volumes 
printed at government expense. This work gave to the Chinese 
elementary notions of the science of chemistry, the very name 
of which science was devised by Dr. Martin. For thirty 
years or more, though a revised edition was printed, the 
work was not superseded. He later prepared another of 


122 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


equal extent on the application of mathematics to physics. 
His Natural Philosophy was laid before the Emperor, for 
whom a special edition was struck off bound in yellow sat¬ 
in. It was also reprinted in Japan, with the addition of a 
commentary. While engaged in translating books on inter¬ 
national law, Dr. Martin was besought to give assistance 
to a committee which was rendering the New Testament in 
mandarin. Although already overburdened he consented to 
do so, and undertook the Book of Acts. 

Of his many works The Lore of Cathay is the one of most 
importance and permanent value, being the result of repeated 
revisions of his studies in Chinese Letters and Philosophy. Like 
his father he was a natural poet, as is shown in his Chinese 
Legends and Other Poems, a book which should be more 
widely known. (Oue of the best examples of his skill is 
found in the poem entitled : “ A Firefly Frolic.”) 

For more than forty years Dr. Martin spent his summers in 
China at the Pearl Grotto Temple on the Western Hills, Peking, 
where his expansive hospitality brought many visitors, and 
where almost to the last as a labor of love he taught relays of 
Chinese students. He was most generous not to his own mission 
only but also to many varied forms of Christian work in China. 
On the occasion of attaining the 8oth anniversary of his birth 
he was the recipient of a remarkable address from some of his 
friends and admirers in America, signed by more than sixty 
men and women of light and leading. Among them was the 
present President of the United States, many other university 
and college presidents and professors ; a distinguished major- 
general and a still more distinguished admiral; men of 
letters and men of wealth. As this paper better than any 
other expresses the judgment of his contemporaries, a few 
extracts may well close this imperfect review of an exceptional 
life: “We have noted your self-sacrificing devotion in early 
consecrating your life to a distant, and at that time compar¬ 
atively unknown and obscure field of toil, among an inhospit¬ 
able people; we have followed with interest your ministry 
to the intellectual, political, and religious needs of China, 
and your varied and illuminating contribution to her literary 
culture, as well as your exposition to Western readers and 
students of the philosophy and history, and the political and 
economic status of that ancient empire which now fills so large 
a place in contemporary annals, 


1917 ] The Life and Work of the Late Dr. W. A. P. Martin 123 

“ We cannot but regard your career as typical of an aspect 
of international service which represents one of the finest and 
noblest contributions of unostentatious devotion and friendly 
helpfulness which one race can show to another in the common 
struggles and hardly won victories of human progress. 

“We regard the influence of your strong personality, your 
relations with the Chinese people, your official services in 
positions of responsibility, your advice and counsel to men of 
high station in the Government, and your stalwart exemplifica¬ 
tion of the Christian spirit through long year3 of daily contact 
with students, officials, and the general community, as counting 
much toward the promotion of friendly international ties, and 
adding its full quota of stimulus to the unprecedented advance 
of the awakened, alert, and progressive China of to-day.” 

On Dr. Martin’s 87th birthday anniversary the President of 
the Chinese Republic, Yuan Sbili-k‘ai, sent him a pair of com¬ 
plimentary scrolls and an accompanying motto, with the four 
characters : ££ "ft ^ A Sea of Learning, An Old Age of 
Commanding Talent. At the Chinese funeral the present 
President of the Chinese Republic, H. E. Li Yuau-hung, sent 
his secretary as his representative, who read an Elegy composed 
by the President for the occasion. In this the President said : 
“The passing away of a figure which has been regarded 
by scholars of this country as the T‘ai Mountain, and the 
North Pole Star, fills me with particular sorrow and grief, and 
causes our tears to run down our cheeks.” Throughout his 
long life with but two exceptions Dr. Martin enjoyed almost 
uniform good health. He returned to Peking after more than 
four months at his mountain retreat, on the gth of October. 
Toward the close of the first week in December he was attacked 
by bronchial pneumonia which soon involved the entire respira¬ 
tory tract. He died on Sunday morning, December 17th, 
lacking a little less than four months of ninety full years. 

Dr. Martin is dead, but in the influence which he exerted 
and still exerts upon China he will live on for ever. Among 
the Immortals of Modem Missions the name of William A, P. 
Martin will always staud conspicuous. He rests from his 
labors, but bis works do follow him. 


124 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February 


Our Book Table 

The Splendid Quest. By Basil Mathews, M.A. London, Jar void and 
Sons, 2/6, 

Knights of the Pilgrims’ Way, such as Sir Galahad, Abraham 
Lincoln, Charles Lamb, Joan of Arc, Sister Dora, Louisa Alcott, 
Chalmers of Papua, Columba, and others, with St. Paul and The 
Christ. Mr. Mathews has written many books, and they have all 
had a wide .sale, and the charm of his style pervades the whole of 
this volume. Young people will enjoy the reading of this book, 
and older pilgrims will find in it some blossoms of fruit which will 
enrich their lives. We can think of nothing better as prize gifts 
for schools. The many illustrations by Ernest Prater are beauti¬ 
fully done, and add much to the interest of this excellent work. 


We welcome this new quarterly issued under the auspices of 
the Y. W. C. A., a new venture which deserves success, as it is 
well suited to form a link of union and fellowship between the 
ever-growing and scattered branches of this beneficent Association. 
The first number presents object lessons for the realisation of the 
best Christian ideals, gives an interesting account of a summer 
conference, deals with a school of physical education, Life in a 
Union College, with editorials, Association notes, and a Bible Study 
course, and a very timely preface by Miss Coppock. We like the 
simple, straight, and clear style of all the articles, and the few 
illustrations are well chosen and appropriate to the matter. 

We would, however, with fear and trembling, suggest that the 
title of the magazine be changed. “ Magazine” knows no gender. 
The Chinese title as it stands suggests that it is a ” female magazine,” 
instead of a magazine for young women. Why not retain the 
name usually adopted by the Association and, instead of giving 
the new magazine the dubious title of Ca ^ 

This is the opinion of two scholarly Chinese; but, then, they are 
only men! 


Glimpses into Spiritual Mysteries. ^ jjft ffr. By Hang Hai, C. L. S., 
Shanghai, Price 30 cents per copy , or cheaper rates for large orders . 
Mission Book Company . 

The preface, by the late Rev. Dr. Martin, states that Mr, 
Hang writes with fresh thought and vigorous expression, and that 
he is destined to occupy a high place among the Christian writers 
of this age. This is amply confirmed by a perusal of these 
stimulating and fruitful discussions of some of the great doctrines of 
the Christian faith. Mr. Hang is a philosopher and a Christian. 
His training under Dr. J. W. Lowrie and, later, under the expert 
guidance of Dr. MacGillivray in the Press Bureau of the C. L. S., 
has proved what an original Chinese thinker can contribute to the 
elucidation of the great verities of our faith. The style is 
excellent, the themes momentous, and the booklet should sell by 
the thousands. 




1917] 


Our Book Table 


125 


Graded Bible Stories. M M ^ tfc 14 ID By Dr. W. J. Mutch, Ripon 
College . 

Translated by Wang Yuen Deb, Shantung Christian University, 
Weihsien. The narrative portions of the Bible, only those suited 
for children, have been selected, scientifically graded, and put into 
a progressive series of stories. Each year’s work carries a pupil 
through 40 new stories, and there is no duplication. The author 
is a specialist, and these three booklets have won a wide acceptance 
and popularity among teachers of the Dower and Higher Primary 
Schools, for the lessons are intended specifically for such. 

The translation is in simple Mandarin, and the name of Mr. 
Wang, so long and honorably associated with the late Dr. C. W. 
Mateer in the tasks of Bible revision, is sufficient guarantee that 
the work has been carefully and well done. 

We do not know of any books similarly adapted for the purpose 
of helping the young to gain a knowledge of Bible stories. We 
have enjoyed the reading of all, and have been much impressed, so 
are not surprised that the three series have been enthusiastically 
welcomed in Shantung. We thank Shantung, the land of the 
Sages, for passing on the blessing. We have only one suggestion 
to make, i.e., that the booklet should not be issued with the term 
Shen (jpfjJ) only , as this will militate against its sale in some 
quarters. 

SRER. 


A Night in the Orient : Or, The Christmas Story. jp — $ §i§ By 
Miss XyAURA M. White. Christian Literature Society; Shanghai; 
23 leaves . Price 6 cents. 

This is a Cantata which is for a Reader and Chorus, aiid can 
be given with very little preparation, being especially adapted for 
the Sunday Christmas Service. The different incidents in the 
Christmas story are well told in simple Mandarin, while the score 
for the musical parts in also printed. It ought to make a very 
pleasing and profitable entertainment for a Christmas Sunday 
Service. 


Fundamental Truths Concerning the work of Christ. 

By Dr. J, T. Ward. Translated by Rev. J. W. Inglis. Shanghai : The 
Christian Literature Society. 16 leaves. Price 7 cents. 

In this little book the Atoning Work of Christ is discussed in 
a lucid and instructive manner under four general heads, viz., (1) 
The Fact of an Atonement; (2) The Necessity of an Atonement ; 
(3) The Basis of The Atonement; (4) The Results of the Atonement. 
This is followed by an Appendix giving a brief account of the 
various theories of the Atonement. As was to be expected, no 
perfectly satisfactory theory of this great work of Christ has been 
found. We can only know the fact. We cannot know the how 
of it. 




126 The Chinese Recorder [Februarv 

Christianity and The Modern mind, if® If |5( S§ £ A& By Rev. J. 

W. Inglts. Shanghai: The Christian Literature Society, /p leaves. 

Price 7 cents. 

In this pamphlet of 38 pages Mr. Itiglis discusses the relation 
of Christianity to rational thought. He shows that Christianity 
does not fear, but rather invites, the closest scrutiny, the most 
searching investigation, by the keenest minds that can be brought 
upon the subject. He cites the teachings of Huxley, Spencer, 
Romanes etc., on philosophy, science, and evolution, and shows 
that the established results of scientific investigation are quite in 
harmony with the teachings of Christianity. The book will be very 
valuable as a means with which to combat the agnosticism that is 
being inculcated in the literature that is being translated into 
Chinese, largely from the Japanese, and scattered broadcast over 
China. 


Human Progress Through Missions. Ss & tfe & SB If U8T By Dr. J. L. 

Barton. Translated by Mrs. E. W. Sheffield. Shanghai: The 

Christian Literature Society. 25 leaves. Price 12 cents. 

Dr. Barton’s illuminating and convincing summary of the 
improvements in human conditions among all nations and races of 
men, as a result of Christian Missions, has had a wide reading 
among English-speaking people, and it will be very useful and 
informing to the Chinese in its present translation by Mrs. Sheffield. 
The great and all-inclusive message of Christian Missions to the 
world is Christ and Him crucified for the salvation of the souls of 
men. But the by-products of mission work are both great and 
numerous, and they are of immense value in the general uplift of 
humanity. Tike a great tide, it comes in and lifts everything to a 
higher level. Benefits in the exploration of new countries ; in the 
study of the languages and dialects of the world; benefits to the 
church in general ; to industrial growth and development; to 
commerce ,* to medicine ; in the mutual understanding between the 
East and the West; in the political relations of the different count¬ 
ries of the world; etc., etc.—these are all summarised with more 
or less detail by Dr. Barton, and the translation is well done by 
Mrs. Sheffield. 


In Remembrance of me : Meditations in Preparation for Holy Com¬ 
munion and Helps Towards its Celebration. 5§? S§ ® By W. Hoekyn 
Rees and Hsu Kia Hsing. Adapted from a Book by Rev. Robert Tuck. 
Shanghai: Christian Literature Society. 42 leaves. Price 15 cents. 

The Preface states that the object of the book is to provide 
Christians in the interior stations, where there are no foreign 
missionaries or experienced pastors to explain the meaning of the 
Communion to them, with such explanations as will help them to 
understand its significance, so that they can partake of it intelligently 
and with spiritual profit. A meditation on some central truth that is 
expressed in the Eord’s Supper, is furnished for each month in the 
year, and these are preceded by an appropriate prayer and hymn. 
The style is simple Mandarin, and it ought to be very helpful to 
those for whom it is intended. In fact all Chinese Christians may 
read it with profit as they prepare themselves for this holy ordinance. 




Our Book Table 


127 


1917 ] 

Lord Lister : His Lire and Work. ® £ By G. T. Wrecnch, 

M.D. Translated by Evan Morgan, Wang Tiao Shkng, and Ha 

Hsiao Chuan. Shanghai: Christian Literature Society. 6o leaves. 

Price 25 cents. 

This Life of Lord Lister will be very useful and informing tc 
tlie Chinese. From it they will learn, first, the reality, the 
practical results, of antiseptic treatment of wounds, and the good 
effects of cleanliness and sanitation in general. Secondly, they will 
be stimulated to study and experiment. When they read of the 
persevering work of Lister and the long and toilsome road he had 
to travel, the difficulties and oppositions he met with before he 
attained his goal, they will find a new 7 illustration of their own 
proverb “ where there’s a will there’s a way.” They will also see 
something of the untold benefits that a persevering investigator can 
bring to his race. 

What a revolution has been wrought as the result of Lister’s 
work in introducing antiseptic methods into modern surgical 
practice. With ordinary care on the part of surgeons and nurses, 
septicemia no longer occurs, wounds heal by first intention, and the 
dire consequences of the decay of tissues, offensive suppuration, 
etc., which in the old days were the common accompaniments of 
wounds and surgical operations, are now no longer feared. Facts 
and teachings like these, the gospel of cleanliness, should be 
scattered far and wide among the people. 

Will the Chinese ever produce such a man as Lister? We 
believe they will. 


The Analysed Bible: Thk New Testament, By G- Campbell 

Morgan, D.D. Prepared by Evan Morgan and Chou Yun Lou. 

Shanghai: The Christian Literature Society. 123 leaves. Price 40 cents. 

This valuable work by Dr. Campbell Morgan has been well 
done into Chinese by Mr. Evan Morgan and his assistant, Mr. 
Chou. The original is in Dr. Morgan’s well-known lucid and 
helpful style. The principal contents, together with the deeper 
teachings of the New Testament, are briefly given. Each chapter 
is carefully analyzed and its contents divided into appropriate 
sections. All Chinese Christians ought to derive much benefit 
from the use of the book in their Bible study. The style is easy 
Wenli. 


The Commandments of Jesus. & & By R, F. Horton, D.D. Pre¬ 

pared in Chinese by Evan Morgan and Wang Yung Tsai. Shanghai: 
Christian Literature Society. 108 leaves. Price 40 cents. 

Dr. Horton, in his well-known book, has done a good work for 
Christians in assembling and commenting on the Commandments of 
our Lord Jesus Christ. These are gathered together under a 
number of different headings, as, repentance ; obedience; character ; 
fundamental teaching; five commands against anger, adultery, 
swearing, revenge, and hating enemies; seek ye first the kingdom 
of God; harsh judgements; prayer; the golden rule; go thou and 
do likewise; the unrighteous mammon; watchfulness; the new 
commandment; preach the gospel to all nations. The command- 




128 The Chinese Recorder [February 

meats are quoted and commented upon in a way that will bring 
much spiritual stimulus to any devout Christian who reads the 
book. To know clearly the commandments of his Divine Master 
and to have some conception of what they mean—this is one of the 
best possible helps to the growth and strengthening of the spiritual 
life of the disciple. 


Correspondence 


GIFT OF $5,000 FOR CANTON 
HOSPITAL. 

To the Editor of 

“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir ;—The Canton Hos¬ 
pital has lately been greatly 
helped and encouraged by the 
gift of five thousand dollars 
($5,ooo) from His Excellency 
Id Yuan-hung, President of 
China. This gift is an acknowl¬ 
edgement of the fact that the 
Canton Hospital, which is eighty 
years old, and is still one of the 
largest hospitals in China, was 
the pioneer agency in introduc¬ 
ing Western medicine into China, 
being the first to practise, pub¬ 
lish, or teach it. The Canton 
Hospital has already treated over 
two million patients, it being the 
big general and charity hospital 
of South China. It has always 
been a missionary agency, and a 
strong union of the missions 
engaged in medical work is now 
being planned with this hospital 
as a centre. The Civil and 
Military Governors of Kwaug- 
tung and the other high officials 
of the province are also large 
supporters of this work, as are 
many of the missionaries and 
business men of the city and 
province, and friends in America, 
as well as the Rockefeller China 
Medical Board. 

I am, 

Yours sincerely, 

T. 


FINAL YEAR, OPIUM PROHIBI¬ 
TION. 

To the Editor of 

“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir :—This present year 
ends the ten year period in which 
China has agreed to put an end 
to opium cultivation in the prov¬ 
inces. Much has been already 
accomplished, but many difficul¬ 
ties are in the way of the Central 
Government. In some places 
poppy planting has again been 
started. If it can be known just 
where planting is taking place, 
steps can be taken to prohibit it. 
The Central Government has 
given me the privilege of tele¬ 
graphing to any of the Provincial 
officials free of cost on the opium 
question. Any information that 
can be sent me regarding opium 
planting can be at once brought 
to the attention of the responsi¬ 
ble officials and so more effective 
work be done. I ask that any 
one who knows of the planting of 
poppy in any part of China will 
kindly inform me. I will not 
make use of the names of mis¬ 
sionaries who report, but only 
report the locality. Co-operation 
in this matter will greatly help 
China in the work of opium 
prohibition this year. 

Address : E. W. Thwing, 

International Reform Bureau, 
Peking, China. 




Correspondence 


129 


19 * 7 ] 

NEW SERIES OF NEW TESTA¬ 
MENT COMMENTARIES. 

To the Editor of 

“The Chinese Recorder,’’ 

Dear Sir The unqualified suc¬ 
cess of tbe new Hastings’ Bible 
Dictionary has encouraged the 
Christian Literature Society to 
plan a still larger work, viz., Com¬ 
mentaries on the Old Testament 
and the New. As will be seen, 
this series will not clash with the 
excellent series described by Dr. 
Darroch in the last Recorder. 
The Christian Literature So¬ 
ciety’s Commentaries are meant 
to be critical, expository, and 
practical. They will refer to the 
original languages which theo¬ 
logical students in China are now 
learning. No series of English 
books is taken as model, but 
each writer will be supplied 
with the latest and best com¬ 
mentaries. It is planned to 
cover the New Testament in 
about 8 volumes of 8oo pages 
each. The General Editors are 
Rev. W. M. Hayes, D.D., Shan¬ 
tung, and Rev. D. MacGillivray, 
D.D., Christian Literature So¬ 
ciety. Most of the New Testa¬ 
ment is already assigned to men 
of tried experience, chiefly in 
the various colleges. A work of 
this kind will naturally take 
some years to complete, but it is 
intended to issue the volumes as 
they are ready, giving special 
terms, when the whole is com¬ 
plete, to those ordering the eight 
volumes. 

D. MacGietjvray. 


PRAYER FOR STUDENTS. 

To the Editor of 

“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir : I enclose herewith 
a copy of the Call for the 
Observance of the Universal Day 


of Prayer for Students and would 
be glad if you will print in your 
next issue as much of this article 
as your space will allow. 

Dr. Mott, writing in connection 
with this Call says, “You will 
read between tbe lines that the 
Call has been framed this year 
with the movements in the 
neutral countries more especially 
in mind. Personally I have no 
doubt that the members in the 
other countries are giving them¬ 
selves to prayer but I have 
grave solicitude on the point as 
to whether the members in the 
neutral countries are devoting 
themselves to intercession as 
much as they should.” It seems 
to me that this comment of Dr. 
Mott’s might well be called to 
the attention of your readers. 

Arthur Rugh. 


CALL FOR THE OBSERVANCE OF 
THE UNIVERSAL DAY OF 
PRAYER FOR STUDENTS. 

For many years the Christian 
Student Movements throughout 
the world have chosen the last 
Sunday in February as a day 
when prayer would be offered, 
especially for men and women 
in the centres of learning. The 
present time calls again for the 
solemn observance of this day. 
Never before have students been 
in graver peril of their souls. 
Vast numbers are subjected to 
temptations the like of which 
they have never imagined. 
Thousands are racked with pain ; 
thousands are stagnating in 
prisoner-of-war camps. Revered 
ideals are likely to be swept 
away and tested principles aban¬ 
doned by masses of good men. 
There is imminent danger lest 
the idols of the market-place 
and the camp be substituted for 
the worship of the Living God. 



130 

The students of the neutral coun¬ 
tries are also subjected to subtle 
and grave spiritual perils in this 
time of unparalleled storm and 
stress. Some are becoming cyni¬ 
cal and pessimistic. Many are in¬ 
different to the vast moral issues 
at stake. All are in danger of not 
entering sufficiently into fellow¬ 
ship with the sufferings of their 
fellow-students in the warring 
nations. 

There is need for intercession 
of godly men and women that 
these calamities of the spirit 
may not blast the best life of 
the universities. It is with a 
sense of the awful peril of 
students and of the responsibility 
to meet tbeir deepest needs that 
the officers of the World's Stu¬ 
dent Christian Federation appoint 
Sunday, February 25, 1917, as 
the Universal Day of Prayer for 
Students, and call upon Chris¬ 
tians of every name and in every 
nation, particularly upon those 
who are members of universities, 
colleges, and higher schools, to 
join in prayer on that day for 
the students of the world. 

In calling upon Christians to 
pray, the Committee would again 
draw attention to the wonderful 
spectacle presented by the devo¬ 
tion of the educated men to 
those causes that claim their 
loyalty even unto death. By 
scores of thousands they have 
left the cloistered aloofness of 
the schools to struggle on battle¬ 
fields, shoulder to shoulder with 
fellow patriots from all walks of 
life. They have ministered unself¬ 
ishly to the spiritual and bodily 
needs of the despairing and the 
wounded. They have offered 
themselves ungrudgingly for all 
good works which need their aid. 
Truly magnificent is this out¬ 
pouring of the treasures of uni¬ 
versities. From literally all 
directions men have streamed up 


[February 

to the fields where the claims 
upon their strength and talent 
for friendship are the greatest. 

On the one side is danger to 
life and threatening disaster to 
the soul; on the other, high 
courage, devotion to duty, 
splendid enthusiasm for service. 
The destiny of many nations 
and the progress of humanity 
are involved in the issue of this 
conflict of forces. The outcome 
rests not alone with the partici¬ 
pants, but the responsibility is 
shared by those who, through 
active sympathy and earnest 
intercession, may uphold them 
in their time of fiery testing. 

On behalf of the General 
Committee of the World’s Stu¬ 
dent Christian Federation, 

Kart Fries, Chairman. 

John R. Mott, Gen. Sec. 


GROUNDS FOR THANKSGIVING. 

Let us thank God for the fact 
that the World’s Student Chris¬ 
tian Federation bond still holds, 
notwithstanding the impossible 
strain of the War. 

For the marvelous spirit of 
devotion, heroism, and sacrifice 
manifested by the students of 
the warring countries. 

For the seriousness of the 
students in the lands not at war 
and for the growing volume of 
service which they are rendering. 

For the work of Christ in the 
military training camps, in the 
soldiers’ homes, in the hospitals, 
and in the prisoner-of-war camps, 
and for the splendid manner in 
which these helpful activities are 
being promoted by leaders and 
members of the Student Christian 
Movements. 

For the national Student Con¬ 
ferences held during recent 
months in all parts of the world, 


The Chinese Recorder 



131 


Missionary News 


W7J 

gatherings characterized by great 
spiritual power and fruitfulness. 

For the larger plans on behalf 
of the students of Latin America, 
as a result of the Panama Con¬ 
gress which did so much to focus 
thought and prayer upon this 
neglected part of the student 
world. 

OBJECTS FOR INTERCESSION. 

Let us pray for the leaders of 
the Christian forces at work 
among students, that in every 
laud they may enlarge their plans 
and that they may with more 
purpose of heart devote them¬ 
selves to relating the students of 
the world to Christ and to His 
programme. 

That the Christian students iu 
the armies, in the hospitals, and 
in the prison camps may perceive 
and exemplify their Christian 
ideals and show forth the spirit 
of Christ. 

That the universities may be 
saved from drifting iuto the zone 
of pessimism and the Christian 
students and professors every¬ 
where may sound out the distinc¬ 
tive note of Christianity, the 
note of hope. 

That all our Christian Move¬ 
ments may address themselves 
with more wisdom aud power 
than heretofore to the removal 


of the causes of class bitterness, 
international strife, and racial 
prejudice. 

That Almighty God may soon 
usher iu a just, righteous, and 
durable peace. 

That the work for schoolboys 
may be greatly augmented, in 
order to make up for.the terrible 
carnage which the War has 
caused in the Christian ranks in 
the universities. 

That preoccupation with the 
great struggle in Europe may 
not prevent our recognizing and 
improving the day of our visita¬ 
tion iu Asia, Africa, and Latin 
America. 

Tba t the leaders of the Student 
Movements may be given fore¬ 
sight and patience to prepare for 
the larger task which will con¬ 
front them after the war. 


Dr. Harlan P. Beach, of Yale 
University School of Religion, 
would like to secure the follow¬ 
ing numbers of the Recorder : 

January and February, 1882. 

December, 1887. 

Anyone having copies of these 
will render a service to Dr. 
Beach by sending them to the 
Recorder office, stating that 
they are for Dr. Beach, and pay¬ 
ment will be made for the same, 
if desired. 


Missionary News 


Week of Evangelism in the South 
India United Church. 

One rather hesitates to compile 
and publish the returns of the 
Week of Evangelism because of 
the probabilities of error. These 
returns have been given by near¬ 
ly 300 persons. Some figures 
will be accurate; others exagger¬ 


ated. All who have had any¬ 
thing to do with statistics will 
recognize this. Let the reader 
make a liberal deduction, if he 
so wishes, yet he must come to 
a conclusion that much earnest, 
self-sacrificing, and faithful work 
was done throughout that week. 

These figures do not represent 
the entire South India United 




132 


The Chinese Recorder [February 


Church. Iu some sections it 
was not found convenient to 
hold the week at that time (part 
of Travancore). The Telugu 
week was held later and the 
returns are not included. A 
number of churches we fear 
have failed to send in their 
figures, which is to be regretted. 
With these preliminary remarks 
we give below the returns as 
they stand to date. 


Councils, 

Villages visited . 

Meetings held.. 

People addressed: Men 

Women ... 

Tracts ... 

Books Sold . 

Volunteers i Men 

Women ... 

Workers: Men 

Women ... 

New Villages. 

Enquirers: Men 

Women ... 

Decisions: Men 

Women... 

Amount collected on ) - 
ist Oct., 1916 ) * *" 

Bible Classes ... 

Men 

Women... 


Totals. 

3.412 

21,213 

178,258 

61,162 

119,112 

12,187 

3,382 

1,266 

1,353 

530 

588 

3.413 
1,085 
1,945 

623 

209 

1,622 

4,H3 

2,335 


We probably can depend upon 
the accuracy of “ Villages vis¬ 
ited” and “Meetings held.” 
The number of “Hearers” is 
frequently too large. Have we 
not here an encouraging state¬ 
ment, nearly 4,000 villages vis¬ 
ited aud the Gospel preached 
to nearly 250,000 in one week’s 
time? 

Then the number of tracts 
distributed and books sold can 
be taken as fairly reliable. 
Evidently the workers were im¬ 
pressed with the importance of 
bringing the printed page before 
the better educated of the 
masses. 

The number of volunteer 
workers is also a matter of 
encouragement. Over 4,600 men 
and women devoted a part of 
a week in witnessing for Christ. 


This figure added to the number 
of mission workers gives a total 
of nearly 6,500 persons, carrying 
the message to others by either 
song or teaching : a band not to 
be despised. 

It will be noted that there are 
a large number of villages—over 
500—where the people are 
anxious to have schools opened 
and the Gospel preached. The 
number of inquirers is 4,500, 
while those who have definitely 
stated that they wish to become 
Christians is more than 2,500. 
If even half of these were truly 
sincere, and had received a 
glimpse of the Tove of God 
from the efforts of that week, 
surely every sacrifice, every 
effort, would have been repaid a 
hundredfold. The amount of 
money collected for the work is 
not to be despised—Rs. 209. 

A glimpse at the returns 
reported under Bible classes 
brings encouragement. There 
are over 1,000 Bible classes with 
over 6,000 members (2,300 of 
whom are women) who are 
studying the Word of God. 
Here is a field of mighty pos¬ 
sibilities—a subject for earnest 
prayer. Should the power of 
the Eord descend upon these 
6,000 persons, would there not 
be a band whose influence for 
righteousness would be great! 

W. T. SCUDDER, 
October, 1916. Convener. 

(Copied from the South India 
United Church Herald .) 


Forward Evangelistic Movement, 
Norwegian Mission, Hunan. 

The Norwegian Missionary 
Society iu Hunan has appointed 
a committee for a forward 
evangelistic movemeut; their 
first effort was to enlist the co- 




1917 ] 


Missionary News 


W 


operation and enthusiasm of the 
Christian workers, for whom 
they held three conferences. 

The second step was to start 
the movement among the Chris¬ 
tians, holding for them three 
series of meetings in different 
places. The object of the meet¬ 
ings was to help the Christians 
in the deepening of their spiritual 
life, and in the second place, to 
show them how to work. One 
public meeting was held every 
afternoon for non-Christians, 
but they attended also some of 
the meetings for Christians. 
These meetings have been a 
great success in Niugsianghsien, 
with about six thousand people 
iii attendance. In two other 
places the meetings were attend¬ 
ed by about four thousand. 
About forty, who had beeu in¬ 
quirers for some time, asked for 
baptism ; and about 150 were 
enrolled in Bible classes. 

In Changsha district alone, 
sixteen preaching places have 
been opened as a result of these 
conferences and meetings. The 
work is just beginning and we 
hope it may continue. 


Evangelistic Meetings in Shensi 
planned for March and April, 
1917 ; in charge of Miss Jessie 
G. Gregg. 


February 26-March 1. 
... March 3 - 6 


Sian. 

Sian B, M. S. 
bichiian Ml 
Kienebow ... 
Hingping ... 
Chowchih ... 
Meihsien ... 
Fengsiangfu 
Kieniang ... 
bongchou ... 


10-13 
» 16-19 

„ 22.25 

„ 28-31 

April 4 - 7 

„ n-14 

n 18-21 

„ 25-28 


An itinerary in Kansuli will 
follow after these missions in 
Shensi. 


Women’s Meetings at Yench'eng 
and Hsing-hua. 

Miss Margaret King, of the 
China Inland Mission, writes of 
encouraging results in recent 
meetings at Yench'eng, Ku.: 

“ The great joy while there 
was to see the women who had 
been brought to the bord in last 
year’s meetings ‘ walking in the 
truth ’ and working to bring in 
others. I hear, too, that the 
work is still spreading. 

“Hsing-hua is a large city 
where missionaries have been at 
work for eighteen years, with¬ 
out one ivoman convert. God 
blessed us there from the first. 
Crowds of orderly women sat 
through our meetings, listening 
well, and each day those who 
wanted to learn more stayed 
behind in large numbers. At 
this early date one speaks with 
caution of results, but quite 
surely some accepted the I<ord 
Jesus. 


Extracts from the Report of the 
Foochow Evangelistic Committee 
for the First Half of the Year 
1916 . 

The Foochow Evangelistic 
Committee recommenced their 
w r ork early in March, 1916. The 
work was carried on along three 
main lines, namely, Bible Study, 
Social Service, and Evangelistic. 

Considerable difficulty was ex¬ 
perienced during the spring in 
restarting Bible Study classes, 
but in the end there were twe?ity- 
four classes meeting weekly with 
the largest single attendance in 
any one week of two hundred 
and four. The class of Bible 
Study leaders and pastors has 
continued to meet weekly on 
Wednesdays, the time being 
divided as follows: First, Pray¬ 
er Meeting at 10.30 a.m.; Second, 
Devotional Bible Study from 







134 The Chinese Recorder [Febiuary 


eleven to twelve o’clock, led by 
some prominent teacher, then 
tiffin; Third, a discussion of 
methods of Evangelism and of 
the reports of the previous week, 
lasting until 1.30 p.m., the chair¬ 
man at this meeting being one of 
the secretaries. 

Besides this, church member 
Bible Study classes were organ¬ 
ized. Seventeen classes have 
actually started. 

A new sub-committee was 
added, which has sent out 
preachers to different churches 
twice a month, each time three 
speakers going out together. 


Self-support in South Fukien 
Presbyterian Church. 

The territory occupied by this 
Church has been divided into 
five districts for the administra¬ 
tion of the work of the unordained 
preachers, all of which is 
under the supervision of district 
committees, consisting almost 
wholly of Chinese pastors and 
elders, who report to the Synod. 
The following is their financial 
report presented to the Synod in 
December, 1916. 



Received. 


Paid Out. 


District I. 

Chinese Churches 

R. C. A. Mission 

... $1,090 iS 

... 1,263.3a 

Salaries 

$2,353.50 



$2,353.50 



District II. 

Chinese Churches 

E. P. Mission ... 

... 1,133-00 

525.00 

Salaries 

$1,658.00 



$1,658.00 



District III. 

Chinese Churches 

E. P. Mission ... 

... 442.10 

2,627.90 

Salaries 

$3,070.00 



$3,070.00 



District IV. 

Chinese Churches 

R. C, A. Mission 

236.00 
... 2,332.00 

Salaries 

$2,568.00 



$2,568,00 



District V. 

Chinese Churches 

E. P. Mission ... 

1,099.00 
... 2,510.00 

Salaries 

$3,609.00 



3,609.00 




Received. 

Total. 

Paid Out, 



Chinese Churches 

R. C. A. Mission 

E. P. Mission ... 

4,000.28 

... 3,617.17 

••• 5,695-69 

$13, V 3 -H 

Salaries $13,258.50 

Miscellaneous 54.64 

$13,313-14 


In addition to the above the ceed $10,000. The contributions 
churches pay in full the salaries of the Chinese churches for the 
of all ordained ministers, and all salaries of pastors and preachers 
current local expenses. These last year were more than $14,000 
ministers now number 41 or 42, and those of the two missions 
and their total salaries will ex- were $9,313. 
















t35 


Missionary News 


1917J 

Medical Missionary Conference 
in U. S. A. 

The Eighth Medical Missionary 
Conference, under the auspices 
of the Battle Creek Sanitarium, 
was held this year from Novem¬ 
ber 29th to December 3rd, and 
was attended by about 130 mis¬ 
sionaries, Board Secretaries, and 
others. The Sanitarium man¬ 
agement invites to this con¬ 
ference, not only returned mis¬ 
sionaries, both medical and 
others, but also students from 
nearby medical colleges or 
training schools for missionaries, 
and arranges to entertain them 
free. 

The program was quite varied, 
including not only topics of 
special interest to medical mis¬ 
sionaries, but also a goodly 
number of general missionary 
topics* Among the speakers 
were:—Rev. Jas. E. Barton, 
D.D., of the American Board, 
who was also the presiding 
officer, Bishop Hartzell, formerly 
of Africa, Dr. E J. Strick, Revs. 
W. R. Stewart, and C. G. Vin¬ 
cent of China, Bishop Hurst, 
Rev. Jos. Clarke and several 
others from Africa and Egypt, 
and a goodly number of other 
missionaries from India, Turkey, 
Assam, Siam, Japan, and Korea. 

The Home Boards of Foreign 
Missions were represented by 
Rev. J. H. Franklin, Baptist, 
Rev. E- B. Wolf, D.D., Eutheran, 
Rev. Geo. H. Trull, Presbyterian, 
and S. Earl Taylor, Methodist, 
Rev. J. E- Barton, D.D., A. B. C. 
F. M. 

Beautiful moving pictures and 
stereopticon slides showing views 
from mission lands, were shown 
every evening during the Con¬ 
ference. These drew a large 
audience, not only of residents 
in the Sanitarium, but also from 
the city of Battle Creek. 


Not least of all, by any means, 
was the daily devotional hour, 
led by Rev. R. P. Mackay, D.D., 
of Toronto, Secretary of the 
Canadian Presbyterian Board. 

China was represented by Dr. 
Way Sang New of Shanghai, 
who gave the last address of the 
Conference, and was warmly 
received by the audience. 

It is the desire of the Sanita¬ 
rium management to hold a 
similar conference next year, 
and those missionaries returning 
home on furlough next year, 
who can attend the Conference 
without too much inconvenience, 
should try to arrange to be here. 
They will find it a delightful 
place to spend a week; and if, 
for health reasons, they desire 
to remain longer, the Sanitarium 
will make them very special 
rates for a month or two. The 
Conference will probably be held 
next year also at the Thanks¬ 
giving season, so as to make it 
possible for College students to 
attend during their Thanks¬ 
giving vacation. 

W. F. Seymour, M.D. 


Boys’ Conference. 

The second annual Boys’ 
Conference of the Young Men’s 
Christian Associations in Nan¬ 
king and Shanghai will be held 
in the Young Men’s Christian 
Association Boys’ Building, 
Shanghai, January 29th to 
February 1st, inclusive. About 
one hundred delegates are 
expected, sixty of whom are 
from cities outside of Shanghai, 
a few coming from places as far 
away as Peking and Hankow. 

Each morning there will be 
Bible study, exercise, discussion 
by boys of club work, and a 
platform address. After tiffin 
there will be a discussion of 


136 

club work, by tbe leaders. 
Then competitive games by the 
boys. The evenings will be 
used for debates and social 
functions. February 2nd will be 
devoted to sight-seeing. 

News Items. 

The China Medical Missionary 
Association held its biennial 
meeting in Canton, January 24th- 
31st. 

The Annual Meeting of the 
East China Educational Associa¬ 
tion was held in Shanghai, Janu¬ 
ary 25th-27th. 

A meeting of Shantung and 
Honan educational missionaries 
has been called to meet in Wei- 
hsieu on the 30th of January. 
It is planned to organize a Shan¬ 
tung-Honan Educational Asso¬ 
ciation. 

The Eauguage School of the 
University of Nankiug has re¬ 
ceived a gift of $30,000 (gold) 
from American friends for the 
erection of a suitable building, 
including recitation halls and 
dormitory. 

The Swasey Science Hall of 
the University of Nanking was 
dedicated on January 12th. The 
donor, Mr. Ambrose Swasey, 
whose gift was $25,000 (gold), 
is a noted manufacturer of astro¬ 
nomical and other scientific in¬ 
struments, in America. He made 
a special trip to Nanking in 
order to be present at this dedi¬ 
cation. The new building has 
more than thirty chemical and 
physical laboratories and lecture 
halls, and Is both substantially 
constructed and well adapted for 
the use of the department of 
science. Its happy adaptation 
of Chinese architecture gives it 
an unusually beautiful and strik¬ 
ing appearance. 


[February 

The spring term of the Dora 
Yu Bible and Prayer House, 
situated at Kiaugwan, near 
Shanghai, will opeu February 
21st, The full course is three 
years but pupils will be received 
for two, if unable to give the 
full time. The aim is instruction 
in the Word of God and the 
deepening of spiritual life, com¬ 
bined with putting all into 
practical use. Tuition is free, 
but board is charged four dollars 
per month, each. Instruction is 
in simple mandarin. 

You will be glad to know 
that our recent conference was 
marked by real blessing. Mr. 
and Mrs. Saunders came as ar¬ 
ranged, though they did the 
last three days by cart through 
thick mud and some rain. Since 
they were driven out in 1900 
they have not returned till this 
year. The people were sincerely 
and heartily glad to see their 
faces again ; young and old 
crowded around. Many of the 
former were boys in the school 
before the Boxer uprising, and 
many grey beards amongst tbe 
latter were only middle-aged 
sixteen years ago. Memory was 
active. Shining faces accom¬ 
panied the recital of some remi¬ 
niscences, while tears marked 
those stories in connection with 
Mr, and Mrs. Saunders and their 
children’s sufferings. 

There was the usual two days’ 
conference with an unusual de¬ 
gree of the power of the Holy 
Spirit. Mr. Saunders took nearly 
all the meetings. His appeal 
was to the heart, then the in¬ 
tellect. We praise God for his 
masterly handling of the prob¬ 
lem of native church independ¬ 
ence. This was quite apropos 
of the live discussions of our 
provincial conference in May. 
He pointed out the mistake of 


The Chinese Recorder 


13 7 


Missionary News 


1917] 

instituting aud continuing for¬ 
eign support of native helpers, 
chapels, schools, and ordinary 
rutmiug expenses, and urged 
upon the Church a speedy ac¬ 
ceptance of these responsibilities 
so plainly its own according to 
apostolic practice. Such monies 
as were now used to the crip¬ 
pling of the work could thus be 
liberated for wide-spread evan¬ 
gelism. 

By request the last afternoon 
and evening were given to a 
tracing of God’s great faithful¬ 
ness toward His servant in the 
dangers, sufferings, and sorrows 
of 1900. Mrs. Saunders helped 
in the recital. The tone was 
triumphant throughout. The 
Chinese showed the keenest ap¬ 
preciation, and could not but 
gain a deeper sense of the mar¬ 
vellous grace, love, and power 
of God. 

Five days of evangelistic 
meetings, in a city building 
specially lent us, followed. The 
attendances and interest were 
good, and several took a definite 
and public stand for Christ. We 
note with thankfulness to God 
the impetus given to our leaders 
along the lines of personal work. 
Mr. Saunders had daily talks 
with them on aggressive evan¬ 
gelism, backing everything up 
by illustration and experience. 

We are about to begin a two 
weeks’ Bible study class for meu. 
There are many signs of the 
Holy Spirit working in our 
midst and we believe that this 
time spent over the Word is to 
be very fruitful in strengthening 
the hold of the Lord upon many 
lives. 

Dates of Important Meetings. 

February 20th : Annual Meet¬ 
ing Board of Managers, Shanghai 
American School. 


February 28th: Special Com¬ 
mittee (of the China Continua¬ 
tion Committee) on Christian 
literature, in Shanghai. 

March 1st: Executive Com¬ 
mittee of the China Continuation 
Committee, in Shanghai. 

April 12th: Forward Evangel¬ 
istic Movement Committee (of 
the C.C.C.), in Shanghai. 

April 26th to May 1st: Fifth 
Annual Meeting of the China 
Continuation Committee, in 
Hangchow. 


Personals. 

Rev. Frank D. Gatnewell, 
EE-D., General Secretary of the 
China Christiau Educational 
Association, returned to China 
in January. Dr. Gamewell’s 
absence was longer than had 
been expected, because of illness, 
from which, however, he has 
entirely recovered. 

The National Committee of 
the Young Women’s Christian 
Association of China has just 
voted a six months’ furlough 
for Miss Grace Coppock, and 
she will be leaving Shanghai 
about the middle of February. 

Bishop E- H. Roots has cabled 
that he expects to arrive in 
Shanghai, February 27th. 

Dean Bailey of the Agricul¬ 
tural School of Cornell Univer¬ 
sity, Ithaca, N.Y., expects to 
leave America some time in 
March for a visit in China. 

Dr. Henry Haigli, Secretary of 
the Wesleyan Methodist Mission¬ 
ary Society, is planning to visit 
China, arriving here in June. 

Mr. E. F. Black, formerly Pro¬ 
fessor of Engineering in the 
Anglo-Chinese College, Foochow, 
has now returned to Foochow 
under an appointment of the 
Methodist Board to establish in 



138 

Foochow a bureau for planning 
and supervising missionary build¬ 
ing operations. 

Mr, C. T. Wang, vice-president 
of the Senate, teaches a Bible 
class every Sunday morning. 
The members of the class are 
members of Parliament and 
officials in the various govern¬ 
mental boards. 

Statement of Social Faith of the 
Federal Council of the Churches 
of Christ in America. 

The Federal Council of the 
Churches of Christ in America 
expresses again the deepening 
conviction that the scope of the 
Gospel and the program of the 
churches must include the crea¬ 
tion on earth of a Christian 
civilization, organized upon the 
ethical teachings and controlled 
by the spirit of Jesus Christ. 

In particular and immediately, 
the Federal Council of the 
Churches of Christ in America 
stands: 

1. For equal rights and justice 
for all men in all stations of life. 

2. For the protection of the 
family by the single standard of 
purity, uniform divorce laws, 
proper regulation of marriage, 
proper housing. 

3. For the fullest possible de¬ 
velopment of every child, espe¬ 
cially by the provision of educa¬ 
tion and recreation. 

4. For the abolition of child 
labor. 

5. For such regulation of the 
conditions of toil for women as 
shall safeguard the physical and 
moral health of the community. 

6. For abatement and preven¬ 
tion of poverty. 

7. For the protection of the 
individual and society from the 
social, economic, and moral waste 
of the liquor traffic. 


[February 

8. For conservation of health. 
9- For the protection of the 
worker from dangerous machin¬ 
ery, occupational diseases and 
mortality. 

10. For the right of all men 
to the opportunity for self-main¬ 
tenance, for safeguarding this 
right against encroachments of 
every kind, for the protection of 
workers from the hardships of 
enforced unemployment. 

11. For suitable provision for 
the old age of the workers, and 
for those incapacitated by injury. 

12. For the right of employees 
and employers alike to organize ; 
and for adequate means of con¬ 
ciliation and arbitration in indus¬ 
trial disputes. 

13. Fora release from employ¬ 
ment one day in seven. 

14. For the gradual and rea¬ 
sonable reduction of hours of 
labor to the lowest practicable 
point, and for that degree of 
leisure for all which is a condi¬ 
tion of highest human life. 

15. For a living wage as a 
minimum in every industry, and 
for the highest wage that each 
industry can afford. 

16. For a new emphasis upon 
the application of Christian prin¬ 
ciples to the acquisition and use 
of property, and for the most 
equitable division of the product 
of industry that can ultimately be 
devised ; also, for a stewardship 
of property which requires recog¬ 
nition of the primary moral and 
spiritual obligations of holders 
of property to the public welfare. 

The Comprehensive Objective of 
the Commission on Evangelism, 
adopted by the Federal Council 
of the Churches of Christ in 
America. 

In planning for <f a great for¬ 
ward movement of evangelistic 
work which shall be country- 


The Chinese Recorder 


Personals 


1917 ] 

wide in its scope and which, 
under God, must give a power¬ 
ful impulse to the religious life 
of our nation and bring a mighty 
increase to the membership of 
our churches’', the Federal 
Council adopted the following as 
the proper aim of such an under¬ 
taking : 

I. 

To place renewed emphasis on 
the fundamentals of the Gospel. 

II. 

To intensify the vision and 
stimulate the propaganda of 
American Evangelical Chris¬ 
tianity. 

III. 

To emphasize the need of and 
to encourage the most efficient 
forms of pastoral evangelism. 

IV. 

To arouse the church members 
to a proper sense of their per- 


159 

sonal responsibility and need of 
training for individual evan¬ 
gelism. 

V. 

To embrace the great oppor¬ 
tunity of reaching for Christ the 
students of our educational in¬ 
stitutions. 

VI. 

To challenge the youth of the 
country to the work of the 
gospel ministry and missions. 

VII. 

To stress the ideals and activi¬ 
ties of Christian stewardship. 

VIII. 

To elevate the standard and 
safeguard the work of a sane 
and thorough type of evangelism. 


Personals 


births. 

At Siangsiang, Hunan, October 8th, 
to Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Beckeb, 
C. I. M,, a daughter (Elisabeth 
Amalie). 

AT Hungkiang, November 14th, to 
Mr. and Mrs. O. Hoeeenwegsr, 
C. I. M., a son (Paul Otto). 

AT Anderson, Ind., U. S. A., November 
i8th, to Rev. and Mrs. C. S. 
HrininCER, Methodist Protestant 
Mission, a son (Charles McKinney). 

AT Chungking, Szechwan, December 
7th, to Rev. and Mrs. W. B. Ae- 
bRrTSON, C. M. M,, a son (David 
Beaton). 

AT Peking, December 22nd, to Rev. 
and Mrs. Chas. Lawrence Ogie- 
vib, A, P. M,, a son (Lawrence 
Elliott), 

AT Iowa City, la., December 28th, 
1916, to Mr. and Mrs. C. L. Foster, 
a son (John Wallace). 


At Tientsin, January 1st, to Mr. and 
Mrs. J. B. Tayeer, L. M. S., a 
daughter (Hilda Grace). 

AT Chungking, Szechwau, January 
4th, to Mr. and Mrs. F. Bird, C. I. 
M., a daughter (Berta Constance). 

At Weihsien, January 5th, to Dr. and 
Mrs. J. Winter Brown, a daugh¬ 
ter. 

At Yochow City, Hunan, to Rev. and 
Mrs. Edwin A, Beck, R. C. U. S-, 
twins (Mary Irene and Robert 
Poling), 


MARRIAGES. 

At Paoning, January xst, Mr. G. 
Kirkpatrick to Miss L. I. Maeet, 
both C. I. M. 

AT Kaifeug, January 5th, Mr. R, 
Hogben to Miss A. Beckett, both 
C, I. M. 




140 


The Chinese Recorder 


[February, 1917 


DEATHS. 

At Chungking, January 4th, Miss 
I. W. Ramsay, C. I. M., from acute 
bronchitis. 

At Shanghai, January gth, Sirs. W. 
England, C. I. M., from Bright’s 
disease. 

January 9th, Mrs. T. E. Harnsber- 
GER, A. P. M„ South. 

AT Kiukiang, January 13th, Mrs. J. 
Carver, C. I. M., from tuber¬ 
culosis, 

January 20th, Mrs. T. A. Hearn, 
M. B. M., South. 

ARRIVAL8. 

December 10th, from U. S. A., Dr, 
R. M. Eewis, A. C. M. 

December Tith, from Sweden via 
Siberia, Mr. and Mrs. Albin Kar- 
LSSon and Misses R. Carlson, B. 
Svensson, B. Carleson and I. 
Nordstrom, C. I. M. 

December 14th, from England, Rev, 
W. E. Knipe, C. M. S. 

December—th, from England, Miss 
Sabine Mackintosh, E. P. M., 
Formosa, Miss Jennie Gilchrist, 
B. P. M., Wukingfu. 

December 19th, from England via 
Cape of Good Hope, Rev. and Mrs. 
W, H, Warren and children, Misses 
E. Meadows, Bily Meadows, B. 
Culvkrwell and H. M. Kingston; 
from Ireland, Rev. and Mrs. J. Mc- 
WhirtER and children, I. P, C. M.; 
Misses Campbell and Shackleton, 
Eng. Wesleyan Mission. 

December 20tb, from U. S. A,, Mr. 
and Mrs. J, C. Clark and children, 
and Mrs. R. R. Gailey, Y. M. C. A.; 
Mr. and Mrs. E. F. Black and chil¬ 
dren, and Miss Edith F. Gaylord, 
M. B. M.; Dr. and Mrs. C, M. Bee 
and children, and W. M. Porter- 
EIELD, A. C. M.; Miss H. IT, BriT- 
Tingham, A.B.F.M.S.; from Canada, 
Rev. H. W. Flag, B.A., and Mr. 
G. K. Harris. 

December aoth, from U. S. A., Miss 
Belle Myers, A. F. M. 

December aiit, from Norway, 
Misses M. Dornin, H. Carlsen, H. 
Bundely, M. Paolsen, B. Hansen, 
A. F. M.; Miss V. Dyrkndal, F. B. 
M. U.; Rev. J. Paulsen, C, I. M. 

December and, from U. S. A., Rev. 
G. E. Whitman, A. B. F. M. S. 

December 25th, from U. S. A., 
Clara Beach, M.D., and Miss 
Gladys Aston, A. B. F. M. S. 

December 27th, Rev. and Mrs. W. 
R. Wheeler, A. P. M„ North. 


January 1st, from U. S. A., Misses 
G. M. Breck and J. M. Dudley, 
A. B. C. F. M. 

January and, from U. S. A., Mr. 
and Mrs, W. D, Boone and children^ 
Y. M. C. A.; Rev. F. A. Wennborg 
and family, and Miss FoRS, Swedish 
Mission. 

January 3rd, from England and 
Canada, Mr. D. E. Hoste, Director 
C. T, M. 

January 6th, from England, Rev. 
S. H. Dixon, Wesleyan Mission, 

January 9th, from England, Rev. 
and Mrs. T. Darlington and chil¬ 
dren, C. I. M. 

January 10th, from Australia, Mr, 
and Mrs. G, F. Row and daughter, 
C. I. M.; from—, Mr. and Mrs. Wil¬ 
son, Unconnected, to Weihaiwei. 

January 15th, from Canada, Mr. 
and Mrs. J. H. Mellow and child, 
C. I. M.; Rev. R. C. Ricker, C.M.M. 

January 17th, from England via 
Cape of Good Hope, Mr. and Mrs. 
A. T. Bavington and children, C.I.M. 

January aist, from U. S. A., Rev. 
and Mrs. W. W. Adams, S. B. C, 

DEPARTURES. 

December 5th, to England via Cape 
of Good Hope, Mr. and Mrs. C. H. 
Coates and children, C. I. M, 

December 14th, to England via 
Siberia, Dr. and Mrs. J. C. Carr and 
Mrs. S. H. Care and children, C.I.M. 

December 15th, to U. S. A., Rev. 
and Mrs. T. F. McCrka and children, 
S. B. C. 

December a6th, to England, Rev. 
and Mrs. El. Bloyd, and Misses 
Massey and Barr, C. M. S. 

December 30th, to U. S. A., Rev. 
and Mrs. Wm. H. Nowack and chil¬ 
dren, Eben. M.; Rev. and Mrs. G. 
Hansen and family, A. F. M. 

December 31st, to U. S. A., Dr. C. 
Newton Dobs, U. E. C. M. 

January 7th, to U. S. A., Rev. and 
Mrs. I, B. Clark and children 
A. B. F. M. S.; Rev. and Mrs. S, J, 
Talbot, and infant, A. C. M. 

January 13th, to Canada, Dr. and 
Mrs. W. T. Clark and children, 
C. I. M.; to England via Canada, 
Miss F. M. Williams, C. I. M. 

January 19th, Miss C. E. Hawes, 
A. P. M., North. 

January 27th, to England via Cape 
of Good Hope, Rev. and Mrs. R. B. 
Porter and child, and Miss A. 
Tranter, C. I. M. 


THE CHINESE 

RECORDER 

m m m m 

VOL. XLVIII. MARCH, 1917. No. 3 

Registered at trie Chinese Post Office as a Newspaper. 

Chinese Students Abroad 

The Returned Student in China 

The C. 1. M. Shansi Bible Institute 

Recent Development in American Student Life 

Material intended for Publication should be addressed, 

" Editor, Chinese Recorder, 5 Quinsau Gardens, Shanghai." 
Advertising and Business Matters should be addressed to 

Presbyterian Mission Press, 18 Peking Road, Shanghai.” 


Published monthly by the American Presbyterian Mission Press, 
18 Peking Road, Shanghai, China. 

Subscription $4.00 Mexican (Gold $2.00 or 8 shillings) per annum, postpaid. 






















THE 

REC 

CHINESE 

!0R DER 

VOI*. XI/VIII. 

MARCH, 1917. No. 3 


CONTENTS 

PASK, 

EDITORIAL COMMENT.141 

The Returned Student—Chinese and Foreign Dress.—Sunday Observance.—Two Veter¬ 
ans.—Mr. Rawlinsors’s Bereavement—Death’s Heavy Toll. 

The Promotion of Intercession .146 

CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES: 

Chinese Students Abroad . Arthur Rug h, 147 

The Returned Student in China ... Hita-chuen Mri, B.Sc. LL-B., J.D. 158 

The C. I. M. Shansi Bible Institute.F, C. H. Drryer. 175 

Recent Development in American Student Life. J.D. Childs. 182 

In MemoriamMrs. 5 . F. Edwards . Arthur Sowbrby. 186 

OUR BOOK TABLE.189 

CORRESPONDENCE .192 

Seven Snares of Comparative Religion.—North China Union Language School.—Tent 
Preaching—The Jewish Colony Again—A Correction. 

MISSIONARY NEWS .. 197 

Medical Conference at Canton.—Report of Conference on Christian Literature In the 
Mission Field.—Extracts from Report of Annual Conference of Missionary Societies 
in Great Britain and Ireland. June 21st to 23rd, 1916.—Recommendations of the 
West China Advisory Council'of the Churches, Chengtu, October, 1916.—Recom¬ 
mendations of the West China Missions' Advisory Board, Chengtu, October, 1916.— 
Recommendations Passed by Both the Advisory Council of the Churches and the 
Missions’ Advisory Board, West China.—What Constitutes “Adequate Missionary 
Occupation": A Definition by Dr. Robert E. Speer—Extracts from Correspondence.— 

News Items.—Dates of Important Meetings. 

PERSONALS.207 


C. 1. M. Shansi Bible Institute 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

... Frontispiece. 

The Late Mrs. 5, F. Edwards. 

. .4. ... ... ... ... ... 

.. Page t86 




NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS 


Arthur Rugh, B.A., National Student Secretary 
of the Young Men’s Christian Association, has recently 
returned to China. Before coming to China for the 
first time he was Secretary of the Student Volunteer 
Movement; then followed seven years of work in China 
in connection with the Young Men’s Christian Asso¬ 
ciation ; during the past seven years he has been 
associated with Dr. Mott in the administration of the 
Foreign Department of the International Committee 
and at the same time was related to the work among 
Chinese students in America. 

Dr. H. C. Mei, B.S., EL.D., J.D., is the only 
Chinese member of the Federal and State Court of 
New York and of the U. S. Court for China. Dr. 
Mei studied for six years in Columbia University and 
for one year in New York University, and is now 
practising law in Shanghai. In China his work has 
been varied: in interpreting, five years ; in journalistic 
work, three years; in political work, one year ; editorial 
work {Editor of China's Young Men , English edition), 
one year; and on the U. S. Court staff, one year. 

F. C. H. DrEyer has spent some twenty-two 
years in the province of Shansi in connection with the 
China Inland Mission. For sixteen years he was 
engaged in evangelistic and pastoral work, and six 
years have been spent as Principal of the (C. I. M.) 
Shansi Bible Institute. During the past five years his 
“Bible Reading Outlines for the Blackboard” have 
been appearing serially in the Chinese Christian 
Intelligencer . 

John E. Chieds, B. A., of the Young Men’s 
Christian Association, is a new-comer, having been in 
China only a year, now studying in the Language 
School at Peking. 



C. I. M. SHANSI BIBIvE INSTITUTE. 





LECTURE HALL (UNFINISHED). 


A BLOCK OF STUDENTS’ ROOMS (UNFINISHED). 


Photos by Rev. R. A. Torrey, Jr 
STUDENTS AT THEIR DESKS 

(IN THE DINING ROOM, BEFORE THE LECTURE ROOM WAS FINISHED). 

























THE CHINESE RECORDER 


Published Monthly at the American Presbyterian Mission Press, 
18 Peking Road, Shanghai, China 


Editorial Board. 

Editor-in-chief: Rev. Frank Rawxjnson. (On furlough.) 

a • / e-j-j , f Rev. W. Hopkyn Rees, d.d. 

Associate Editors j Rey G p FlxcH) D „ 

Rev.ROBERTC.B eebe,m.d. Rev.O-E. Kieborn, m.d. Rt.Rev.F.L.NoRRis.D.D, 
Rev. Ernest Fox. Rev. E. C. Robenstink. Rev. 0 . Schui/tze. 

Rev. G. A. Ceayton. Mr.G ilbert McIntosh. Rev. A. H. Smith, d.d. 
Rev. J. C Gibson, d.d. Rev. G. H. McNeur. Miss Raura M. White. 


VOL. XLVIH MARCH, 1917 


NO. 3 


Editorial 


The two articles appearing in this number, 
Gbe TReturneb concerning the Returned Student—one by Mr. 

;i ’ Ua ' u ' lu Arthur Rugh, who has made a special study of 
the problem, and one by a returned student, Dr. Mei, who has 
used well his opportunities for study and observation, and whose 
opinions are well and forcibly expressed—are worthy of careful 


consideration. Dr. Mei may seem to be a little severe, at times, 
but we should always be glad to kuow what the Returned 
Student thinks and bow be feels as he again takes up the 
problem of life in his native land, whether his opinion is 
flattering to us or otherwise. It is, however, more in places 
like Shanghai that the problem is so important. Mr. Rugh 
closes his paper with three recommendations which we should 
like to emphasize by inserting them here : 

First That we bring to the attention of the educational 
authorities the necessity of more design and system in the 
preparation of students going abroad and in the use of their 


time while abroad. 

Second. That we devise methods of bringing our influence 
to bear upon our respective home governments to see to it that 
the best possible immigration laws are passed and administered 
fairly and with credit to our Christian lands. 


Third. That we call to the attention of missionaries in 
the country the necessity of following these men in every 










m 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


possible way with Christian influence during their stay abroad 
and that to this end as far as it does not contraveue the purpose 
of their studies we use our good offices to have these students 
assigned during their first year to Christian schools and homes. 


* 


* 


* 


Chinese and 
jforefan Dress. 


In this connection we might meution that a 
correspondent has written us referring to the 
frontispiece in our last issue of a Christian wed¬ 
ding, and objecting to the foreign dress of the bride and 
groom, fearing that therein lies a danger of denationalizing 
the Chinese. We do not share this fear, but feel like Paul 
in regard to eating food offered to an idol, “For neither 
if we eat not are we the worse ; nor, if we eat, are we 
the better.” It is quite natural, aud certainly quite harmless, 
for a young man or woman who has spent years in the United 
States and dressed in foreign clothing there, to still retain it 
after their return, especially as in this case where the new 
couple were going to Manila to live. It will probably be a 
long time before the Chinese as a nation, or even a great 
majority of them, adopt the foreign dress. We are not aware 
that any missionary encourages, or discourages, such dress. 
The Chinese will settle it for themselves. 


* 


* 


For long years the missionaries in China had a 

Qtoemnce ver y u P”kiH task in trying to drive into the 
consciousness of the converts the demands of the 
Lord’s Day on their time and service. Conferences were not 
uncommon to discuss means and methods of observing the day 
worthily, but many missionaries had to confess that the prob¬ 
lem was almost insoluble, partly owing to the poverty of the 
people and partly owing to the hardened hearts of those who 
had not known the value of a day of rest. But by dint of 
persistent teaching and example the day assumed a sacred 
meaning aud importance, more especially in the inland centres. 
The battle was not entirely won, but the ramparts had been 
mined, aud, in some parts, the citadel had been taken, so that 
there was a calm and restfulness in some homes and churches 
which betokened a communion with God and a determination 
to give Him at least this one day wholly. Government schools 
grew and multiplied, and the Sunday holiday was often abused 


I917J 


Editorial 


145 


by the scholars, so that what was intended as a blessing became 
in some places a curse. In treaty ports the desecration of the 
day was emphasized by the multiplying of mills and manu¬ 
factories of all kinds, and by the abandonment of the day by 
so many from western lands, who think it specially ordained 
for their recreation, by games of varying sorts, and this even 
among members of Christian churches. 

When we had fondly hoped that the missionary body was 
wholly sound on the religious observance of the Lord’s Day, 
it comes as a shock to see how institutions connected with 
missions are granting facilities for games to their students. 
Football and tennis on the Lord’s Day, in colleges controlled 
by missionary boards, and in close proximity to the mission¬ 
aries’ homes, are surely a proof of slackening of conviction on 
the importance of keeping the day holy. And to see a new 
church, for the worship of the God who is jealous of His own 
day, with the sound of hammers and the shouts of coolies 
filling the air as we return from a church service elsewhere, 
just as if it were a week day, stirs oue’s soul to ask, What can 
those responsible for the erection of this church conceive to be 
the duty of Christians as to how to keep holy the Sabbath 
Day? What blessing may be justly expected within the walls 
of a building which, though to be known as a worship-place, 
and bearing a cross on its roof, is being built on Sunday like 
every other day? Surely, it reveals a falling from grace, a 
removal of the line of demarcation between man’s day and 
God’s, and a proof that the Church, in some quarters, still 
needs a vision of the sacredness of the Sabbath. It is to be 
earnestly hoped that such cases are few, indeed, and will grow 
less each year, but that such things are allowed in this year of 
grace, after so many hard struggles to convince the Chinese 
converts of the inviolability of the day by any human hand, 
shows that the teaching has been lacking or is forgotten and 
ignored. There comes to us a trumpet call to give this day to 
the purpose for which it was instituted by God Himself, and by 
every endeavour to put ourselves like a wall of steel against 
any infringement of God’s right. 

When there are so many forces at work pulling down, 
surely it comes to us, with added power, the command of God : 
“Six days shalt thou labour and do all thy work, but the 
seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord Thy God: the Lord 
blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.’ ’ 


144 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


IT is a rare occurrence that the two oldest mission- 
Cwo Veterans, ar j es an( j those, too, the longest in 

China, should be called away so soon one after the other and 
also in the order of their seniority and of their arrival on the 
field. Dr. Farnham, who passed away on the 16th of February, 
followed Dr. Martin, an account of whose life and works appeared 
in these columns last month, by an interval of just two mouths. 
There are few left who link us on to the days of the Taiping 
Rebellion, as did both these, and few who remember the 
bitterness with which the old “term” controversy was carried on 
some fifty years ago and more. Better days have come to us, 
and while Dr. Farnham could not bring himself to agree with 
the great majority of his missiouary brethren, it is doubtless 
true that the “term” controversy has ended for ever. He was 
a remarkable example of physical and mental endurance, even 
to the last, and his energy and zeal should stimulate the 
younger brethren to believe that a long, healthy, and vigorous 
life in China is not among the impossibilities. 


* 


* 


* 


The Editorial Board of the Recorder, as it 
Ifyc. TRavvUnson & * g gure a j go rea( j ers would desire to 

^Bereavement . , 0 

express its deep sympathy with the Rev. 

Frank Rawlinson, Editor-in-chief of the Recorder, now on 
furlough, iu the sudden death of his wife who, while out walk¬ 
ing, slipped on the ice, fell, and so injured her thigh that a 
surgical operation was necessary, which was followed by 
infection and pneumonia which, after a few days of intense 
suffering, resulted in her death on the seventh of January last. 
We trust that many who read these lines will unite in earnest 
prayer that Mr. Rawlinson, with the six motherless children, 
may be abundantly sustained in this great grief. We are 
pleased to learn that he expects to return to China iu the early 
fall, as originally contemplated. 


* * * 

The Southern Presbyterian Mission has 
Beatb’s ©eavg Coll, certainly beeu gr i ev ously afflicted during 

the past week by the death of three of its older and most 
useful missionaries: Dr. J. W. Davis, of Soochow, who died of 
pneumonia on the 17th, Rev. R. A. Haden, of the same city, 
who was on a torpedoed boat in the Mediterranean, and was 


i9l7] 


Editorial 


145 


drowned while trying to rescue others, on his way to visit his 
family in Switzerland, and Mr. Grier of Suchien, Kiangsu, who 
was on furlough in the United States. With none too large a 
force to carry on existing work they feel keenly the loss of these 
three men, and we extend our heartiest sympathy to our 
Southern Presbyterian friends in this great bereavement, and 
pray that the L,ord of the Harvest may send forth others who 
may eventually take their places. 

The attention of readers of the Recorder is called special¬ 
ly to the change in the department of Missionary News . 
Hereafter the space will be divided under the following four 
headings: (i) Noteworthy Proceedings; (2) News Items; (3) 
Dates of Important Meetings; (4) Personals. The Editors 
expect to give special attention to this department in order to 
make it of largest value to the missionary body in general, 
giving early information of important developments in mission¬ 
ary plans and work, and also noteworthy extracts from reports 
of missions, conferences, and other church organizations not 
only in China, India, and Japan, but at the home base as well. 
They ask for the cooperation of mission secretaries and others 
who may have contributions to make to this department. The 
early announcement of dates of important meetings will be 
specially appreciated ; changes in appointments of missionaries 
may also be briefly noted ; copies of noteworthy proceedings, 
even if these consist of only a brief resolution, are requested. 

* * * 

The Recorder would like to give a number of biographi¬ 
cal sketches of deceased Chinese who had been successful 
workers and whose lives would be a stimulus to others. There 
have been not a few such men and it would be well to bring 
them before the public. The Editor would, accordingly, be 
grateful for contributions in this line, only stipulating that 
they should be truly interesting and representative, and, not 
too long, nor, on the other band, too short. If accompanied 
by a photograph, all the better. 


146 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March, 1917 


Cbe promotion of 3nterce$eion. 

“steady then ; keep cooe, and PRAY.” i Peter 4, 7. 

(Dr. Moffat t’s Version.) 


I. THE DUTY OF PRAYER. 

It cannot be too strongly urged that we OUGHT to pray. 
Jesus Christ prayed. Prayerlessness is sin. 

II. DANGERS IN DEVOTION. 

We cannot easily pray. Prayer needs preparation. Let 
us be on our guard against:— 

1. Subjective sentiment. 

2. A shallow faith. 

3. Narrow outlook. 

III. DOCTRINAL BASES FOR TRUE INTERCESSION. 

To help in Prayer we must constantly use the BIBLE. 
Let us dwell upon these themes:— 

1. God was in Christ reconciling the world to 

Himself. II Cor. 5, 19. 

2. The New Jerusalem cometh down from above. 

3. Ye ask and receive not, because ye ask amiss, that 

ye may spend it in your pleasures. James 4, 3. 

“The grand value of the Bible is its OBJECTIVITY. 
The first thing is not how I feel, but it is, How does God feel, 
and what has God said and done for my soul? . . . Attend to 
Christ, the Holy Spirit, the Kingdom, and the Cause, and He 
will look after your soul.” 

Dr. Forsyth “ The Work of Christ.” 

The above suggestive outline was prepared by a member of the Committee 
on Intercession, 

Special prayer is requested for Rev. Ting Li Met who holds 
evangelistic meetings in northern Honan, eastern Shansi, and Chihli 
Provinces from March 8th at Honanfu until April 23rd at Peking; 
also for Miss J. G. Gregg , of the China Inland Mission, who leads 
similar meetings for women at nine centers in Shensi Province from 
March 3rd at Sianfu to April 28th at Lungchow. 

Pray also that the expected coming of Dr. Zwemer this year 
may be realized and may be a blessing to the Mohammedans of 
China and to the missionary body. 



Contributed Articles 


Chinese Students Abroad 


ARTHUR RUGH. 


E OUR members of President Li’s cabinet are returned 
students. The Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister 
of the Navy, the Minister of Finance, the Director of 
Railways, and the Chairman of the Committee on the 
Revision of the Constitution have all been educated in other 
lands. The presidents of the leading government colleges of 
the country and 930 positions of influence in Peking alone are 
held by men who were trained abroad. 

The renaissance of Japan is correctly traced to the group 
of Japanese students who studied abroad thirty years ago and, 
while the returned students of China have a much larger task 
than had the students of Japan, it is to them more than to any 
other single group that China will look for leadership in the 
reconstruction days ahead. 

Nor is their influence to be limited to their own land. 
These men cannot live for years in the fountain-heads of our 
western civilization—our colleges and universities—without 
leaving their mark on our lands. Neither China nor the lands 
to which these students go will be the same when they have 
returned. 

International relationships are to be molded in no small 
measure by these same men. The group of men most in the 
way of that school of agitators who would foment trouble be¬ 
tween Japan and America is that long list of Japanese states¬ 
men and educators who studied in America and who remember 
very kindly the chums of their college days who now also sit in 
the seats of the mighty. 

Future relationships between Asia and the West depend 
in no small measure upou these students. The coming of mis¬ 
sionaries from the West to the East is the only force in inter¬ 
national relationship superior to the migration of oriental 
students to the universities of the West. Mr. Y. C. Tong was 
using significant language when he said to the American 


Note. —Readers of the Recorder are reminded that the Editorial Board 
assumes no responsibility for the views expressed by the writers of articles 
published in these pages. 







148 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


University Club, “The Chinese students who have studied in 
your land and have a lasting friendship for your country will 
do more to bind these two nations together than all the treaties 
that can be written.” 

These students are to mold history altogether out of pro¬ 
portion to their numbers and it is worth our while to know 
what impressions are being made upon them and whether it is 
within our power to improve these impressions. 

From the experience of seven years directly and indirectly 
related to work among these students in America and from the 
facts gathered by correspondence with college professors and 
students allow me to discuss briefly four points:—the better 
preparation of students going abroad; the transition and adjust¬ 
ment in a foreign land; the use of their time while abroad; and 
the effect of their stay abroad upon their religious life. 

I. THEIR PREPARATION, 

The need in this connection seems to be for system and 
standardization. The students of Tsing Hua College are well 
prepared because the college is designed for that purpose, but 
most of the students have not gone from this college, but from 
a wide variety of schools and they have gone abroad without 
any national standard or system of inspection as to their prep¬ 
aration. Northwestern University writes, “We have had in 
this university a good many Chinese students and these vary 
greatly in their preparation. We have had young men from 
the mission schools who have made excellent records and have 
had others from the same schools who have accomplished little. 
The same is true of women students generally, no matter from 
what schools they come. There is a strong inclination on the 
part of Chinese students to over-estimate their preparation. 
They are inclined to urge admission to classes too far advanced 
for them, and with the difficulties inherent in a strange language 
they fail to make satisfactory records.” 

The president of the University of Southern California 
writes, “Chinese students who have been trained in the mis¬ 
sionary schools have done very good work. Those who come 
to us without such training have had a very difficult time to 
carry our work.” 

The most common criticism from their teachers is their 
faulty English which so seriously handicaps them in their 
studies. One college professor reports an experience which is 


49171 


Chinese Students Abroad 


149 


too often repeated. “One of our Chinese students enters easily 
our advanced chemistry course, but he expresses himself with 
the greatest difficulty orally and his writing is almost unintel¬ 
ligible.” 

Another professor reports that the chief source of any failure 
on the part of Americans to appreciate the splendid Chinese 
students is their faulty English. The students themselves have 
been nearly unanimous in their request for better preparation 
and emphasize especially the need of more English. One 
Chinese girl said, “Every day in class I looked for a knot hole 
in the floor to jump through because I could not clearly express 
what I very well knew about the lesson.” 

One student writes, “I would improve my preparation for 
coming here by devoting at least two years after my graduation 
from college in China to the location of some important prob¬ 
lems, analyzing the social forces underlying them and then 
seeing what American experience can contribute to their so¬ 
lution.” 

This suggests the root of the trouble,—a lack of design and 
purpose in this journey to a strange land. Too many students 
go abroad for the purpose of going abroad and prepare with 
proportionate indefiniteness. The steps in the process would 
seem to be the definite choice of a life task, the selection of the 
course of study needed to prepare for it and the choice of a pro¬ 
gram of preparation before going abroad adapted to the securing 
of the training needed for the task. 

A large majority of the students have acquitted themselves 
splendidly in their studies, but system and standardization of 
preparation is needed. It is a question whether with improved 
educational facilities in China, we are not approaching the time 
when only such students as are ready for a post-graduate degree 
should go abroad, in which case the problem of preparation 
would be largely solved. 

IT. THE JOURNEY AND THE SETTLING IN A STRANGE LAND. 

The journey for a liome-loving Oriental to an unknown 
land of straugers is full enough of difficulties and trials, but 
they are all lost to view in the haunting nightmare of the im¬ 
migration officials who lie in wait to welcome them. 

The two main problems are in San Francisco and Van¬ 
couver. Canada’s law requires a deposit of $500 gold as a 
guarantee that they are bona fide students. The superior 


150 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


religious life in the Canadian colleges is reason enough for 
wishing that very many of our students should go there, but 
the required deposit keeps almost all of them away to the serious 
loss both of Canada and China. It would seem that passport 
papers of sufficient accuracy could be secured to satisfy the 
officials of the Canadian Government and no deposit be re¬ 
quired. There may be reasons for this deposit not discoverable 
by us, but this seems to be an obstacle most easily removed. 

The trouble at San Francisco, as far as students are 
concerned, is in the administration of the law. It is not 
within the range of this paper to discuss fully the wisdom 
or fairness of the immigration laws as long as the students 
are admitted to the country. For several years Mr. Frank 
Lenz has been set aside by the Young Men’s Christian 
Association in San Francisco to welcome and serve the 
Oriental students. He has seen the Immigration Law at 
work from the inside, and writes: “The officials do not 
take a passport as sufficient evidence that a man with one 
is a student. Every student who gets a passport in China, 
must satisfy the .consul that he is a student and when this is 
done, the student should be allowed to enter the United States 
without further examination. But private students are usually 
held up at Angel Island. The officials here seem to doubt the 
integrity of the officials in China. The law reads that all 
students with Section 6 papers must be admitted without delay, 
yet I know of scores of cases where the Section 6 papers were 
ignored.” 

Mr. Kee Owyang, former Consul-General at San Fran¬ 
cisco, writes in this same connection : “The Exclusion Law 
does not only exclude all Chinese laborers, but it inflicts tre¬ 
mendous hardships upon the Chinese of the exempt classes; that 
is, merchants, students, and teachers, and even officials at times. 
It seems that it is much easier for them to enter Heaven than 
to set foot on the American continent, even when they enter 
this port with the Consul’s certificate or other document issued 
and signed by American diplomatic agents in China.” 

I believe that the American citizens in China have enough 
influence in Washington, if they care to use it, to see to it that 
petty immigration officials in San Francisco shall not ignore 
the authority of the government representatives here in China 
who have been empowered to decide who are bona fide students. 
The possession by a student of Section 6 papers brings him out. 


1917] 


Chinese Students Abroad 


151 


We shall not have done our full duty until students possessing 
such papers are admitted without delay and without examin¬ 
ation. The United States and Canada, as countries, welcome 
and greatly appreciate these Chinese students. Mistreatment 
by officials or other individuals is not representative of the 
spirit of the countries as a whole aud it is within our right 
to see to it that our countries are not misrepresented by a few 
uninformed individuals. 

This entrance of students without examination would not 
remove the problem of the disgrace which these students experi¬ 
ence in having their fellow countrymen excluded from the 
country on a racial basis. It is clearly our duty to come to a 
conclusion as to what the American community in China be¬ 
lieve to be a fair Immigration Taw and to use our influence to 
the limit toward the enactment and the righteous administration 
of such a law. 

Having once passed the immigration inspectors, our student 
friends usually feel that their troubles are at an end and most 
of them are. However, one of them reports that his most un¬ 
pleasant experience in America was when he was told by a 
boarding house lady that she did not rent rooms to Chinamen. 
Several report that their most unpleasant experiences came in 
connection with the racial prejudice and special regulations 
against Chinese in America. Most of these difficulties arise on 
the west coast, and, until conditions are different, it is clearly 
wise for the Chinese students to locate in the central or eastern 
parts of the country. While our home lauds will be more fair 
when they have learned to rightly appraise the merit of their 
Oriental guests, it is probable that for years to come we cannot 
be sure that someone from the “lower classes in America,” 
as one of the students expressed it, will not insult these cultured 
and gifted ladies and gentlemen from this wonderful land of our 
adoption. It is difficult to plan an effective program of religious 
work among these men in the face of such non-Christian treat¬ 
ment by men in Christian lauds. And no pains should be 
spared to see to it that these lonely and much-to-be-hoiiored 
guests are welcomed as they deserve to be. 

III. THEIR PROGRAM WHILE ABROAD. 

One of the best results of this migration of Chinese 
students to the West is the correction by their splendid lives 
of the long-standing delusion of the inferiority of the Oriental 


l$2 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


races. Oberliu College reports, “They are doing much by 
mingling freely with our students to overcome that curious 
provincialism from which America suffers so sorely. Their 
manners are superior to those of our own boys of the same 
age. Unless there is some unusual handicap, such as extreme 
difficulty with the language or great personal diffidence, these 
boys make excellent progress socially and scholastically. One 
of our men has won second place in the annual oratorical 
contest. Another is one of the best chemists and mathe¬ 
maticians we have ever had. Another is the most popular 
boy in a large boarding house.” 

Our western lands cannot long fail in their estimate of 
the Orient with these students living in their midst and we 
who love China are very thankful that our home lands are 
coming, though tardily, to know the greatness of the Oriental 
races. 

However, there are points of failure in their program, the 
most serious being their failure to enter into the life of the 
laud to which they have gone and their tendency to spend all 
of their time on scholastic effort. 

Professor Ross, author of “The Changing Chinese,” 
writes of these students, “Their unsolved problem here lies 
in learning things they canuot get in class room. Our 
American institutions, customs, etiquette, etc., are extremely 
unfamiliar to them and they hardly know how to get in touch 
with us. Too often, no doubt, they study hard, but otherwise 
get very little out of their university residence. 

The students themselves are as emphatic on the needs of 
the broader culture. One writes, “If I were going again, I 
would engage in work that would give me the most and 
closest contact with American life irrespective of other 
returns.” Another says, “I would devote more time to the 
broader aspects of the Christian religion of this country.” 
“I realize that I have been secluding myself too much from 
society. I would spend more time to come in contact with 
these people in order to learn their secret of success.” 

Their fuller entering into society and the every-day life 
of the country needs to be guarded, for one college President 
reports, “lam sorry to say that many of the Chinese students 
reflect at first the less desirable elements in American social life. 
They are very quick to learn college slang. They are a bit 
bewildered by our co-educational program and, unless wisely 


Chinese Students Abroad 


1917 ] 


153 


directed, show a tendency to follow their American classmates 
in spending time unwisely in social distractions.” 

One fine student who is evidently a good mixer reports, 
“You know it is the custom after a football game to celebrate, 
so the other night after we beat another team, the fellows 
started out and wanted me to go along. Finally they went 
into a place and I did not know it was a saloon until we got 
in. They ordered drinks and I did not want to be impolite so 
ordered lemonade.” Better had he been grinding on calculus 
than to have been seeing that form of the broader life of 
America. 

The use of their time when not studying and during 
vacation is the hardest part of the program. It may also be 
made the most profitable. The hours and days of their 
university course are fairly well provided for. A very 
important part of their time, when they are to learn the 
broader lessons of western civilization during vacation and 
hours of leisure, is left to the judgment or lack of judgment of 
each man, and scientific planning is needed at this point It 
may also be questioned whether their courses of study should 
not be adjusted with more emphasis upon an understanding of 
the institutions of the West and less emphasis upon technical 
and text-book work. 

In their school work there is the same lack of scientific 
arrangement as appears in their preparation and in the use of 
their spare time. Many of them choose the school in which 
they will study, and move from one school to another, with but 
little aid from men who know the whole range of schools 
available. A bureau of assignments for government students 
with authority to locate them is desirable. 

From our standpoint it is essential that during their first 
year abroad they should study in schools of outstanding 
Christian influence and, if possible, live in a Christian home 
whether that program lends itself best to their course of study 
or not. There is such a wide range of colleges that it would 
seem possible to introduce them into the foreign land through 
such a school without in any degree lessening the value 
of the studies. Give these men thorough preparation before 
they sail, start them in Christian surroundings abroad, and 
provide for the profitable use of their spare time and the task 
is largely done, for they leave little to be desired iu their 
studies. 


154 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


IV. THE EFFECT ON THEIR RELIGIOUS LIFE. 

A Chinese student who has spent a period of years in a 
Christian land and is not a Christian is of doubtful value to 
the Kingdom, if not to the country when he returns. We 
want these men to be thoroughly trained to serve their land 
whether as engineers or statesmen or preachers, but we know 
they are not trained to best serve their country in the hour of 
its need unless they are genuinely Christian, and this is our 
chief concern. 

We would have reason to expect the transition from a 
non-Christian land to a Christian laud to make a deep 
impression for Christianity on their lives. This is usually 
true in the case of Government students who have come but 
little under the influence of Christianity in China but not true 
of graduates of mission schools. In a group of eight of them, 
not one of them was willing to say that his estimate of 
Christianity had been improved by his stay in America. One 
of the eight said, “You see we had judged of the culture of 
Christianity from the missionaries and were naturally disap¬ 
pointed when we came here.” He quickly added, “I must 
not judge Christianity by Americans but by its Founder and 
teachings.” It would be desirable to study thoroughly whether 
we are using the right apologetic in leading our students into 
the Christian life when their faith is so often shaken by going 
to one of the so-called Christian lands. If our apologetic is 
correct, then we need certainly to forewarn these students 
against expecting everybody in the western lands to show 
thoroughly the Christian spirit. 

One student writes in answer to the question, “ What has 
been hurtful to your religious life?” “The unavoidable 
superficial American social life, the diversities of religious 
beliefs of the various sectarian churches of this country, and 
the general tendency of young people not to want to go to 

church....” Another writes, “American college life is 

somewhat hurtful to one’s religious life. Besides, many 
hideously evil customs draw me into all sorts of temptations.” 

One writes, as many do, that there has been no unfavorable 
effect and adds that his studies and observations have given 
him rational grounds for a .solid faith. The sum total effect 
on the religious life of these men has evidently been good, but 
it must be better. The two outstanding influences for good 



1917] 


Chinese Students Abroad 


155 


seem to be the student summer conferences and the friendly 
association with real Christian men and women. Dr. Tsao, a 
lady physician of Nanking, puts the situation into a paragraph : 
“My stay in the different schools and hospitals did not have 
any favorable effect upon my religious life, but I had the 
privilege to be in a real Christian home and as long as I 
live I can never cease to be thankful to the lady who admitted 
me to her home. I hope that the lady students will not 
always live in the dormitories, but spend some time in the 
real American Christian homes.” 

The Christian woman of wealth who had twenty-four 
Chinese students spend Christmas holidays in her home was 
counterbalancing much evil influence and giving convincing 
evidence for faith, for as one of them said afterward, “ You 
see we Chinese are not won to Christianity by the philosophy 
of religion, but by the evidence of religion.” The evidence 
is clear that the most potent single influence in the lives of 
these students is their experience in Christian homes and it 
would seem to be the part of wisdom to see to it that as far as 
possible their stay in Shanghai, while preparing to sail, should 
be spent in the best Christian homes available. 

One thing is clear, that residence in a Christian land and 
studies in a university in a Christian laud cannot be depended 
upon to affect favorably in any large measure the religious 
life of these students. They are usually lonely and very 
susceptible to the guidance of a real Christian friend, but 
only such changes may be expected in their religious life 
as will be produced by a propaganda by the church on behalf 
of their religious life. They must have just as much help 
and the same kind of help as many of you with great love and 
devotion are pouring into the lives of your students here in 
China. Most of them go to state and technical schools where 
unfortunately most of these teachers do not have the attitude of 
the missionary toward their students, and we shall need to 
depend upon other agencies than Christian teachers to lead 
them into the Christian life or develop their religious life if 
they are already Christians. They need the weekly ministries 
of the church and an active church life. They need daily 
devotional Bible study. They need the personal help of a 
strong Christian chum. They need a Christian home to which 
they can go whether invited or not, when their lonely soul can 
be given peace only in a Christian home. 


156 


the Chinese Recorder 


[March 

These fundamental needs of their lives, far transcending 
their need of travel or text-books, will never come to them 
from their residence abroad, from their studies, or from the 
government which sends them out This ultimate need of 
their lives we must provide. 

As the servant of the church, the Young Men’s and 
Young Women’s Christian Associations have promoted certain 
lines of activity. Since most of them sail from Shanghai 
the Shanghai Young Men’s Christian Association has set 
aside one of its most gifted secretaries, Mr. Li Chi Fan, to 
serve these students at their port of departure. Getting 
passports, buying clothing, supplying reading matter for the 
journey, and a thousand other things, may not seem religious, 
but it has a religious value. Whenever any considerable 
number go together they are accompanied through Japan, are 
met and entertained at Honolulu, if they go that way, and 
are always met, whether in groups or singly, in Vancouver 
and San Francisco by a special secretary of the Association 
and cared for until they scatter to the colleges. A farewell 
reception in Shanghai by a Christian Association, and a 
welcome reception the first night on shore in America by the 
same Christian agency, has left its mark on many a man. 

The Chinese Students’ Christian Association for both men 
and women has been organized in every country where any 
considerable number of students have congregated. For 
instance, in America, this Association employs on full time a 
Chinese secretary to promote the work, in addition to having 
the valuable service of Mr. Chas. D. Hurrey, secretary of the 
International Committee for non-American students. 

The Association has been blest with rare leadership 
having had as its general secretary at different times, Mr. 
C. T. Wang, Dr. P. W. Kuo of Nanking, P, C. Chang of 
Tientsin, and Jas. Chuan of North China Union College and 
Yale in China. Bible classes are provided for them under the 
best leadership available. Much effort is spent on opening up 
Christian homes for them during the school year as well as 
during vacations. A vigorous program is carried on to promote 
church attendance, church membership, and participations in 
church activities. A special magazine is published for them. 
Personal work and special evangelistic meetings are promoted 
vigorously, to which Dr. Mott, Mr. Brockman, Mr. Eddy, and 
other leaders give some of their best effort. 


Chinese Students Abroad 


19173 


157 


The most effective single method of work for them is the 
students’ summer conferences, where the Chinese students are 
brought in groups to spend ten days with several hundred 
chosen American students in Bible study and in discussion of 
the problems of Christian life and leadership. Hundreds of 
students have borne witness that their best experience abroad 
was the teu days spent in one of these conferences and seldom 
do any of these conferences fail to result in a number of 
Chinese students deciding for the Christian life or for service 
in the church as a life work. 

The Associations, both Young Men’s and Young Women’s 
Christian Associations, are anxious to serve to the limit of 
their powers these students and would welcome most heartily 
your sympathetic criticism and suggestions for the improve¬ 
ment of the work being done in their behalf. 

One of the chief problems of this generation is the 
amalgamation of the races. Speed of transportation has 
brought America and Europe nine times as near to China as 
they were fifty years ago. Lloyd George says what he thinks 
in Loudon and his thoughts are discussed within thirty-six 
hours on the street corners of forty nations. The new Premier 
of Japan writes a letter in Tokyo and the price of stocks on 
Wall Street, New York City, and the Exchange, London, the 
next morning register the nature of that letter. A village in 
Indiana uses a new method in its public school system and 
shortly the students in a village in Szechwan Province tell you 
that the Gary method is best in education. 

Isolation of nations and races is ended. All tongues and 
peoples suddenly find themselves living so close together that 
by the law of association, they are swiftly coming to unity of 
thought and action and to one moral standard. By laws 
irresistible the races of men are becoming a family of nations. 
Will they become a family of the sons of God, living in peace 
and mutual helpfulness or will they struggle and riot to the 
degeneration of the race ? The answer to this question is to 
be written rapidly in the next decade or two. 

These Chinese students who are spending many of the 
formative days of their lives in western lands will yet have a 
voice in this amalgamation of the races. Whether in this 
world-unifying process they speak for the Laws of Christ—the 
only Laws which can make the races of men into a family of 
nations—or whether they speak for the selfish laws of discord 


158 


The Chinese Recorder 


(March 


and disruption will depend not upon their journeys or studies 
abroad, but upon the Christian influences which we can bring 
to bear upon them before and during their days abroad. 

We will stand condemned if we neglect to use aught of 
the influence God has given us to see to it that these students 
throw the full weight of their lives into the tasks of the 
Kingdom for only thus can the diversified races of men be 
moulded into the family of our Father and only thus can the 
peace of the world be realized. 

We close with the following recommendations: 

First. That we bring to the attention of the educational 
authorities the necessity of more design and system in the 
preparation of students going abroad and in the use of their 
time while abroad. 

Second. That we devise methods of bringing our influence 
to bear upon our respective home governments to see to it 
that the best possible immigration laws are passed and 
administered fairly and with credit to our Christian lands. 

Third. That we call to the attention of missionaries in 
the country the necessity of following these men in every 
possible way with Christian influence during their stay abroad 
and that to this end as far as it does not contravene the purpose 
of their studies we use our good offices to have these students 
assigned during their first year to Christian schools and homes. 


The Returned Student in China* 

HUA-CHUEN MSI, B.SC., Lb. B., J.D. 
(Formerly Editor CHINA’S YOUNG MEN, English edition.) 


T^IHAT this Missionary Association has devoted this meet- 
I ing to a consideration of the Chinese Student Abroad 
and At Home Again is significant of two obvious facts : 
First, that the number and character of the men and 
women educated in alien lands and returned to China have 
become a new factor—I had almost said a new class—in 
Chinese society, for they have in the main proved their capac¬ 
ity and their worth in public service. Second, that from the 
government down through all walks of Chinese life the 


* A paper read before the Shanghai Missionary Association, January 9th, 

1917. 





19173 


The Returned Student in China 


159 


returned man or woman is sought after to direct, or to assist in, 
the realizing of the potentialities of this nation. It would thus 
seem that those who would understand some of the forces at 
work in Changing China, must not neglect the Returned 
Student, as be is called. 

It is not surprising, therefore, that this Association should 
seek, in common with other Christian agencies, to utilize, 
relate, and co-operate with, the returned student in its inter¬ 
ests. The two facts I have just stated, namely, the proved 
capacity of the Returned Student, and the general realization 
of his need, have naturally suggested two approaches to a 
study of him at this time: What has he done that marks him 
out now as a force and, in the advancing years, as an in¬ 
creasingly positive power in the g^dual remolding of China? 
and, What can be done to further his usefulness to his country 
in general, and to the cause of Christ on this continent in 
particular ? 

In taking up the record of the achievements of returned 
students one can only attempt a summary of the outstanding 
names and events which are more or less a matter of common 
knowledge, for accurate data on the subject are neither abun¬ 
dant nor easily accessible. This outline is largely of men and 
women returned from Europe and America, for the statistics of 
those returned from Japan are few and unreliable. 

There are now over 1,100 returned students employed at 
Peking, 930 of whom are in government offices. Of these 930 
over a score are filling billets in the Ministries, starting with 
Dr. Wu Ting-fang of Eondou University, and several counse¬ 
lors in the Foreign Office, Dr. Chen Chin-tao of Yale at the 
Exchequer, and with him two Columbia graduates as experts 
on audit and the budget. In the Navy Department Admiral 
Tsai Ting-kan of a mid-western college is assisting the Minister. 
The Minister of Justice, the Minister of Education, as also the 
Minister of Commerce and Agriculture all hail from Japanese 
colleges. The Minister of Justice’s principal colleagues in the 
present task of Drafting the Permanent Constitution are leaders 
of the Parliamentary Committee, while the Chairman and 
Vice-Chairman of the Commission to Codify the Laws of the 
country are American graduates. Then there are returned 
students, too numerous to name, as heads of departments and in 
the various administrative boards. The Director-General of 
the Government Railways is a Cornell alumnus, the Assistant 


160 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


Chief of Staff of the Army was trained in Japan, the presidents 
of the several government colleges and universities and the 
managers of the government banks are all returned students. 

In Parliament Mr. C. T. Wang as Vice-Speaker of the 
Senate, and recently reelected by his Chekiang constituents, is 
a tower of strength in smoothing over party differences and in 
engineering progressive bills through the two houses. Com¬ 
paring these 930 men, now employed in Peking alone, and the 
200 to 300 men in the provincial capitals, with the scarcely 
more than a hundred returned students scattered throughout the 
country under the Manchus, it is evident that that Returned 
Student has, under the Republic, come into his own. In this 
connection may be recalled the farewell toast which the Hon. 
Tong Shao-yi drank to the students gathered at his Special 
Embassy in Washington in 1909 : “ Gentlemen,^may we meet 
again in the future Parliament of China!” That this will 
soon be the case we shall see when there will be elected to the 
next Parliament the men of practical education who have made 
themselves felt in all localities of the country. 

In the field of politics, it is well-known that the President 
of China, General Li Yuan-hung, although he is, strictly speak¬ 
ing, no politician, studied for some years in Japan ; and after 
the Revolution of 1911 there were no less than eighty military 
governors who were returned students. In party leadership, 
the preeminent figure is Mr. Tong Shao-yi, the first Premier 
of the Republic, a statesman whose diplomatic skill, adminis¬ 
trative capacity, wide experience, and patriotism have been 
repeatedly demonstrated and recognized even by his opponents. 
Columbia University is proud of claiming him as an alumnus, 
along with his brilliant son-in-law, Mr. Koo, the envoy at 
Washington, who, at the age of 32, has already been given 
the soubriquet: the “ Koo d’Etat of China.” 

In the realm of diplomacy such men as Lu Cheng-hsiang, 
educated in Germany and Minister of Foreign Affairs in Yuan 
Shih-kai’s cabinet, and Liang Tun-yen, a Yale alumnus and 
Vice-president of the Waiwupu under the Manchu regime, have 
long since won their spurs. Mr. Alfred S. K. Sze of Cornell 
and now accredited to the Court of St. James and Mr. W. W. 
Yen of the University of Virginia and at present envoy to 
Berlin, with Dr. Koo are a noted trio, whose employment in 
the public service shows unmistakably that, more and more, 
younger men are coming to the front. Besides these men 


1917) 


The Returned Student in China 


161 


representing the Republic in foreign capitals, there is a con¬ 
siderable number of other returned students in the consular 
service who are rendering effective aid to the Foreign Office 
and to Chinese emigrants beyond the seas. 

Among educators, returned students have taken, and are 
maintaining, a lead. At the head of Peiyang University, 
Tsing-Hua College, and the Government Teachers’ College of 
Nanking are graduates from the three greatest American 
universities, respectively, Harvard, Yale, and Columbia. It is 
these men who are imparting to thousands of students in China 
the ideals and traditions of the campuses at Cambridge, New 
Haven, and New York. In the South, in Canton Christian 
College, nearly a dozen Columbia graduates, returned in the 
last few years, have added tremendously to the efficiency and 
popularity of that institution among all classes of people. 
These are the men and women who are transmitting the best 
of wbat they had learned abroad to thousands of youth who 
will not have the opportunity of foreign travel; thus illustrat¬ 
ing the vast influence our students possess in promoting inter¬ 
national good will and understanding while resident abroad 
and after their return here. 

Outside the Government service returned men have distin¬ 
guished themselves and are still the shining lights in the 
industrial, economic, and intellectual life of this country. 
For instance, the Pekiug-Kalgan Railway is a model line, built 
under entirely Chinese auspices, and the conqueror of many 
technical engineering problems met with in its construction is 
Mr. Jeme Tien-yu, an American graduate, now directing the 
building of the great Hankow-Canton trunk line which 
eventually will connect the extreme south with Peking. 
There are scores of qualified mechanical, electrical, chemical, 
and civil engineers now engaged in various constructive 
works all over the land ; and quite recently a dozen civil 
engineers have been taken on to begin operations on the 
new Chuchow-Chinchow Railroad, in Kwangsi, financed by 
American capital. 

In the development of mineral resources there are now 
more than a hundred mining engineers and metallurgical 
experts, leading among whom are Dr. S. T. Kong, Chief 
Engineer of Hunan Province and Mr. C. Y. Wang, late of the 
Hua Chang Antimony Company which, it is said, has profited 
by the tens of millions as a result of filling war orders. Other 


The Chinese Recorder 


162 


[March 


mining engineers are fast opening up the great mineral deposits 
in various parts of the country. 

In forestry and agriculture a start lias been made in 
preparing the country through wide publicity, and the National 
Committee of the Young Men’s Christian Associations of China 
has had the services of Mr. D. Y. Liu of Amherst and the Yale 
School of Forestry iu carrying on lecture campaigns in several 
provinces. The Ministry of Commerce and Agriculture, in¬ 
spired by another returned student, Mr. Han Ngan, has until 
recently seconded Mr, Lin’s efforts by authorizing the establish¬ 
ment of forest nurseries conducted by several other returned 
student foresters, and devised a comprehensive program for 
general re-afforestation. 

In medicine, the name of Dr. Wu Lien-teh is one to be 
conjured with not only in China but even abroad, as that of 
the man who succeeded in stamping out plague in Manchuria, 
and whose great services in the capital have culminated in 
the organization of the Peking Central Hospital. Another 
physician only less widely recognized for valuable services is 
Dr. F. C. Yen of Changsha who has assisted in introducing 
public hygiene into that great inland city, and who even now is 
applying himself to acquire from New York City the latest 
methods employed in securing public health and sanitation in 
great industrial centers. The organization of the National 
Medical Association of China last year revealed a large number 
of returned students in its membership, many of whom, like 
Dr. S. P. Chen, of the Government Isolation Hospital, Peking, 
and Dr. E. S. Tyau of St. Luke’s Hospital, Shanghai, are 
contributing enormously to the health of the communities in 
which they dwell by ministering in the hospitals. 

Unique iu the annals of journalism is Eugene Chen’s 
management of the Peking Gazette which, though youug in 
years, exercises a transcending influence not merely upon 
passing events at the capital but throughout the provinces as 
well, and if imitation is the sincerest flattery, Mr. Chen is the 
most flattered man in China, for, it is said, his English and 
Chinese editorials are copied everywhere by Chinese and 
foreign journals alike. Alone of the metropolitan editors to 
dare to oppose the late Yuan Shih-kai’s aspirations for the 
throne, Mr. Chen and his Gazette have survived intimidations, 
threats, and the lure of gold. A score or so of Eugene Chens 
scattered over the country and we shall find a truly national 


1917] 


The Returned Student in China 


163 


press lifted to a position of dignity and power forming, guid¬ 
ing, and expressing public opinion, and edited without fear 
and without reproach, such as those abroad are permitted to 
enjoy and prosper. 

Apropos of journalism might be mentioned, in passing, two 
great publishing houses which in the last decade have contrib¬ 
uted so mighty a share in Chinese educational reform. One 
of them is the Commercial Press which has produced the 
necessary modern school text books to meet the demand for the 
new learning, and over which the genius and industry of the 
Messrs. Bau and of my learned friend, Dr. Fong F. Sec, so 
effectively preside. The other concern is the Chung Hwa 
Book Company to whose publications Dr. Wang Chung-hui of 
Yale, and the late lamented Chiusou Young of the University 
of Pennsylvania contributed such far-reaching influence and 
material advantage, especially to the young fellows in the 
middle schools and the colleges. With them have been 
associated the Hon. Fan Yuan-lin, now Minister of Education, 
and some other returned students. 

In business, returned men are found branching out into 
new commercial enterprises of great promise. A bank in 
Shanghai, established and conducted upon the most approved of 
banking principles, is flourishing under the management of a 
graduate of the Pennsylvania Wharton School of Finance. 
A silk filature is being reorganized on up-to-date methods and 
applying scientific knowledge, by a Columbia graduate, while 
several trading corporations and partnerships have been 
launched by returned men to develop China’s natural products 
of tea, cotton, rice, and minerals. The Yangtze Engineering 
Works of Hankow, a large plant which has built gunboats for 
the Chinese government, steamers for the coast lines, and a 
large variety of machinery, is under the exclusive direction of 
an English-trained student. Away down in Yunnan is a 
mining company, financed, organized, supplied with ores, and 
mauaged wholly by “a couple” of California graduates—-a 
couple in the sense of married folk. 

In the fine arts, there is little participation or great 
interest taken, as the object of emigrant students has generally 
been education, not in the arts, hut rather in the sciences. 

In literature the returned students have not, as yet, shown 
an independent interest, but only as an incident in the pursuit 
of other professions. Many graduates from American universities 


164 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


have, however, written excellent dissertations for the doctorate, 
and others are authors of masterly monographs in the course of 
scientific research along special lines. Few, if any, have 
adopted the muse of literature as a sole and life-long companion. 
But as an avocational activity, such a man as Ku Htuig-ming, 
who shows more than an ordiuary love and talent for literary 
work, and who, as the expounder of Confucius and the trans¬ 
lator of Darwin and Huxley, is worthy of mention as a land¬ 
mark in Anglo-Chinese literature. 

In music, especially in its reproductive branch, Miss V. P. 
Sze of Shanghai, better known and deeply appreciated locally, 
is an accomplished artist, who, cherishing the traditions of her 
metropolitan education in New York, has devoted and is 
devoting a large share of her time and energy in promoting 
musical taste and refinement amongst her fellow returned 
students at Shanghai. There is perhaps no other musician 
educated abroad who has attained any note in either creative or 
reproductive music, but it is hoped that in the near future 
some student might see the vast possibilities of a thorough 
education in this branch of art so as to interpret the soul of 
Chinese music to the West and vice versa. 

In the plastic arts no student going abroad has yet under¬ 
taken any training, but there are a few meu in America taking 
up architecture, who will, it is to be hoped, play the same role for 
Chinese architecture to the West as Ku Hung-ming in literature. 

The profession of law, as it is known in the West, is just 
making a beginning in China, for these last tumultuous years 
have not been auspicious for either lawyers or legal education. 
There are, to be sure, several hundred Japanese returned 
students who have, since the revolution of 1911, hung up 
shingles in various parts of China, but unfortunately as a 
class they have contributed little or nothing towards making 
the profession a noble calling. It will remain for the graduates 
of European and American law schools to establish standards 
of professional ethics and put the profession ou an enduring 
basis. There are, however, a score or so of graduates from these 
schools who have either entered government service or, like a 
few, have established practice in Hongkong and the ports of 
Shanghai and Hankow. But with the gradual re-establishment 
of law and order, the stabilizing of the government, the 
codification of the laws into some unified system, the organi¬ 
zation of law schools, the graduation therefrom of better 


1917] 


The Returned Student in China 


165 


equipped men, and the introduction of law examinations for 
admission to the bar, the profession will become more than a 
by-word of reproach, but a recognized and honorable calling 
such as it is in the West. However small a beginning it is, 
still, ornaments of the profession like Dr. Wang Chung-Hui, 
Dr. P. H. Lo, Messrs. Wu Chaorchu and Alexander Ting are 
blazing the way for the brethren to follow, and it is a brilliant 
way, for these returned students are as skilled in advocacy as 
they are learned in the legal lore of China, of Rome, and of 
Modern Europe. 

In the ministry and allied callings like the Young Men’s 
Christian Association, and eleemosynary secretaryships, to which 
men are attracted not, at least, by any inducement of salary, 
but rather by the great Christian ideal of selfless service for 
their fellow countrymen, men like the Rev. Cheng Ching-yi 
of the China Continuation Committee, the Rev. Dr. Wei-Ping 
Chen in Peking and several other graduates from American 
theological seminaries who have returned either to propagate 
the gospel through organized effort or to assume charge of 
congregations, are examples of a matchless devotion and 
success in this direction, The call of the Young Men’s Christian 
Association secretaryship has had its response from returned 
men, such, for example, as the Hon. C. T. Wang, late General 
Secretary of the National Committee, and Mr. David Yui, his 
worthy successor, and many other splendid specimens of 
educated Chinese Christian manhood who have attached them¬ 
selves to large city Associations, like those in Peking, 
Shanghai, Canton, Tientsin, Hankow, Changsha, and Foochow; 
a goodly number as paid secretaries, a larger number as 
directors and active sympathizers. Reference has been made 
to eleemosynary institutions. Strictly speaking China has not 
yet developed sociological experts, the right hand men of 
philanthropists, but they are in the training. But I know of an 
extraordinarily courageous fellow in Canton, a Missouri graduate, 
who dabbles in journalism, pharmacy, and trade, but whose one 
great hobby is prison reform, the amelioration of the pauper, 
the orphan, and the social outcast. In the last few years he 
has founded an orphan asylum, influenced the erection of a 
model prison, and organized instruction for the deaf arid dumb 
mutes of the city. I have no doubt that in other cities there 
are kindred spirits like his; but think of the efforts of one man 
in a city of teeming millions like Canton ! 


166 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


Last, but of fundamental importance, are the Christian 
homes that returned men and women have founded, and the 
influence that these homes will exert upon the community will 
be more and more widely felt as they increase in number aud 
popular recognition of their godliness, their cleanliness, their 
good taste in housekeeping, and general superiority. They 
should be, as many of them already are, the models for other 
homes, and if one is not mistaken, they will leaven the whole 
fabric of Chinese society and render social and economic reform 
an easier task. The estimate is that there must now be at 
least five hundred homes, in which either the husband or the 
wife or both are Christian returned students, scattered, of 
course, all over the country; the largest number being con¬ 
gregated in the capital and the large cities, particularly iu 
ports like Shanghai, Hankow, Tientsin, and Canton. 

Sufficient examples have been cited here to show that the 
Returned Student is, after all, making good in these lines of 
great resistance, and not merely waiting with itching palms 
and longing eyes to get into the national treasury, as some 
foreign writers would like to make him out to be. In these 
few pages I have tried to summarize how the Returned Student 
has proved his worth in the learned and practical professions, 
in the various branches of the government, and lastly in the 
service of his fellowmen. 

Now to the second half of my theme, namely, the con¬ 
sideration of the ways and means of increasing the Returned 
Student’s usefulness to his country in general and to the cause 
of the Christian Church iu particular. Before proceeding to 
suggest a few methods of approach,—and I doubt if what I 
have to say on these will be anything startlingly original to 
you—perhaps a brief discussion of the Returned Student’s own 
problems would point us to some tangible conclusions. First, 
his re-acclimatization to China—if I may use the term in a 
figurative sense. We have heard with much sympathy Prof. 
McBlroy’s injunction to emigrant students : “Go out Chinese; 
come back better Chinese! ” We do not wish to suggest that 
the learned professor almost begged the question, but assuming 
that he did not, there are several concrete difficulties to the 
returned student getting his bearings immediately upon land¬ 
ing on the Bund. 

A young Chinese, who has absented himself from China 
from four to ten years, and in that time living the life, 


1917] 


The Returned Student in China 


167 


wearing the dress, sharing the amusements, and speaking the 
language of foreigners cannot, I submit, even in half a year’s time, 
get accustomed to the ways of home folks, the discommoding 
conditions, and the mentally depressing atmosphere of China. 
For you must sympathize with the newly returned student, and 
understand his psychology. Generally, he is freshly graduated, 
puffed with book learning, self-conscious of his dignity and 
importance, and valuing himself 50% above par—in short, he 
is like an ex-President of the United States just left the White 
House, embarrassed at what he is next to do. In this frame 
of mind the natural thing for him to do is to grumble, and to 
grumble at everything and everybody. 

The only cure for the new man—for he is really u new ”— 
is kindness and sympathy. Without the soothing syrup of 
friendship China seems to him indeed, to mix metaphors, a “ raw 
deal.” A member of Yale’s chapter of Phi Beta Kappa returned 
to China some 30 odd years ago and found everything and 
everybody in China so insupportable that after a few months he 
took a steamer back to New York to raise chickens, and is still 
raising them. If you will permit a personal reminiscence let me 
say that I can never forget the cheery words and the unfailing 
gripping hand of my friend, and your President, Mr. Lock- 
wood, in those first few dark and trying weeks after my arrival. 
Ladies and gentlemen, at such times a smile is more effective 
than a sermon. Returned students differ in outlook, spirit, 
and character, but most of them are alike in one hope and one 
ambition, that of civil or political preferment. From the out¬ 
set of their home education, political preferment is made the 
goal, and certainly after a prolonged training the appetite for 
public office is only whetted by their greater fitness and knowl¬ 
edge. This is the more natural since the student class has 
been encouraged officially as well as unofficially to regard 
themselves as the leaders, if not the saviours, of the nation. 
Of course a few fortunate students have positions already offered 
or secured to them before their return, but the great majority 
come back on a chance to see what they could find. It is these 
men for whom something helpful ought to be done. If with¬ 
out influence or money or connections, their plight is truly 
unenviable. In June of last year there were estimated 500 idle 
returned students, and now still about 200, gathered in Peking 
awaiting appointment. In Shanghai there were near a hun¬ 
dred and in Canton about 50. How many there are in other 


168 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


centers is uncertain but there must be a considerable number. 
It is true that of these hundreds of unemployed there is quite 
a number of wealthy, or unfit, and a few down right loafers 
but with these latter we have nothing to do, for 99% of the 
unemployed foreign-educated men are, though poor, industrious, 
honest, and capable of making good if given a chance. I have 
known returned men in the dumps of despair, too proud to 
appeal to relatives for assistance,' some with families far away, 
having to borrow from their fellows in misery. The hunger 
wolf has threatened more than one man, and another actually 
became insane for lack of encouragement. These, be it re¬ 
membered, were the men who in their student days had their 
patriotic ardor fanned, as it were, by beautiful day-dreams 
into a religious zeal and now, finding that they are neither the 
leaders nor tile led in the country’s constructive work, their 
purposes misunderstood, their offers of service rejected, their 
ideals slipping away from them in a squalid and sordid environ¬ 
ment, is it any wonder that they become filled with misgiving 
as to their future, and silently mutter resentment against the 
established order of things ? Many there are who have found 
it necessary to desert their professions to take up clerical or 
teaching positions merely to eke out a livelihood, and the 
situation becomes more grave, more acute, as each year scores 
of graduates arrive to increase this body of restless, discontented 
young men. The picture is not pleasant for these eager and 
energetic fellows, to see, on the one hand, responsible posts 
filled by irresponsible old-time literati without a vestige of 
preparation or equipment to perforin their duties, and, on the 
other hand, to observe the kinsmen and favorites of high 
officials given sinecures ; and they, poor fellows, friendless and 
powerless, perhaps stranded, are left out in the cold. A galling 
comparison, indeed ! The situation thus cries out for relief of 
some practical and permanent nature. Says Mr. Putnam Weale 
in this regard :— 

Under the system of examinations which has grown up 
since the Revolution, there are said to be no less than 50,000 
expectant officials who, having duly qualified for office, con¬ 
sider that they have a right to immediate preferment and are 
discontented by their enforced idleness. If this figure is in 
any degree accurate a serious situation exists, making it a 
matter of policy tor large numbers of literate men to long for 
radical changes in the government. No interest chains them 


1917] 


The Returned Student in China 


169 


to the existing regime ; it is indeed their enemy, for it keeps 
them out of office; even a bloody revolution, which nobody 
any longer contemplates or desires, might prove better to 
their fortune than the poverty in which they are condemned 
to languish. 

The remedy is a proper Civil Service with examinations 
for vacancies as they arise. There is no other method which 
has any value at all : it is the experience of the whole civilized 
world : and China has either to accept the experience of the 
civilized world in this as in other matters or else to declare 
herself outside the common circle. If the momentous step of 
establishing a proper Civil Service Commission to deal with 
the matter is taken, yet another great difficulty in the work 
of government would speedily vanish ; and the familiar sight 
of candidates crying like the daughters of the horse-leech 
“give, give”, and caring about nothing else, would become 
a thing of the past. 

That a Civil Service system is the natural sequel to spending 
annually hundreds of thousands to educate youug men abroad 
seems elementary. Imagine any other country not utilizing 
the only two West Point graduates it has ! Yet this is the 
precise case, for the cadets that China went to so much trouble 
to educate at the American Military Academy have been forced 
into private engineering work just to make a living. Yet the 
Army Board at Peking spends other thousands to employ 
foreign military instructors and advisers. The same is true of 
other departments of government. One might reasonably con¬ 
clude that the Chinese government has what President Wilson 
calls “a fundamental doubt as to native skill, enterprise, and 
capacity,” from the lavish way it engages foreign advisers who 
give either no advice or else bad advice. For the purpose of 
expediting the creation of a Civil Service Commission it may 
be suggested that bodies like this Association or through it the 
Chambers of Commerce adopt resolutions urging the Govern¬ 
ment to accord this matter prompt consideration and decisive 
actiou. Such resolutions could be presented to leaders like 
Mr. C. T. Wang who could impress upon the Parliamentary 
whips the imperative need of this reform. 

Failing the early adoption of a civil service system, measures 
should be taken to find, outside the government, the manless 
job for the jobless man. The Young Men’s Christian Associa¬ 
tions, here and in Peking, have done some creditable work in 


170 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


locating openings for unemployed returned students, through 
co-operation of its business members, and the various college 
alumni associations working in conjunction with the American 
University Club. The positions should not, however, pay 
below a minimum wage. There is a general notion that 
returned students have refused situations paying less than $200 
or $300, but it is a fact, and an appalling one, that some returned 
men, with families too, in Peking are compelled to work for 
from $50 to $80 a month, and thus forced back to the low 
standard of living from which they were supposed to have riseu. 

It is but natural that iu this form of genuine social service, 
Christian institutions should first watch out for Christian 
returned students, but we think the non-Christian returned 
students should also be served, for among them, especially 
those from Great Britain and the United States, there is a new 
type of graduate, the man who though not professing or 
perhaps even opposing Christianity, has nevertheless caught 
the gleam of Christian civilization. He is different from other 
non-Christians becau-se he refuses to prostitute his education 
for “filthy lucre” regardless o-f the means of acquiring it. I 
have in mind several young fellow-travellers on the same 
steamer home, sons of influential and high-placed officials, who 
prefer to go hungry rather than go back to their native 
provinces there to participate afresh in the old game of graft 
and exploitation. As one expressed it, “I want to turn over a 
new leaf, and earn my living by honest application, not by 
using ‘pull,’ and if I fail of employment I will go into 
business to make an independent livelihood.’'’ That man is 
now preparing to go prospect mg for honest gold in the virgin 
territory of Manchuria. His is a new spirit and his example 
has moved several other men into declining to proceed to 
Peking for official appointment. 

The next problem, like that of employment, is strictly 
not a part of missionary endeavor and yet it has an important 
bearing upon missionary results, which will presently be taken 
up in its relation to all these problems. It is that of marriage, 
to which some may object as beyond your province. But it is 
submitted that upon examination the question presents aspects 
worthy of your attention. The unmarried Christian returned 
student comes back to look for a wife as well as professional 
distinction. Suppose your churches suffer him to go adrift, 
and not connect him up with their activities in which he could 


1917] 


The Returned Student in China 


171 


meet your Christian young women, the returned man goes 
elsewhere for his mate, and nine chances to one some busybody 
relative or pagan friend hooks him up with a non-Christian 
girl That has been done repeatedly. Now, what assurance 
is there that the offspring of such unions will be brought up in 
the Christian faith ? It is to be feared that in the long run 
instead of losing merely one Christian your churches would 
probably lose three or four or more. 

The third problem is that of cultivating these returned 
students’ friendship. Unless you understand them and they 
appreciate the altruistic purposes which impelled you to China 
there is bound to be more or less misconception, one of the 
other. In saying all this it is not intended to assign to the 
returned students a larger importance than is their due. They 
are, to be sure, not “the whole show” in China, but it is 
unquestionably true that they exert a great influence on their 
less fortunate brethren ; and if it be agreed that these men will 
be the future leaders of the country, as many of them already 
are, they should be treated as forces to associate with and not 
merely fields to work on. 

And this cultivation ought to begin from the missionary 
friends’ first contact with them. Unfortunately, however, many 
of these friends ueglect their opportunities. I recall that on the 
ship coming to China there were about ten returned students, 
and over 150 missionaries aboard, and I doubt if the students 
met more than a score of those good people, who could have 
ascertained that some others than Chinese laborers and seamen 
were their fellow-passengers, but who kept to themselves, like 
the attitude of the fabled American hen who said to the 
China egg: “You don’t belong to my set!” How perfectly 
natural for those students to conclude that the missionaries 
apparently preferred to preach to their less enlightened brothers 
in China than to make friends with them. It is from out of 
incidents like this arises the lamentable misconception that 
missionaries derive their living out of the Chinese, and the 
inevitable impression is that they are much “stuck up” and 
ungrateful for it all. But how easy to disperse all these suspi¬ 
cious by a friendly chat and a gentle hint that your income 
is the outcome of your native strands and that you bring it 
cheerfully to the service of their compatriots. 

In this connection it might be remarked that not a few 
complaints have been heard from several returned students 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


17 2 

associated with missionaries in Christian work, that they 
receive a wage that is sometimes inadequate even for men or 
women who have never been abroad, and whose needs presum¬ 
ably are not as diverse or numerous as those of the foreign- 
educated student. And a source of greater discontent than of 
a mere pecuniary nature is the alleged bigotry and snobbish¬ 
ness (or is it inherent racial prejudice?) that render the lives of 
Chinese mission co-workers disagreeable. It could with truth 
be argued that if these men and women find association with 
foreign missionaries intolerable they should gel out; but that 
remedy hardly suffices. There is at the bottom of it all a 
principle, a divine and eternal principle of the religion of 
Christ as of humanity, that of justice and equality, which, sad 
to relate, some missionaries seem at times to deny by the 
mysteriously condescending attitude they display towards their 
Chinese assistants, particularly towards those who cannot make 
their grievances perfectly articulate in the English tongue, and 
it is but lately, since returned students have entered mission 
service, that these deplorable facts, fortunately not a general 
condition, have found voice. Let the missionary friends 
complained of purge their hearts of selfishness and envy and 
suspicion,and it may be guaranteed that, confidence for confidence, 
the returned student will 11 play the game” and prove equal to 
his or her trust; but should a petty spirit of distrust obtain, it 
should not be a subject of surprise that a few returned students 
will charge some missionaries with conduct incompatible with 
the Master’s doctrines. 

It seems superfluous here to remark that in order to relate 
the Christian returned students to active church work and to 
win from the non-Christians a sympathetic recognition of 
Christianity, they must be approached tactfully. It may be 
suggested that Associations like this invite the returned 
men to more than one meeting a year. This will be more 
easily done hereafter by communicating with such groups as 
the British Returned Students’ Club and the China Alutnni 
Associations of the larger American universities. Thus whole¬ 
some society will be provided for these men who, for want of 
which, play “sparrow” five nights a week or ofteiier. 

In this personal evangelism among returned students it has 
been noticed that persuading them to undertake some social or 
religious work themselves has beeu far more effective than 
asking them to join Bible classes, institutes, and revivals. In 


1917] 


The Returned Student in China 


\7S 


some instances men consider that they have left classes behind 
them for good when they graduated. It is suggested that the 
Christian returned students be asked to teach Bible classes of 
boys and young men and thus to tie them up with an obligation 
to the churches. Some will decline on the ground that they 
are not sufficiently acquainted with the Bible for that; but it 
will be a splendid opportunity for them to study it in order to 
teach it, and it will be found that most men had been enrolled 
in Bible classes at some period in tbeir college careers. 

Another problem is that of providing better native 
preaching. Men and women who have been fed on high 
standard ministrations abroad do not care to attend churches 
where sub-standard sermons are preached. What is needed is for 
your Association to recommend to the various boards repre¬ 
sented here the sending out of a few qualified Chinese clergy¬ 
men to the seminaries abroad for substantial training. I have 
in mind a young Cantonese pastor with an extraordinary 
personality and forward-looking vision, who in scarcely a year 
built up from nothing a flourishing congregation. Take 
material like that, equip him with an education so that he 
could properly convey his message,- and he will become a D. L. 
Moody in China. Some of you will recollect that it was 
precisely to meet this need’ of better preaching that a number 
of returned students organized three years ago the Sunday 
Service League meetings to be conducted in English. 

In connection with the urgency of providing a better 
trained native ministry, there is one feature which can easily 
be rectified by proper handling, that is the administration of 
the sacraments, which is conducted in some churches in so 
perfunctory and mechanical a fashion. In one church the 
necessary paraphernalia, if I may use that term reverently, are 
sometimes incomplete, and the lack of the note of solemnity 
is the most objectionable omission. Now it is, or ought to be, 
possible for the foreign-ordained men to coach their Chinese 
brothers of the cloth in these important details, for, unless the 
rite is invested with the dignity and solemnity it imports, many 
Christiau returned students will choose not to take communion 
at all. 

In conclusion, let me say that the best time to get the 
returned man u hitched” to churches is when he first reaches 
home ; later it generally becomes a more difficult proposition ; 
this would suggest a classification of returned students. Yes, 


174 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


there are classes, besides those Christian and non-Christian. 
Among the Christians are those who have gotten into wrong 
company, especially in official life. I know of several men 
with whom religion means little more than attending a Sunday 
service when they feel like it and the weather is inviting. Then 
there is the unregenerate politician, the slick brother who at¬ 
tempts to square dirty politics with Christianity. Another type 
is the scientist, stuffed with biology or geology who will argue 
hours with you on the comparative merits of Genesis and geolo¬ 
gy. But in the main, whether a returned man be Christian 
or non-Christian, cynic or agnostic, he is responsive to kindness 
and sympathy. This is particularly so of the student returned 
from Europe and America, for he exhibits a somewhat freer 
air, a larger outlook, an open mind, and a disposition to “mix 
it” with such problems as he finds. Surely such men as these 
are worth investing the best in missionary zeal, spirit, and 
ability. And yet with such rich material at hand it is a pity 
that for years nothing more than an academic interest has been 
taken by missionaries in the returned students as a group. 

Allow me therefore to conclude with a few suggestions 
upon which, in the light of this brief discussion, your esteemed 
Association might consider definite action : 

1. To demonstrate your positive sympathy for an establish¬ 
ment of a Civil Service system or the creation of a Civil Service 
Commission to the end that properly qualified returned students 
may find positions in the government along lines in which they 
have been especially trained, as a substitute for the present 
vicious, haphazard, and highly expensive system of trying to fit 
round pegs into square holes. 

2. To devise ways and means of co-operating with various 
learned or social clubs to find openings with adequate remuner¬ 
ation for returned men with dependents. 

3. To provide in a certain degree a wholesome society, 
preferably in your Associations, homes , and churches, by extend¬ 
ing to returned men the glad hand. 

4. To enable these men to meet Christian young ladies in 
the churches. 

5. To do some personal evangelization among Christian 
and non-Christian returned students. 

6. To manifest a truly Christian attitude in respect of 
salary and social intercourse toward returned student mission 
co-workers. 


1917] 


The C. 1. M. Shansi Bible Institute 


175 


7. To relate returned students to the churches in the 
performance of some church or social service for others’ benefit. 

8. To see that a better equipped native ministry be 
provided in order that educated Chinese may minister more 
acceptably to their returned student parishioners. 

9. And lastly, to direct your standing Committee on 
Returned Students—I understand there is such a body—to 
investigate and report on other ways and means of carrying out 
your beliefs in these directions. 

One may not predict results, but should these suggestions 
lead to effecting closer and more cordial relations of the 
returned students with their missionary friends who, apparently, 
are so anxious to co-operate with them to their mutual benefit, 
the purpose of this paper will have been amply fulfilled. And 
after all, what more satisfying reward can missionary friends 
covet than to become and remain true spiritual friends of the 
future men of light and leading of this great Republic, mer 
who are, in the words of the poet Milton, 

“ Knflamed with the study of learning and the admiration 
of virtue, stirred up with high hopes of living to be brave 
men and worthy, dear to God, and famous to all ages.” 


The C. I. M. Shansi Bible Institute 

F. C. H. DREYER. 

F iOR some years the need of giving a more thorough and 
systematic training to evangelists and other Christian 
workers made itself felt among the China Inland 
missionaries in Shansi. This led to the establishment 
of a Bible Institute at Hungtung, South Shansi, the former 
headquarters of the work of the late Pastor Hsi. Hungtung 
was chosen as being centrally located, a quiet city, without the 
excitements and temptations of larger centers but with good 
opportunities for work both among Christians and non- 
Christians. The Institute was opened February 24, 1910, 
with an enrollment of 17 students. Owing to the Revolution, 
the school had to be suddenly disbanded in November, 1911, 
and it was not until September, 1913, that the second class 
began, with an attendance of 30 men. This class completed 
the course in June, 1915, and the third class commenced 




1 76 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


August 28 that same year. There are at present 42 students 
in attendance. Of these twenty-six come from fifteen different 
stations in Shansi, four from two stations in Chihli, ten from 
six stations in Honan, and two from a station in Shensi. Of 
these students, two are connected with different Lutheran 
Missions in Honan, two with the English Baptists in Shansi, 
one with the Norwegian and five with the Swedish missions 
associated with the C. I, M.; the remaining thirty-two with the 
C. I. M. In view of the smallness of our Christian constituency 
in Shansi and the difficulty of securing a constant supply of 
really suitable men—a difficulty which Bible Institutes in 
other parts of China are also experiencing—we are thankful to 
be able to draw students from so wide an area. 

The qualifications required for entrance are as follows: 
applicants must be at least 20 years of age ; must be church 
members; of good character ; having shown a love of God’s 
word, an iuterest in the spiritual welfare of others, and have 
given evidence of a call of God to and a general fitness for 
Christian work. They must also have the respect and approval 
of the missionaries and Chinese leaders of the churches from 
which they come. They must be able to read the mandarin 
New Testament with fluency, to copy notes with facility, and 
to correctly recognize, write, and explain at least 70% of the 
800 most commonly used Chinese characters given in Dr. 
Sheffield’s list (which will be sent on application). As shown 
above, students from missions other than the C. I. M. are also 
accepted, so far as there is accommodation, and in view of their 
extra travelling expenses, a reduction in the fees is allowed 
to students from other provinces. 

Being preeminently a Bible Institute, our aim is to give 
the students as good a grasp of the Chinese scriptures as the 
length of the course and their ability will permit. The man¬ 
darin Bible is therefore the principal text-book. In order to 
maintain interest and variety, however, the scriptures are 
studied according to the following plan : 

1. Old Testament History in Outline. This gives a 
bird’s-eye view of the whole Old Testament and is preparatory 
to No. 2. In this course u Chiu Yoh Shih Chi” (published 
by the Association Press) is used as a text-book. Being largely 
questions on the scripture text, we find that it trains the stu¬ 
dents to think for themselves by obliging them to search out 
the answers. 


The C. I. M, Shansi Bible Institute 


i 77 


1917J 


2. The Books of the Old Testament. In this course the 
historical books of the Old Testament are studied in detail, 
chapter by chapter and book by book. Our original aim was 
to study from Genesis to Job in the two years, but so far, during 
that period, we have not succeeded in getting beyond I Kings 
and the parallel parts of Chronicles. 

3. The Life of Our Lord. This is studied in chronological 
order, following Stevens and Burton’s harmony, and covers 
the whole of the four gospels. Taking the fullest narrative as 
the basis of our study, we supplement from the parallel 
accounts. 

4. Bible Doctrine. In this course we follow in general 
Torrey’s “What the Bible Teaches.” So far, however, we 
have not succeeded in completing this book during the two 
years 7 course. For courses Nos. 2 and 4, copious notes are 
duplicated on the mimeograph by the students themselves. For 
course No. 3 the notes are written on the blackboard and 
each man copies his own. These notes seem to be specially 
appreciated. 

5. This term, for the more able men, we are making the 
experiment of setting the Acts of the apostles as an extra 
subject rorprivate study, providing them with a translation of 
Prof. Griffith Thomas 7 “Studies in the Acts” (published by 
the West China Tract Society) as a guide. Help is given when 
needed but no regular teaching is done, our aim being to train, 
the men to study by themselves. At the close of the term they 
well be expected to pass an examination in this subject also. 

6. Homiletics. In this course the qualifications necessary 
for an efficient preacher and the art of sermon making, 
illustration, and delivery are taught. Texts and subjects are 
set for practice in making sermon outlines aud these are 
criticised. Opportunities for practice in telling Bible stories 
are afforded, but no trial sermons are required. Instead of the 
latter, the students take turns in leading morning and evening 
prayers, their efforts being criticised before the whole class on 
the following day . In this way it is sought to avoid artificiality 
and to give them conditions as normal as possible. Should a 
teacher be present and deem it necessary, their preaching at 
the street chapel, in the open air, and in fact all their work, is 
also subject to friendly constructive criticism in class, aud this 
criticism is appreciated. 


178 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


Special Methods of Work . The principles governing 
open-air work, street-chapel preaching, shop-visitation, station 
class and Sunday school teaching, are also explained. 
Instruction is given in the art of personal soul-winning, and its 
importance is emphasized. The object iu view, the conditions 
for success, and points of contact, having been pointed out, we 
proceed to deal with the common objections and difficulties 
met with in the area from which the students are drawn, such, 
as: “I cannot read”; “We also worship Heaven and 
Earth ” ; “I‘m afraid of persecution (like the Boxer Rising)”; 
“If one does good, that is all that is required ”; “I have no 
time”; “I am too poor” ; “We have our own sages, why 
should we believe in Christ?” and many others. These 
excuses are posted up beforehand so that the men may prepare 
for their seriatim discussion in class. Each student has a 
note-book with one objection heading each page, under which 
he writes down those scripture references, arguments, proverbs, 
and illustrations, which during the discussions impress him as 
being effective. The teacher criticises, sums up, and supple¬ 
ments the results at the close of the study period. It is 
refreshing to see the interest that is aroused and to note how 
varied and helpful most of the suggested methods of dealing 
with the difficulties are. We trust that this course may prove 
most fruitful in the students’ future service for God. 

6. Memorizing Scripture. Two verses of scripture are 
memorized daily. These are largely isolated texts which have 
been specially selected as being most helpful to the students’ 
own life, or suitable for use in soul-winning and preaching. 
They are memorized in the order in which they are found in 
the Bible, so that they may be the more easily held in the 
mind and recalled at will. Each day, with the exception of 
Monday, the previous day’s verses are also repeated and on 
Saturdays the whole week’s verses are reviewed. 

7. Secular Studies. In addition to the biblical studies the 
men have two classes a day in Chinese and arithmetic, taught 
by former elementary school teachers who are themselves 
taking the biblical course. Those who are of higher grade 
take such subjects in the Intermediate School as seem most 
suitable for them and can be fitted into the time tables. These 
studies rest the men’s minds and widen their mental horizon. 

8. On Tuesday evenings instructiou is given in hymn¬ 
singing. On Thursday evenings brief expositions of the 


19171 


The C. 1. M. Shansi Bible Institute 


179 


epistles are given. Once a fortnight a lecture is given on the 
life of some eminent saint, such as one of the church fathers, 
Luther, Wesley, Whitfield, Spurgeon, Moody, Muller, etc. 
These lectures illustrate many scripture principles aud show 
the manifold grace of God in the call, preparation, and use of 
such varied instruments in His service, and it is hoped that 
they may stimulate the students to yield themselves also as 
vessels “meet for the master’s use.” 

Stress is laid on the need of personal communion with God 
and faithfulness in private devotion. The first quarter of an 
hour in the class-room each day is given to prayer and waiting 
on God. A weekly cycle of prayer topics is followed, covering 
the whole world, the provinces of China, the students’ own 
stations aud homes, etc. This cycle is not slavishly followed, 
but is used as a help to keep the prayers from becoming self- 
centered. Special requests sent to us are also remembered aud 
when answers have been granted brief reports are given aud 
thanksgiving and praise offered. Occasionally a few moments 
are used to present some interesting facts concerning one or 
other of the topics for the day that enable us to pray more 
intelligently or call forth praise. 

Daily marks are given in the subjects taught. As each 
book or important subject is finished it is revised and an 
examination paper is set. All other exams are held at the end 
of the term. Diplomas are given to those who have a general 
average of 75% or more for the two years, and who do not fall 
below 60 % in more than one subject per terra. 

As already stated, the present course covers two years, but 
it is hoped later on to add an advanced course of another two 
years. To this course only those will be eligible who have 
passed the examinations of the present course and who have 
gained experience and given satisfaction in Christian service 
for a year or more. In this advanced course the remaining 
portions of the Old and New Testaments, the topics in Bible 
Doctrine not studied in the present course, and such other 
biblical and practical subjects as may be deemed wise, will be 
taken up. Already the students are eagerly looking forward 
to this advanced course. 

The doctrinal teaching of the Institute may be described 
as conservative and evangelical. Avoiding theological hobbies 
and religious extravagances, we seek to hold the balance of 
Truth, and following the dictum, “I11 essentials unity, in 


180 


the Chinese Recorder 


[March 

non-essentials liberty, in all things charity,” we endeavor to 
teach “those things which are most surely believed among 
us” in a spirit of brotherly love, free from sectarian bias. We 
seek to maintain in ourselves and inculcate in our students a 
love for Truth and an entire submission to the Bible as the 
word of God and as authoritative in all things that concern life 
and doctrine. 

As may be seen from the above, it is the aim of the 
Institute to'^be thoroughly practical, to train the heart as welt 
as the head, and to this end the men are expected from the 
beginning to take a share in such Christian work as they are 
able. They had morning and evening prayers in the Institute 
on most days of the week ; the more experienced among them 
also take turns in leading prayers in the Intermediate School. 
In the neighborhood of Hungtung there are about a dozen 
places where services are held every Sunday. These services 
the students lead whenever appointed in the quarterly preaching 
plan. To all places within a radius of 25 miles) from 

the city they walk, but donkeys are provided for them when 
they are asked to take services at more distant places. Those 
who are not thus engaged on Sundays go out in bauds in the 
afternoon to evangelize the nearer villages, preach on the 
streets of the city, or in the street chapel. During the week 
they also take turns in daily open-air and street chapel preach¬ 
ing—a numerical table covering teu weeks, automatically 
assuring that the party is composed of different men each day. 
A Christian Endeavor Society, recently organized, affords 
opportunity of gaining some experience in C. E- work. 

A suggestion is under consideration to send out the stu¬ 
dents once in the course on evangelistic campaigns of about a 
month’s duration, in parties of say 10-14 men, under the 
leadership of one each of our most gifted and experienced 
missionaries and Chinese evangelists. The idea is to “attack” 
a given center, preferably one where but little work has been 
done ; to live in a court or shop (previously rented) rather than 
at an inn ; to do guest-hall work ; to placard the city with 
large gospel posters and sheet tracts ; to visit the shops, not 
merely to sell gospels and distribute tracts, but to seek for 
opportunities for persoual work; and to have daily open-air and 
indoor preaching as the Eord may lead. Each morning 
before starting an hour or more is to be given to definite Bible 
study and prayer, and half an hour or 45 minutes to instruction 


1917] 


The C. I. M. Shansi Bible Institute 


181 


in methods of work and helpful criticism. Such campaigns, 
efficiently led, should prove of great educational value to the 
students and would be considered an integral part of the two 
years’ course. 

We have several hundred books and pamphlets on various 
subjects as a nucleus of an Institute library, but it is hoped 
that these may ere long be supplemented by many others, so 
that the students may, in their leisure moments, gain at least a 
casual acquaintance with China’s growing Christian literature, 
and be able by personal inspection to invest to the best advan¬ 
tage what scanty cash they may have for this purpose. 

Through the generosity of the Bible House of Los 
Angeles, Cal., new buildings have been recently completed for 
the Bible Institute, consisting of a lecture hall, two class¬ 
rooms, a dining room, students’ rooms, and other necessary 
buildings to accommodate about 60 men. These buildings are 
proving most suitable. 

While a few of the former students have proved a dis¬ 
appointment, many are taking an honorable part in the work 
of their districts in Shansi, Chihli, and Honan. As they 
increase in experience, they are gaining in power and influence 
and the appreciation shown by the missionaries and the Chinese 
churches alike has been most encouraging. Some have 
developed outstanding gifts as preachers and are in increasing 
demand as conference speakers; others have developed talents 
as Bible teachers and are acceptably touring the villages, 
holding station classes of from four days to a fortnight each. 

The experience of the past few years has increasingly 
impressed us with the importance and value of such systematic 
training, in order that earnest Christian young men, who have 
a divine call to service, may secure a deeper knowledge of God, 
a better grasp of His word, and learn how most effectively to 
preach the gospel and win souls to Christ, that thus they may 
become useful workers and leaders in the Chinese churches. 

In closing we would adopt some words spoken in London 
recently by Mr. D. E. Hoste, general Director of the C. I. M.: 
“Oh! do pray for these seminaries. We have all heard about 
the practice of poisoning wells, and I think we shall agree that 
the devil knows something of that too. He is very fond of 
getting into these theological seminaries, these training institu¬ 
tions, and if he can get either false doctrine, or wrong living, 
or want of love, or want of self-sacrifice into these places, then 


182 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


he poisons the wells or the sources of the rivers. Pray for all 
who are responsible for the training of Christian young men in 
these institutions. If such are filled with the Holy Ghost and 
if Christ is really living out His life in them, the men will 
have a training that is not in word only, but iu powor.” 


Recent Development in American Student Life 

J. L. CHILDS. 

N " 'JO one interested in the future of mission work in non- 
Christian lands can be indifferent to the type of moral 
and spiritual life prevailing in the colleges of America. 
Especially is this true at this present hour. With the 
great war claiming the flower of the young manhood of the 
European countries, it is but conservative to say that a dis¬ 
proportionate share of the recruits for the missionary enterprise 
of the next generation will have to come from the colleges of 
the United States. Accepting this as a true statement of the 
situation, can we look with confidence to the American students 
to answer adequately. Out of recent contact with the Christian 
Student Movement of that nation, I am grateful to be able to 
indicate at least some promising tendencies. 

East year it was my privilege to be associated with 
Raymond Robins in a series of social-service evangelistic 
campaigns which touched forty-two colleges in twenty-five 
different states. Mr. Robins is one of the Christian workers 
who have pioneered in social re-construction in America. It 
was not an uncommon experience to find that the average 
attendance at his main meetings was well over seventy-five 
per cent of the entire student body and faculty. I remember 
one evening, at the concluding meeting of a campaign in a 
state university, hearing one student remark to his companion: 
“Doesn’t it beat all the crowds that have been coming out to 
hear this fellow talk on religion ? There have been more men 
out almost every night for a week than we could get out last 
fall for our most important football mass meeting.” Out of 
Mr. Robins’ campaigns alone, there were no less than 8,200 
students aud professors who made Christian decision by signing 
a definitely worded statement. It would be a mistake to 
assume that all of these were initial decisions for the Christian 
life. On the other hand, as Prof. Hutchins well stated after 




t 9 ! 7 ] Recent Development in American Student Life 


183 


the close of the campaign at Oberlin, the great majority of 
them did represent something more than a mere invigorated 
Christianity. 

To be sure Mr. Robins’ method marked a new departure 
in college evangelism. His approach was social : first putting 
before the students the challenge of the changing social 
order, picturing in dramatic style out of his own first-hand 
acquaintance with them, some of the leading problems in the 
industrial, civic, and social life of the nation. Then, after 
having aroused interest by the portrayal of the romance and 
joy of service, he drove back with tremendous power to the 
persotial issue of the price meu would have to pay in mastery 
and unselfishness, if they were to have the power to serve 
faithfully and well. In dealing with the social as well as the 
personal issues, Mr. Robins made it clear that in his opinion 
this power, competent for the whole task, was resident in 
Christianity, and in Christianity alone. Even those who were 
at first most sceptical about the possibilities of this approach 
for vital evangelistic work, are at present not only convinced, 
but loyal advocates of a greatly extended use of the method 
both at home and abroad. 

Great as were the results of this one series, it must not be 
concluded that they were the sum of the year’s work. Cam¬ 
paigns by Mott, Weatherford, Dad Elliott, and Eddy, not to 
mention many others, were also yielding unusual fruit. In 
fact it was the testimony of many who for decades have been 
laboring iu the college field, that they could not remember a 
time when students were more anxious to listen to vital 
presentation of moral aud spiritual truth. The influence of 
the war, shaking men out of smug complacency and compell¬ 
ing them to think in terms of final realities, probably in no 
sphere of American life was felt more keenly than in the 
colleges. 

Facing, on the one hand, this unusual responsiveness of the 
American student body ; and realizing on the other the new 
obligation which the war would inevitably place upon America 
for furnishing workers iu the world-wide Christian enterprise, 
the leaders of the Student Movement and the Christian church 
jointly are projecting an enlarged program of evangelism which 
is to extend over at least a period of four years. The first year 
of this period is to be spent in intensive preparation, and during 
the remaining three years, one special evangelistic campaign 


184 


The Chinese Recorder 


[ March 


is to be conducted each year in every college and university 
that will make adequate preparation. The campaigns are to 
be for both men and women. While the main objective of 
each campaign will be strictly evangelistic, three clearly 
distinguished types of messages will be given, each college 
during the period receiving each message. In one series the 
approach will be through the social message; in another it will 
be from the standpoint of the challenge of the present world 
situation ; and in the third the aim will be to give adequate 
intellectual interpretation of the great truths of Christianity. 
The Church boards and the two Associations are to co-operate 
iu the selection of the campaign leaders, and no pains or 
expense will be spared in the effort to secure the strongest 
possible men for this work. If the testimony of the many 
college and state university presidents who have been informed 
of the plan, can be accepted as fairly revealing the attitude of 
the faculty members, such a program will not only be welcome 
but most vigorously supported. 

Another encouraging fact is the sacrificial share the 
American students are assuming in the war work conducted by 
the Young Meu’s Christian Association for the men in the 
trenches, in the concentration camps, in the prisons, and in 
the hospitals. From humble beginnings this work has grown 
until recently it was declared by one of the most prominent 
figures in European politics to-day to be one of the most 
significant things in all of Europe. It is serving impartially all 
of the warring nations, and the budget required last year for 
the work reached the million mark. Last October the student 
department assumed the responsibility for raising $150,000 
for this cause from the American colleges by Christmas. 
From reports written in early December, it seems safe to 
assume that they will not only reach this sum, but that in all 
probability they will go far beyond it. Colleges of only 500 
students, such as Connecticut Wesleyan, for example, have 
given no less than $5,000. Nor has the giving been confined 
to any one section of the country or to any one type of 
institution. There are many touching examples of sacrifice on 
the part of individuals for their suffering brothers in Europe. 
The following are a few quotations from letters that have 
reached me : 

Coe College, Iowa. 41 Many students gave up suits and 
QVer-coats in order to make their contributions.” 


1917] Recent Development in American Student Life 


185 


Colb}' College, Maine. “ One girl who gave twenty-five 
dollars is earning her way through college by walking out 
every Sunday morning six miles into the country to preach, 
and then walking back.” 

Phillips Exeter Academy. “Several of the members of 
our club have given up all spending of money except for the 
bare necessities, and we intend to thus make our gift five or 
six times larger than it otherwise would have been.” 

Lawerence College, Wis. “The junior class here gave 
up their class sweaters and in addition to their personal pledge 
gave $200 as a class. 

University of Minnesota. “The two cabinets, twenty in 
number, subscribed $460 to start the effort. One man working 
his way through school gave $100. A girl who is not only 
working her way through the university, but who in addition 
is preparing meals for herself and her brother, said that she 
could not give up anything in the way of a new hat or clothes, 
for she was not expecting to purchase anything of that sort, 
but that she would cut down on her food expenses and gladly 
gave five dollars to the fund.” 

These are but a few of a multitude of such instances. 
Surely there is basis for real thanksgiving that the American 
students have thus entered into the fellowship of the sufferings 
of those enduring the hardships of the war zone. 

Just one more evidence of a growing spirit of moral 
earnestness. Last June there was gathered at the annual Lake 
Geneva conference not only the largest number of students ever 
drawn from the colleges of the Middle West, but unquestion¬ 
ably the most representative group also. In the 700 students 
of that gathering were leaders from every phase of student life. 
The following resolution, therefore, which was unanimously 
passed by the gathering, carries more than ordinary significance: 

“ Whereas, gambling, profanity, dishonesty, immodest 
dancing, and other social excesses, the use of tobacco and liquor, 
are a menace to the student life of our universities and colleges, 
and are undermining character, and are destroying the capacity 
for Christian leadership, 

Be it resolved : that we, the delegates to this conference, 
place ourselves on record as being unqualifiedly opposed to 
these practices, and do hereby pledge ourselves, with the help 
pf God, to the eradication of these evils from the student life 
pf the colleges and the universities of the Middle West” 


186 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


No one is more aware than the writer of the grave short¬ 
comings in contemporary American student life, unless it be 
that loyal band of Christian students and professors, University 
pastors, and Association secretaries who are to-day faithfully 
laboring to eradicate these evils. And yet it is but fair to add 
that those who have the closest contact with these same 
student-bodies, and who are likewise interested in the extension, 
of the Kingdom of God throughout the whole world, are glad 
to be numbered among those who believe that in this hour of 
opportunity and obligation they will not be found wholly 
wanting. 


3n flftemodam: —Mrs. S. F. Edwards. 


ARTHUR SOWKRBY. 


m HE missionary body in China, and especially the Shansi 
branch of the English Baptist Mission, sustained a severe 
loss last August wheu Mrs. Susannah Florence Edwards, 
wife of Dr. E. H. Edwards, entered into rest. The call 
was not unexpected ; for some time Mrs. Edwards had been in 
serious ill-health, and from the home land, where she was lovingly 
cared for by those dearest to her, no reassuring news had come to 
her many friends in China, but when at last word came that her 
sufferings were ended, then to those who knew her, mingled with 
the consciousness of loss, came the assurance that here was the 
perfecting of a very rare and beautiful and holy life. Her task 
was finished, her course was ended, and she had accomplished a 
work of extraordinary usefulness, and had left to others the memory 
of her saintly character, the memory of a life filled with the Spirit, 
and exhibiting what the grace of God can do in one fully surren¬ 
dered to the Lord Jesus. 

Mrs. Edwards was the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. G. T. Kemp 
of Rochdale, Eugland, and so was a member of the first family iti 
one of Lancashire’s great manufacturing towns. Her brother, 
Lord Rochdale, has been an Under Secretary in the British 
Government, and one of her sisters, Miss Emily Kemp, is well 
known as a great traveller in Asia and a writer of very marked 
ability. Her family may be taken as typical of much that is best 
in English life. Wealthy, cultured, gifted, yet above all deeply 
religious, with the moral earnestness and sincerity that attaches to 
the Free Churches in Great Britain, and with the large-hearted 
charity that takes a profound interest in the well-being of the 
people, Mrs. Edwards came from such a social circle and, denying 
herself of very much, heartily entered into the strenuous and f so 





THF, FATE MRS. S. F. EDWARDS 













1917] 


In Memoriam,—Mrs. S. F. Edwards 


187 


far as externals are concerned, somewhat barren life of the mission¬ 
aries in a station in the interior of China. In those days the 
missionary^ life was much more severe than it is now; T'aiyuati- 
fu was a fortnight’s journey over rough roads from the coast; 
mails came at intervals of three weeks, and there was little to break 
the steady monotony of daily toil, and the two sisters, Miss Jessie 
Kemp, afterwards Mrs. T. W. Pigott, and Miss Florence Kemp, 
cultured, and highly gifted Christian ladies, were heartily welcomed 
by the little missionary community iu T'aiyiianfu. Their 
family'had always taken the keenest interest in missionary work, 
and indeed, the elder sister, Miss Jessie Kemp, had worked in India, 
but had been obliged by health reasons to seek a cooler climate. 

Miss Florence Kemp, with her sister, was received into the 
home of her cousin, Dr. Harold Schofield, the brilliant and capable 
medical missionary, whose career was shortly afterwards cut short 
by typhus fever. Although troubled with deafness, by her 
assiduity she studied the language with such success that she never 
at any time seemed hampered by an insufficient acquaintance with 
it, and was soon busily occupied with the girls iu the C. I. M. 
school, but her marriage with Dr. E. H. Edwards, who bad come 
from Szechwan to replace Dr. Schofield, opened up to her new and 
enlarged opportunities. 

The medical work had been commenced in a Chinese house 
rented for that purpose, and had started well, but it fell to Dr. and 
Mrs. Edwards to develop it, until at last the provincial capital of 
Shansi had a large and well-equipped hospital, with the medical 
mission in full activity, and nobly was their work accomplished. 
Their task included the purchase of land, the erection of buildings, 
the furnishing and necessary equipment of the hospital, together 
with the healing of the sick, involving frequent operations and the 
consequent careful nursing, and the training of their assistants, but 
above all the regular instruction iu Christian truth of all who came 
in any way under their influence. These varied missionary duties 
require no detail here, blit in it all Mrs. Edwards shared unceasing¬ 
ly, never sparing herself, but spending all her energies in doing 
the Master’s work, and always striving to do it in the Master's 
way. There was so much of genuine kindness and sympathy iu all 
she did, of patience and forbearance, and if her heart was grieved 
by the sad failures and by wrongs committed by those for whom 
she labored, yet one felt that her uppermost feeling was never that 
of anger, or indignation but of compassion for the offender. 

To the care and training of her children Mrs. Edwards paid 
the greatest attention, and she also always extended her kindness 
to the other missionaries’ children in the community. As far as 
possible she arranged for all the children to share in their studies, 
and frequently to meet for intercourse and play, so that her home 


188 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


became a real centre for all the foreign children, whose happiness 
and welfare was greatly increased, and who in their turn became 
lovingly attached both to Dr. and Mrs. Edwards. It was a treat 
sometimes enjoyed by the elders as well as by tbe youugsters to 
listen to Mrs. Edwards reading to them some charming story. 

In those days T'aiyiianfu was a missionary centre, and 
missionaries often passed through from other districts, going to and 
from the coast. Sometimes bright, young, hopeful missionaries 
looking bravely forward to their life’s work, sometimes those who 
were tired, weary, and sick, perhaps seriously invalided, but Mrs. 
Edwards kept open house for all, every need of her guests was 
supplied, and all left conscious of having found a true friend, and 
of having a share in the love of a great heart. No one can ever 
tell how much tbe generous hospitality and warm-hearted sympathy 
of Dr. and Mrs. Edwards meant to the missionaries of Shansi in 
those pioneer days. 

During the Boxer outbreak in 1900, Mrs. Edwards and her 
family were providentially in England, but the terrible blow that 
fell not only robbed her of many dear friends, but also of close 
relatives; her sister and her sister’s husband, Mr. and Mrs. Pigott, 
and their beautiful boy, Wellesley, being among the victims. 
Previous bereavements had saddened her, the loss of two dear boys 
by sickness, and the death of her cousin, Miss Ellen Brown, by a 
dreadful accident at Showyang, but these trials were surpassed 
by the crushing events of the Boxer rising. To lose so many and 
such dear friends, after weeks of agonizing suspense, by such cruel 
deaths was so terrible, that even in these dark days the memory of 
that fateful year still stands out with its appalling horror, yet 
although called to share so deeply in the suffering of those days, 
Mrs. Edwards never lost her faith, her devotion, or her love for 
the Shansi people. One of the first ladies to return to Shansi after 
the massacres, she came back to the desolate ruins in T'aiyttan- 
fu to help her husband rebuild tbe work, and organize it again, 
and nobly was tbe work done. The hospital buildings and other 
houses were replaced by more substantial edifices, and soou the 
medical work was again carried on, while the stricken Chris¬ 
tians were cheered and comforted, and fresh converts were made 
and instructed. 

After 1900, life in Shansi had its tender memories and its dark 
shadows, but that only meant for Mrs. Edwards a fuller perception 
of spiritual light, and a more complete response to the Master’s 
claims, but in these years her health was failing, aud necessitated 
more than one return to England, and at last the fatal illness seized 
her, which operations could relieve but could not cure. Before 
the end came she had the joy of knowing that her eldest son, a fully 
qualified medical missionary, was in the field ready to take up the 


1917] 


Our Book Table 


189 


work in which she had spent her life, and during her last 
months, by cheering, helpful letters, she continued to strengthen 
the faith and comfort the hearts of her many missionary friends 
and colleagues ou the mission field. 

To attempt to estimate her character would be to write those 
words of praise that in her deep humility she would have most 
deprecated, and it must not be done. We who knew her can only 
lift up our hearts and say, “ We thank Thee, 0 Lord, for this Thy 
servant, departed in Thy faith and fear, and we praise and glorify 
Thy Holy Name for the gifts of Thy grace to her, which enabled 
her so faithfully to follow Christ that she could impress on our 
hearts the vision of the Lord, whom she stedfastly beheld.” 



Researches into Chinese Superstitions. By Henry Dore, S. J. 
Translated from the French, with Notes Historical and Explanatory, 
by M, Krnnkcey, S. J. First Part: Superstitious Practices, Vol, III: 
Charms, Tusewei Printing Press, Shanghai, 1916. Price to mission¬ 
aries (at the publisher's or the Mission Book Co.), $4.50. 

This work is the third volume of the author’s “ Researches 
into Chinese Superstitions,” the first and second having already 
been favourably reviewed in the Recorder. In his interesting 
and scholarly Preface, the translator, Father Kennedy, S. J., writes : 
“Like the two preceding volumes this third one will enable the 
reader to penetrate more and more the intricate psychology of the 
Chinese religious soul.” The writer’s object is “ to explain in full 
the principal elements which enter into the make-up of Chinese 
charms, discuss their quaint and mysterious writing, and interpret 
their doctrine and significance.” 

Much valuable information is given as to the blending of ideas 
drawn from the three principal religions of China in these charms 
and the different characters employed in Chinese charms. It is 
pointed out that charms are official documents of the spirit-world. 
They represent mandates from a superior deity to inferior spirits to 
carry out their behests, superhuman power being conveyed to the 
agents to effect the object desired. Certain charm characters 
possess powerful exorcising virtues. A rough sketch of the divinity 
is frequently given to impart increased efficacy. Thunder and 
lightning charms intended to smite spectres are common, and these 
are represented by spirals and flashes. The evil to be destroyed is 
generally depicted at the end of the charm by various characters 
denoting ill-luck or calamity. We read in the Preface that ” the 
charm is the quintessence of Taoist and Buddhist lore, esoteric 
mysticism and practices based on ancient cosmic notions largely Con- 
fuciau, handed down by books and traditions.” And charms are, 
like religion, an attempt to “ yoke the spiritual world to the needs 
and welfare of humanity,” There is a useful list of exorcising 
terms or characters, and also a list of cosmic and mythological 



190 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


elements, and of archaic, abridged, and fanciful forms of charm 
writing,—a bibliography of foreigu works consulted. Illustrations 
of 150 charms are given. With each charm there is a literal 
explanation of terms, and a full reading of the text, the inter¬ 
pretation being given both in Chinese characters and in English. 
Thus the studeut of Chinese charm folk-lore has in this work both 
guide and interpreter in his explorations into this strange realm of 
magic. Everyone interested in Chinese religions psychology and 
belief should have this book in his library for study and reference. 

A few corrections may be suggested : On page viii, Preface, 
the word “Chinaman” occurs; page 230, for “shall find” put 
“ finds ” or “ will find ” ; page 234, for “ neglected ” put “ care¬ 
less” or “hasty” ; page 235, for “order to throw open” put 
“order to be thrown open.” And in Chinese: 

P. 231 elsewhere the Roinanization of If- is given as eul t 
instead of erh . 


253 Wi 

276 „ R =~ 
303 >> 


Put 


RES 

Si 


B. 


" The Wori,t> and thr Gospel.” Published by United Council for Mis¬ 
sionary Education , London. Price 2 / net. For sale at Mission Book 
Room. $1.50. 

The author of this splendid study is J. H. Oldham, Secre¬ 
tary of the Continuation Committee and Editor of the International 
Review of Missions; and a perusal of the book fulfils the high 
expectation which the author’s name lias raised. 

An excellent syllabus in the “ Contents” makes it possible for 
the busy man to cull what he wants, if he has not time for all. 
But it is better to go through the 220 pages in regular order, for 
you will not be satisfied till you get all the author has to say, 
once you get a taste of the food he sets forth for thoughtful 
consideration. 

The motive of the work may be gatherd from the opening 
sentence of the preface:—“If the missionary movement is to 
maintain its place among the many urgent tasks which will claim 
our attention on the restoration of peace, and to accomplish its work 
in the new world into which we are being brought, it is necessary 
for us to go back to first principles and take a fresh hold of the 
fundamental truths on which the whole undertaking rests.” 

It is sentences like this that challenge one’s attention and 
provoke constructive thinkingThere is nothing in the Chris¬ 
tian revelation which warrants ns in hoping that we shall be given 
tasks within our powers.”—“ The proper aim of foreign missions is 
to establish in non-Christian lauds an indigenous, self-propagating 
Church as a means to their evangelization.”—“Few things are 
more needed than a new-born belief in the Church, a new faith in 
its divine mission, a new passion that it should be and do what 
God intended.” 


J. B. S. 



Our Book Table 


191 


191?] 

91 U if 8$ ll 09 Chinese without a Teacher. With vocabulary. By Dr. 

Herbert A. Gii.es, Cambridge. Seventh edition. Kelly and Walsh , 

Shanghai. 

This is intended to assist those who wish to acquire with speed 
a “temporary” or “superficial’' knowledge of the language as 
spoken in the northern provinces. The aim is excellent, though 
we have yet to learn of any “ quick ’’ method, or the value of a 
“superficial” knowledge. Perhaps the ladies, or members of the 
mercantile, seafaring, and sporting communities, to whom the book 
is dedicated, may learn something of mandarin from the book, but, 
for the missionary, it is of the most meagre assistance. The phrases 
are limited, but of common use. The high repute of the author 
is sufficient guarantee of its accuracy, but the romanized system 
adopted, or invented, is a thing of wonder, and plays such wonder¬ 
ful tricks, that we doubt whether even the ladies will have patience 
to disentangle it. The combinations of the romanized, whereby one 
word of two syllables is split up and hooked on to those adjoining, 
as, for instance, the first syllable of the second character joined on 
to the end of the preceding character, and the second syllable 
standing alone, is a wrong method, without a shadow of a doubt, 
and sounds as ridiculous as would Her-bertgi-les read in English. 
A missionary who attempts this book will very “ quickly ’’ acquire 
a “ superficial ” knowledge of something, but it is not likely to be 
good mandarin. 


A Character Study in Mandarin Cou.oquiai., alphabeti¬ 
cally arranged. By Dr. Chauncey Goodrich. Presbyterian Mis¬ 
sion Press , Shanghai. Mission Book Co. Price, $5.00. 

There are over 4,000 characters, all arranged in accord with 
the English alphabet, much on the same lines as the well-known 
dictionary of MacGillivray. Under each character there are to be 
found a number of sentences in common use. 

It is an excellent book, well conceived and executed, as only a 
man of the venerable Doctor’s learning and experience could have 
done. Oh, how thankful some of us would have been to have found 
such a safe and helpful guide in our early years, for it would have 
added richness to our vocabulary, terseness to our phrases, and fresh¬ 
ness to our minds. It is a gold mine for young missionaries, and older 
ones will find in it hundreds of phrases which will make their 
speech vibrate with newness of phraseology, and enable them to 
ring the changes in a way which delights a Chinese audience. 
There is nothing here which is not of real value and assistance to 
the student. Here and there we come across a pre-revolution 
phrase which is out of vogue at present, but even these have value. 
There are also many proverbial sayings which add to its worth. 

This ever-youthful veteran seems to find joy in helping others 
along the rugged path he has trodden. How many thousands feel 
that his dictionary is a necessity to their work ? And his services 
for so many years as one of the revisers of the mandarin Bible will 
long be held in reverence. The reviewer, after more than thirty 
years, still remembers the wealth and beauty of his diction and 
phrasing when preaching during the week of prayer in Peking. No 



m 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 

wonder the Chinese regard him as one of the most winsome and 
accurate speakers of the language. We thank him heartily for this 
added gift, a real guide and help to all. 

R. 


The Gateway to China. Pictures of Shanghai life. By Mrs. Mary 
Ninde Gameweli,. Illustrated. Fleming H.Revell Co. 1916. G.$i.$o. 

In her Preface the writer claims that Shanghai represents the 
Orient in transition more strikingly than any other city in the Far 
East. “ To catch and portray some of these shifting scenes .... 
with the hope that they may stimulate interest in China and 
awaken a new love and admiration for the Chinese people '* is the 
author’s object in writing this book. It is not a guide book, such 
as we have in Mr. Darweut’s “Guide to Shanghai,” but a series 
of sketches of various phases of Shanghai life written in so bright 
a way that the reader never loses interest. The chapters are a 
succession of living pen-and-ink pictures. 

The book gives proof of careful study and an intimate knowl¬ 
edge of the conditions, and covers a wide scope of activities con¬ 
nected with the place. Its criticism of some social conditions is 
pointed and based on intimate enquiry. Flashes of humour add to 
the interest of the descriptions given of some of the trials of 
foreigners who settle here. Altogether a most readable book, and 
its illustrations are well chosen and artistically produced. Here 
and there we may differ from the opinions expressed, or doubt the 
accuracy of one or two historical allusions, but these are only 
minute spots on a very bright sun which will add brightness to 
the dull hours of work and life in this busy mart, and cannot but 
be of immense interest not only to the residents, many of whom 
are ignorant of the activities and conditions of the port and city, 
but will prove to be a wise guide and companion to visitors. We 
give it our unqualified commendation, and shall look for further 
works from the gifted lady’s pen. 

-- 

Correspondence 

SEVEN SNARES OF COMPARATIVE 
RELIGION. 

To the Editor of 
“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir: — (1) The composi¬ 
tion of Chinese characters affords 
no sure clue as to the real meaning 
of the Buddhist phrases. Charac¬ 
ter dissection is amusing, but 
not convincing. A genuine 
Chinese etymology for the 


majority of the characters is 
now impossible. Investigators in 
this department should know the 
original Sanscrit as Dr. Kellogg, 
of India, did, and even then 
would need to get back of the 
man’s brain who chose certain 
Chinese characters to represent 
certain Buddhist ideas. 

{2) It is fatally easy to compare 
terms and words in two religions 
which denote totally different 
conceptions ; e.g,, “lust,” “sin.” 





Correspondence 


m 


w?i 

“salvation,” “law,” “new birth,” 
as used by the Buddhists are 
emphatically nothing like these 
phrases used by Christians. 

(3) It is too easily imagined 
that the one who comes after in 
time borrows from the one who 
weut before. Post hoc, ergo 
propter hoc. 

(4) Having by the easy process 
of date shown two authors 
to have lived at the same 
time, it is hastily inferred 
that one drew from the other. 
Two contemporaries do not 
necessarily influence one another. 
For example, we have a very 
large literature contemporary 
with Paul, but with scarcely a 
single reference to Christianity. 

(5) The presence of similar 
ideas, especially in the realm of 
morals, is no proof of borrowing, 
inasmuch as such ideas can be 
shown to be the common property 
of the sages, as Lightfoot showed 
in “ St Paul and Seneca.” 

(6) When pictures of similar¬ 
ities are drawn, we are not at the 
same time told the boundless 
differences of two religions under 
discussion. 

(7) Searchers for similarities 
are biased in favour of identity. 
Mere similarities are called iden¬ 
tities. They set out to find them 
and see what they wish to see, 
e.g.,Edmunds’ book on “Buddhist 
and Christian Gospels.” For 
the same reason supposed clues 
like a single Chinese character 
with a different sense occurring 
in chapter 88 of the Hsi Yu Chi 
on st m as referring to 

Nestorianism, are mere guessing, 
and may lead to the dethrone¬ 
ment of Shakespeare in favour of 
Bacon. Assertions do duty for 
evidence. 

Yours truly, 


NORTH CHINA UNION LAN¬ 
GUAGE SCHOOL. 

To the Editor of 
“The Chinese Recorder,” 

Dear Sir :—The North China 
Union language School opened 
the second term of the present 
academic year with a new class 
of twenty-six students on January 
1st. A beginning class for new 
students will be started on 
Monday, April 2nd. 

To meet the difficulty felt by 
those who have studied for their 
first year in the School, following 
its curriculum and methods of 
study, and then have had to 
adjust themselves to the courses 
of study of the various missions 
which often do not connect with 
the work done in the school, and 
also to make it possible for the 
school to act as a central body 
in a measure directing the lan¬ 
guage study of the members of 
the different missions of North 
China, a course of study has 
been drawn up. It is the joint 
work of a committee representing 
the North China Union Lan¬ 
guage, the American Board 
Mission, the American Presby¬ 
terian Mission, tbe American 
Methodist Mission, the Church 
of England Mission, the London 
Mission, and the Young Men’s 
Christian Association. On adop¬ 
tion this course supercedes 
previous courses of the different 
missions and thus gives to the 
students one unified and con¬ 
nected course from the time of 
entrance to the Language School 
until the full completion of lan¬ 
guage study. 

The general purpose of the 
course is to give all students a 
thorough grounding in the 
elements of the language in its 
various phases during the first 
year and part of the second. 


X. 


194 


The Chinese Recorder 


For this period the courses are 
all required. After this founda¬ 
tion has been laid, however, 
the aim is to give as much 
elasticity in choice to each stu¬ 
dent as possible so that each one 
may give full consideration to 
individual needs in the choice of 
the books studied. Preachers, 
doctors, nurses, Association 
secretaries, etc., are thus allowed 
to choose courses which will be 
of the greatest help to them in 
their work. One feature of the 
course is that study done in 
preparation for actual work is 
credited towards language study. 

To this end the elective courses 
are divided into five main depart¬ 
ments as follows:— 

1. The Department of Mandarin 

Literature, 

2. The Department of Textbooks 

for the Study of Mandarin. 

3. Tire; Department of the Man¬ 

darin Bible. 

4. The Department of Wenli 

Literature. 

5. The Department of Etymology 

and Composition. 

The student is allowed to 
freely choose courses from these 
departments except that some 
time during his language study 
he must procure at least two 
credits from each of the first 
four departments. Except where 
clearly specified the order of 
choice of studies in the various 
departments is at the option of 
the student. As a rule, however, 
courses are listed in the order of 
difficulty and such should be 
born in mind iu election. 

A special group of electives is 
being drawn up for doctors and 
nurses and will be published 
later. 

Where desired the Language 
School is willing to undertake 
the general supervision of the 
study of students unable to attend 
the school and of the advanced 
work of its own students. This 


[March 

will enable the school to do much 
as a unifying agency for language 
study of all iu North China. 

The school will issue cer¬ 
tificates for the completion of the 
first, second, third and fourth 
years’ work. On the comple¬ 
tion of the fifth year’s work 
its diploma will be given. 

The full course of study will 
be sent upon application. 

W. B. Pettus, 
Director. 

Peking. 


TENT PREACHING. 

To the Editor of 

“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sir :—In a copy of a late 
Recorder a suggestion was 
made in the Correspondence that 
those engaged in teut preaching 
might be helpful to others if some 
report of that work were given 
through the pages of the 
Recorder. In our work in 
the T'enghsien field we have 
used the tent and find the 
meetings held in this way a 
stimulus to the Christians and 
inquirers as well as a means of 
arousing new interest. 

Iu discussing this form of 
work with others who are also 
engaged in it I find there are 
several methods, each with a 
definite purpose. One aim is to 
use the tent at large fairs and 
thus present the Gospel to a 
large number of people during 
the few days of the fair. This 
is the shot-gun method and is a 
good seed-sower, but for definite 
results, for something tangible, 
not very encouraging. 

The second aim is to get 
definite results from a series of 
meetings held in smaller or larger 
centers but not seeking the 
occasion of a big fair. This 
second plan can be utilized well 



1917} 

for two purposes, the opening of 
a new center or a means of in¬ 
spiring the Christians and in¬ 
quirers of an older ceuter by 
attracting new inquirers and 
putting renewed purpose into 
those who have possibly grown 
cold in their Christian lives. 

It has been our plan to use 
both methods but we lay stress 
on the latter plan because it 
generally aids in clinching some¬ 
thing. Cast spring we had the 
tent busy for nearly three months, 
one whole month being spent at 
the foot of a local Holy Moun¬ 
tain, “Yi Shan” located between 
T’enghsien and Chowhsien (the 
latter the home of Mencius) 
where we used the “shot-gun” 
method, thus preaching to ten or 
fifteen thousand people for a 
larger or shorter period. It gave 
the colporteurs also an excellent 
opportunity to sell Scripture 
portions to the pilgrims. The 
last seven weeks were spent 
among the older Christian centers 
and a few new places. The 
moving of the tent from one of 
the older centers to another has 
been managed by the local 
Christians. They are eager to 
have the tent spend a week in 
their village where meetings are 
held from 9 a. m. to io p. m., 
with slight intermissions, the 
evening meeting usually being 
the best, as marked by the 
number iu attendance. The tent 
is generally packed full at night 
for two or three hours. 

Those who have not used this 
method but who have doue con¬ 
siderable street preaching may 
question the advantages of this 
method, which is more expensive 
than street preaching. During 
my fifteen years in China I 
have used both these plans of 
preaching and I am ready to 
testify to the advantages of the 
teat. 


195 

1st. The audience is not so 
transitory. It is not infrequent 
for listeners to stand for three 
or four hours at a stretch, at¬ 
tentive to the preaching aud 
singing. 

2nd. There are not the inter¬ 
ruptions of passing carts and 
people, and the “small boy”— 
he’s not perfect iu the tent, but 
one can use moral suasion there 
better than on the street. In 
fact the tent gives a certain 
amount of esprit de corps to the 
meetings that the street does not 
give. 

3rd. The tent is considerably - 
larger than the average church 
and school house which is 
provided by the Christians. 
Thus, for the holding of special 
meetings, the tent, with a small 
outlay of money, gives you a 
respectable place in which to 
hold a series of meetings for a 
larger number than could be 
housed in the local church. 

4th. The evening can be 
utilized to the very best advan¬ 
tage. 

Iu planning for tent work, it 
is important to hold in mind the 
fact that the continuous preach¬ 
ing is very hard work and one 
must have a goodly group of 
evangelists, from four to six, so 
that the work will not be too 
trying on any one individual. 

As regards the results of this 
work, I would note that six 
centers have been opened during 
the past two years iu places 
where we first used the tent. 
The work was followed up by the 
rental of a small place in all but 
one of these places, while in this 
one the inquirers themselves 
provided a room iu which to 
meet, and an evangelist spends 
considerable time both in the 
center and in the vicinity, in¬ 
structing those who are willing 
to study. 


Correspondence 


196 


The Chinese Recorder 


One enthusiastic and hard¬ 
working evangelistic missionary 
who has been using a tent the 
past six months said he was 
going to bring back with him 
from America one or two more 
similar tents for the Christian 
leaders to use throughout the 
field where he works. 

In this day of grace in China 
we are received so cordially by 
the masses of the people that the 
tent receives a cordial welcome 
wherever it goes and attention is 
given to the preaching. For the 
evangelistic worker this method 
is worth a trial and I would 
commend it to your considera- 
tion. 

H. G. Romig. 

Tbnghsirn, Sh. 


THE JEWISH COLONY AGAIN. 

To the Editor of 

“The Chinese Recorder.” 

Dear Sis :—Regarding the very 
interesting account of the “ Or¬ 
phan Jewish Colony of Honan,” 
by Dr. MacGillivray, in the 
January number of the Chinese 
Recorder it may interest 
your readers to know that 
rubbings oifour stones are extant 
(1489, 1512, 1663, and 1679), 
but the stone of the 1663 in¬ 
scription is not to be found. 
The inscriptions of 1489 and 
1512 are on the two faces of the 
one stone, the same one that Dr. 
Martin spoke of seeing in 1866. 

The inscription of 1679 is on 
a large stone of itself, which was 
found embedded in the wall of a 
nearby house. Unfortunately 
the inscription is indecipherable, 
but the heading of the stone 
(M ® i IH.) leads me to 
think from the standpoint of the 
genealogies of the Jewish families 
it might be the most interesting 


[March 

of all. One still hopes that a 
decipherable rubbing may turn 
up. 

I am inclined to think that it 
was not the Chinese Jews who 
borrowed Chinese names from 
the Mohammedans, but that the 
Mohammedans borrowed from 
the Jews. The latter preceded 
them in China by some hundreds 
of years; and what is more likely 
than that finding the Jews well 
established, whose worship was 
more like their own than any 
other in China, the Moham¬ 
medans should have adopted 
straight-away a good deal of the 
Jewish nomenclature as well as 
the synagogue plan for their 
mosques? Where Chinese Mo¬ 
hammedanism in practices and 
mosque arrangements differs 
from the Moslems of other lauds, 
it is practically identical with 
that of the Chinese Jews. This 
is a field of very interesting 
study. 

With the exception of two 
names, the whole list of family 
names has been chiseled off one 
of the stones, but it is interesting 
to note that at the same time 
the name of India (;?C ^), 
where it states that these families 
came into China in obedience to 
the Divine command, by way of 
India, was also chiseled off. Is 
it possible that this points to a 
time of persecution, or at any 
rate of fear, when the Jews 
wanted to hide their foreign 
origin ? 

W. C. W. 


A CORRECTION. 

In the January issue of the 
Chinese Recorder it was 
stated in an Editorial that Dr. 
Hallock’s Concordance is one to 
the old Version of the Bible. 
We are asked to state that the 


1917] 


197 


Missionary News 


present Concordance uses the 
old Version of the Old Testa¬ 
ment and the Union Version of 
the New Testament, and that 


a revised edition of the Con¬ 
cordance may be hoped for as 
soon as the revision of the Old 
Testament makes this possible. 


Missionary News 


MEDICAL CONFERENCE AT 
CANTON. 

The s. s. 4 ' China ’ ’ left Shang¬ 
hai, January 20th, with a party 
of over 50 bound for the Can¬ 
ton Conference. This was four 
days later than the schedule 
time atid the Conference was 
delayed accordingly. Smooth 
seas, fair weather, and a con¬ 
genial company conspired to 
make the trip a most pleasant 
one. 

Two very interesting lectures 
were given on the way. One by 
Professor McElroy of Princeton 
University on 44 The Political 
Background of the War,” and 
one by Dr. John R. Freeman on 
“Some Problems of Hydraulic 
Engineering.” A company of 
engineers, also bound for Can¬ 
ton, challenged the “ awe-iu- 
spiring Pill Pushers to any kind 
of a cut-up except a surgical 
operation,” which was accepted 
and an afternoon of deck sports 
was heartily enjoyed by all. 

On arrival at Hongkong an 
officer of the Hongkong Govern¬ 
ment inspected the passports and 
released the delegates for leav¬ 
ing the port without further 
formality. A committee of the 
Canton branch of the C.M.M.A. 
was at Hongkong to welcome 
the delegates and to assist them 
in transferring to the Kowloon 
railway, where a special car was 
provided for the trip to Canton. 
Our destination was reached at 
7 p.m. and all went to the new 


and beautiful Y. M. C, A. build¬ 
ing where a reception was held 
attended by the delegates and a 
large body of residents of Can¬ 
ton, both Chinese and foreign. 
Morrison Memorial, as the new 
Y. M. C. A. building is called, is 
one of the finest buildings of its 
kind in China, and is admirably 
adapted for social and public 
gatherings. After an hour of 
social intercourse an audience 
of about 600 assembled in the 
Auditorium and addresses of 
welcome were given by H. B. 
Chu Ching Tan, Governor of 
K'waiigtung, Dr. H. A. Cheng, 
President of the Kwangtung 
branch of the N. M. A. and Dr. 
P. J. Todd, President of the South 
China Branch of the C. M. M. A. 

On the following day regular 
business was taken up by the 
two Associations, sessions being 
held for hearing papers and 
discussion of the same. The 
registered delegates attending 
the China Medical Missionary 
Association numbered Br, and 88 
members of the National As¬ 
sociation of China were in 
attendance at their conference; 
quite a number of these were 
ladies who took part iu the 
discussions. 

During the week of the Con¬ 
ference, delegates of both Asso¬ 
ciations were given frequent op¬ 
portunities for d i version. Three 
banquets were given, one by 
Governor Chu, one by the local 
branches of the two Associations, 
at which the Governor was pres- 




198 


The Chinese Recorder 


ent, and one by Dr. Job Fang, 
bead of the Chung]Mei Drug Co. 

A notable feature of these 
functions was the presence of 
many Chinese lady doctors and 
wives of Chinese physicians. 
One lady physician, Dr. Liang 
(Mrs. job Fang), who was referred 
to as tbe best public speaker 
ill Canton, made a very taking 
after dinner speech at one of the 
banquets, and all the Chinese 
ladies bore themselves with 
becoming grace and dignity, add¬ 
ing an air of refinement to the 
occasion that was quite pleasing". 

One afternoon the Governor 
entertained the delegates by a 
picnic and launch ride on tbe 
river. Clinics and teas were 
held at the John G. Kerr Hos¬ 
pital for the Insane, Hackett 
Medical School, Kung Hwa 
Medical School and Hospital, 
the Kwaiigtung Government 
Hospital, and at the Canton Hos¬ 
pital, where medical missionary 
work was first started in China. 

The Governor showed bis ac¬ 
tive and sympathetic interest by 
appearing at these functions with 
the delegates and frequently 
expressing his desire to see 
modern medicine advanced in 
China. He has also liberally 
contributed to tbe support of the 
hospitals in Canton. 

One session of the Conference 
was held at the Canton Christian 
College. The delegates were 
taken to the College, which 
is several miles by river, on 
launches, and at noon an excel¬ 
lent lunch was served on the 
campus by the ladies of the 
College. 

Those of us who came from 
the North were much impressed 
with the progress and enterprise 
of our Chinese colleagues in the 
South and we could readily ac¬ 
cept the statement of the noted 
and justly honored president of 


[March 

the National Association, Dr. 
Wit Lien Teh, that “ What Can¬ 
ton thinks to-day China thiuks 
to-morrow. ” 

As will be seen from the 
official* report of the meetings, 
important action was taken by 
both Associations asking the 
government to form a Central 
Board for the regulation of the 
practice of medicine and phar¬ 
macy, aud calling attention to 
the menace of the trade in mor¬ 
phine, a drug which is being 
introduced into China by tbe 
ton, mainly from Great Britain, 
through Japan. 

The members of the National 
Association were so inspired and 
encouraged by the Joint Confer¬ 
ence that they expressed the 
desire that the next Conference 
be held in a similar manner at 
Peking, that the north and south 
may both share in the larger 
vision and greater inspiration 
that such a joint conference 
brings, and it was so decided by 
both Associations. 

So many kind attentions were 
shown the delegates by tbe 
Governor of Kwangtnng that 
both Associations united in pre¬ 
senting to him a silver vase as a 
souvenir of tbe occasion and a 
token of their appreciation of his 
kindness. 

At an early period of the con¬ 
ference the two Associations 
united in a telegram to President 
Li Yuen-hung, sending friendly 
greetings, and received in reply 
a message expressing his good 
wishes for the work of the Con¬ 
ference. 

The sessions closed on Febru¬ 
ary ist with the general feeling 
that one of the best conferences 
in tbe history of the Association 
had been held at Canton, aud the 
visiting delegates departed with 

• Note. Set tht China Medical Journal, 
March, 1917. 



199 


Missionary News 


1917] 

a warm sense of appreciation of 
Cantou's hospitality and enter¬ 
prise. 


REPORT OP CONFERENCE ON 

CHRISTIAN LITERATURE IN 
THE MISSION FIELD. 

A Conference of representa¬ 
tives of the Missionary Societies 
in Great Britain, summoned by 
the Christian Literature Com¬ 
mittee of the Continuation Com¬ 
mittee of the World Missionary 
Conference, was held at the Bible 
House, Loudon, on Tuesday, 
30th May, 1916. 

I11 the course of discussion 
the following resolutions were 
moved, seconded, and adopted:— 

I. Resolved that, in the opin¬ 
ion of this Conference, the 
production and means for dis¬ 
tribution of Christian literature 
are at present inadequate, and 
that, in consequence, there is a 
loss of efficiency in missionary 
work. 

II. Resolved that, as the pro¬ 
vision of Christian literature is 
vital, it should be given a definite 
place in missionary work propor¬ 
tionately related to all other 
forms of missionary activity. 

III. Resolved that, as it ap¬ 
pears to this Conference to be 
essential to the provision of 
Christian literature that each 
Missionary Society should regard 
it as an integral part of its work, 
the Boards and Committees be 
asked to face the responsibility of 
taking continuously an adequate 
share both in the expense of 
production and circulation and 
in the supply of competent 
editors and writers. 

IV. Resolved that, while the 
Conference is of the opinion that 
some Missionary Societies must 
continue to provide for themselves 
much of the literature which 


represents their own specific aims 
aud distinctive religious convic¬ 
tions, there is sufficient common 
ground remaining for a more 
general application of the prin¬ 
ciple of co-operation, and that 
only by such co-operation can 
the maximum of efficiency and 
economy be secured. 

V. Resolved that the Confer¬ 
ence is of opinion that the 
principles embodied in the above 
Resolutions can best be carried 
out by establishing an organiza¬ 
tion on the following general 
lines :— 

(1) By the service in the 
mission field of representative 
responsible bodies, already exist¬ 
ing or to be created, fitted to 
advise as to the nature and extent 
of the literature work which 
ought to be undertaken in their 
several areas. 

(2) B3 r the service at home of 
a small Central Advisory Board 
appointed by the Conference of 
Missionary Societies in Great 
Britain and Ireland, which could 
act internationally in consulta¬ 
tion with any similar bodies in 
other countries. 

(3) The special work of the 
Central Advisory Board would 
be as follows :— 

(a) To assist as far as may be 
in the co-ordination and effective 
workiug of existing literature 
work in the various mission 
fields. 

(£) To receive, collate, and 
consider recommendations from 
the bodies in the mission field; 
to forward these to the Home 
Boards concerned, with sugges¬ 
tions regarding the means of 
giving effect to them ; and 
generally to act as the connect¬ 
ing link in regard to Christian 
literature between co-operative 
bodies in the mission field and 
the Home Boards. 



200 


The Chinese Recorder 


VI. Resolved that, with a 
view to securing continuity and 
maintaining international con¬ 
nections, as a provisional ar¬ 
rangement, and until the consent 
of the Boards to some permanent 
organization be received, the 
Conference recommend the Con¬ 
ference of Missionary Societies 
in Great Britain and Ireland 
provisionally to appoint the Brit¬ 
ish members of the Christian 
literature Committee of the Con¬ 
tinuation Committee, strength¬ 
ened by such members as they 
may deem well, to act as the 
Central Advisory Board. 

It was unanimously agreed to 
submit a Report of the Confer¬ 
ence to the Annual Conference 
of Missionary Societies in Great 
Britain and Ireland. 

EXTRACTS FROM REPORT OF 
ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF MIS¬ 
SIONARY SOCIETIES IN GREAT 
BRITAIN AND IRELAND. JUNE 
21ST TO 23RD, 1916. 

Medical Education in China. 
Six recommendations .... were 
adopted as Resolutions of the 
Conference, as follows :— 

(1) That in the opinion of this Con¬ 
ference it is of the utmost importance 
that the British Missionary Societies 
concerned in medical education 
should cordially welcome the en¬ 
trance of the China Medical Board of 
the Rockefeller Foundation into this 
field of work and should co-operate 
in every possible way, especially by 
endeavouring to procure suitable men 
and women to recommend to the 
China Medical Board as teachers in 
their institutions and for work in 
hospitals. 

(2) That while co-operating as far 
as possible with the China Medical 
Board, the British Missionary Socie¬ 
ties should very strongly affirm the 
view that there is great scope and 
urgent necessity for schools which 
will enable men and women to qualify 
for medical mission work and for the 
work of the general practitioner, and 
that the missionary societies be re« 


[March 

commended to formulate their policy 
accordingly. 

(3) That inasmuch as definite 
standards of entrance examinations 
and qualifying examinations and 
the securing of recognition from the 
Chinese Government are desirable, 
the British Missionary Societies be re¬ 
commended not to lend their counten¬ 
ance to any scheme for medical edu¬ 
cation leading to a diploma which 
does not conform to a minimum 
standard to be agreed on. 

(4) That the Conference of British 
Missionary Societies appoint an Ad¬ 
visory Board, ultimately to study the 
whole question of medical mission 
work abroad (schools, hospitals, 
nurses, and assistants, etc.}, but begin¬ 
ning in tlm first instance with medical 
work in China, and that as a pro¬ 
visional arrangement the British 
members of the Medical Committee 
of the Continuation Committee, with 
the addition of members of Mission¬ 
ary Societies, men and women in 
touch with medical education at 
home, and such others as the Annual 
Conference of British Missionary So¬ 
cieties may nominate, be appointed a 
Committee for these purposes. 

(5) That the suggestions contained 
in the memorandum prepared by 
Major Me Adam Iiccles should be 
passed on for careful consideration to 
any Advisory Board that may be 
appointed. 

(6) That any Committee which 
may be appointed should be authorized 
to communicate with the American 
members of the Medical Committee 
of the Continuation Committee, and 
the Committee of Reference and 
Council, with a view to securing in¬ 
ternational agreement as to the action 
to be taken and the best method of 
carrying out such action in China. 

Report of Committee on Mis¬ 
sions to Moslems. The com¬ 
mittee recommended to the 
(Swanwick) Conference the fol¬ 
lowing Resolution:— 

“That tiie Conference hears 
with thankfulness of Dr. Zwem- 
er’s contemplated visit to Moslem 
centres iu Northern India and in 
China. It assures him of its 
deep and sympathetic interest in 
the project, and commends this 
effort of Dr. Zweraer to the 


201 


Missionary News 


1917 ] 

prayer of all friends of Missions, 
and to the active co-operation 
of workers in the places to be 
visited.” 

Christian Literature. In ac¬ 
cordance with Resolution VI of 
the Conference on Christian Lit¬ 
erature in the Mission Field, it 
was resolved to appoint the 
British Members of the Chris¬ 
tian Literature Committee of 
the Continuation Committee, 
strengthened by the addition of 
some other members, as a pro¬ 
visional Ceutral Advisory Board. 


RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE 
WEST CHINA ADVISORY 

COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES, 

CHENGTU, OCTOBER, I916. 

Christian Literature: That 
the Secretary be asked to com¬ 
municate with the Secretary of 
the West China Religious Tract 
Society, asking if methods cannot 
be adopted to secure the more 
widespread distribution of Chris¬ 
tian Literature in West China, 
and offering the cooperation of 
the Literature Committee of the 
Advisory Council in this work. 

Vocational Education: That 
we recommend to all the churches 
that they at their Annual Meet¬ 
ings discuss the question of pro¬ 
viding vocational training in the 
Schools of the Educational Union. 

Sunday Schools: That in ac¬ 
cordance with a recommendation 
of the Educational Union we ask 
the Churches to set apart the 
first Sunday in June as Educa¬ 
tional Sunday, or if this Sunday 
is not suitable in any locality, 
then that some other Sunday in 
June be observed. 

That we request the Sunday 
School Committee this year to 
emphasize Sunday School Teach¬ 
ers’ Training by encouraging the 


study of the Teachers* Training 
books more widely among the 
church membership. 

Church Discipline: The Church 
Union Committee presented its 
Report for the information of 
this body, and it was resolved 
that in accordance with the 
request of the Church Union 
Committee we appoint a Com¬ 
mittee on the Chinese Church to 
enquire into the methods of dis¬ 
cipline in each organization. 

Early Marriages : That each 
Church be asked to discourage 
such early marriges among its 
members as at present prevail. 

Report of Committee on Evangel¬ 
ism: Your Committee has gone 
forward during the year with the 
thought constantly in mind that 
a campaign of evangelism would 
be held during the fall of 1917. 
We have tried by letters and 
by notices and articles in the 
“ News ” to keep this in the mind 
of the missionaries. 

At the last meeting of the 
Committee it was again affirmed 
that the evangelistic meetings 
ought to be held in 1917, or at 
the latest in the spring of 1918. 
We therefore hope that all the 
churches will bend their energies 
so as to be ready by the autumn 
of 1917. The fields are already 
white, let us see to it that the 
reapers are trained. 

The Committee makes the fol¬ 
lowing recommendations: 

1. Let us all give ourselves 
unfailingly to prayer. Revivals 
are prayed down, not worked up. 
We must persuade the Chinese 
Church to pray. 

2. Train workers. This is 
being done in some places and 
we hope it will be done in all 
the stations. In Chengtu each 
church has a training class and 
these leaders* men aud women, 



202 


The Chinese Recorder 


meet once a month for a meeting 
for prayer and inspiration. The 
Y.M.C.A. is doing good work. 
It has a training class each Sun¬ 
day. There are 250 men in 21 
classes. 

3. We hope that all the 
churches will follow the plan 
suggested by the Committee on 
Evangelism of the C.C.C.—“A 
Week of Evangelism.” If it is 
not possible to have the week 
immediately following the New 
Year, let us have a week in the 
New Year as soon as possible, 
and work hard at it. Use your 
ow T n plan, but get all the people 
to work. 

4. We suggest the name of Mr. 
E. N. Hayes for organizing secre¬ 
tary for the province-wide work. 
The Committee has already asked 
the local Board of Directors of 
the Y.M.C.A. for bis services. 
We believe that this must be a 
province-wide movement, and 
hope that it will touch with 
power every towu and village 
where we have any work. 


RECOMMENDATIONS 01? THE 
WEST CHINA MISSIONS’ AD¬ 
VISORY BOARD, CHKNGTU, 
OCTOBER, 1916. 

The China Continuation Com - 
mittee: That we express our 
confidence in the China Contin¬ 
uation Committee, our appre¬ 
ciation of their services to the 
cause of Christian Missions, our 
willingness to cooperate closely 
with them, and our hope that it 
may be possible for West China 
to be represented at its meetings 
each year. 

That the Statistician be re¬ 
quested to communicate with the 
Statistical Secretary of the China 
Continuation Committee, and to 
make out statistical reports ac¬ 
cording to the forms recommend¬ 
ed by that body. 


[March 

Literature for Moslems: That 
we appoint Rev. J. M. Yard to 
cooperate as far as possible with 
the Christian Literature Society 
in the production of Christian 
literature for Mohammedans. 

Sunday School Work, In view 
of the great need and oppor¬ 
tunity for developing our Sunday 
schools, we deem it necessary 
for someone to give time to this 
department of work; we there¬ 
fore ask the Baptist Mission to 
permit Rev. J. P. Davies to de¬ 
vote a considerable portion of his 
time to Sunday school work. 

RECOMMENDATIONS PASSED BY 
BOTH THE ADVISORY COUNCIL 
OP THE CHURCHHS AND THE 

MISSIONS’ ADVISORY BOARD, 
WEST CHINA. 

1. That we approve the plans 
of the Evangelistic Committee 
of the Advisory Council for a 
province-wide evangelistic cam¬ 
paign, and urge the Missions to 
give the movement their hearty 
support. 

2. That we ask this Committee 
to prepare a statement of plans 
for presentation to the Aimual 
Meetings of the Missions, asking 
them to appoint representatives 
to a union committee with power 
to organize and carry through a 
union evangelistic campaign. 

3. That we recommend to the 
Evangelistic Committee of the 
Advisory Council that they ap¬ 
proach the Board of Directors of 
the local Young Men’s Christian 
Association and the National 
Committee of the Y.M.C.A., with 
a view to securing the services of 
Mr. E. N. Hayes as Executive 
Secretary for a province-wide 
campaign. 

4. That we approve the recom¬ 
mendation of the Advisory Coun¬ 
cil that a General Conference of 



203 


Missionay News 


1917 ] 

the Churches of West China be 
held in Chengtu iu 1919; that 
we commend it to the hearty 
support of the Missions; and 
that we request each Mission to 
appoint a representative to a 
union committee with power to 
act. 

(Note: —The Advisory Board’s 
idea is that this Conference would 
be a delegated conference of the 
Edinburgh type, adapted to 
conditions in West China.) 


WHAT CONSTITUTES “ADEQUATE 
MISSIONARY OCCUPATION”; A 

DEFINITION BY DR. ROBERT 
K. SPEER. 

“The presence in a given 
field of Christian missionary 
agencies, whether foreign or 
native or both, whose numerical 
strength, geographical distribu¬ 
tion, adaptation of methods and 
vital spiritual character, give 
promise under the blessing of 
God, first, of establishing within 
a reasonable time an indigenous 
Church which through its life 
and work will propagate Chris¬ 
tianity and leaven the nation or 
field within whose borders it 
stands; and second, in co-opera¬ 
tion with this Church, of present¬ 
ing Christ to every individual 
with such clearness arid complete¬ 
ness as to place upon him the 
responsibility for the acceptance 
or rejection of the Gospel. And 
any effort to say which of these 
is first—because ill any arrange¬ 
ment you must name one first 
and the other second—will dis¬ 
place the other, and will certain¬ 
ly disarrange and throw out of 
proportion our missionary activ¬ 
ity. Both of these things must 
be dominating aims; and what 
we do,—the way we make our 
appropriations, the kind of 
missionaries that we appoint, 
the sort of work that we assign 


to them, are all to be brought 
actually into subjection to both 
of these ends as ends that are to 
be kept iu mind in a proper defi¬ 
nition of adequate occupation.” 


EXTRACTS FROM CORRES- 
SPONDENCE. 

Week of Evangelism: A let¬ 
ter from Hwaiyuan describes in 
most enthusiastic language the 
experiences of the “Week of 
Evangelism.” To quote some 
of the sentences: 

“We have been having such 
a wonderful experience in the 
city since the New Year in the 
special evangelistic campaign. 
They say .there has never been 
anything like it here before. 
The Christians, formed into 
bands, canvass the city and 
nearest villages each day, and 
everywhere the people come out 
to meet them, invite them into 
their homes, serve tea and 
‘ dien chlingd buy tracts, and 
urge them to preach. Even the 
wealthy homes in the city have 
opened with real hospitality and 
friendliness. It has been such 
a critical opportunity that one 
of our evangelistic workers has 
decided to give up plans for a 
trip to the country and has 
stayed here working from early 
to late, preaching, receiving 
calls, and accepting invitations 
to Chinese homes. He has a 
squad of young men, teachers 
and students, to help him ... . 
They started with a Victrola 
concert at the chapel, followed 
by preaching, and the first night 
they had 200 who stayed to 
listen. The last night, after 
playing a selection, they had the 
quiet attention through the rest 
of the evening of six hundred 
people. Altogether during the 
last few days one baud has 
preached to about three thousand 




204 


The Chinese Recorder 


[March 


friendly, interested people. 
Doesn’t it sound almost like an 
Eddy meeting ? Of course we 
realize how misleading statistics 
are, but everyone here, Chinese 
and foreign, is thrilled with the 
easy approach after so many 
years of aloofness.” 

In Satan's Stronghold: In 
the heart of the city of Kiangyin 
stands one of the strongly 
entrenched fortifications of the 
evil one. It is known as the 
“ City Temple.” 

Until comparatively recent 
years such temples have been 
strongholds of superstition and 
idolatry. Here, Taoist priests 
have preyed upon the hopes and 
fears of the ignorant populace, 
numerous idols, large and small, 
have been erected, and the 
terrors of the lower regions have 
been depicted by images of men 
and women being subjected to 
various kinds of torture. 

In considering the question of 
securing a hall sufficiently large 
for the New Year evangelistic 
meetings, at Kiangyin, it was 
decided that no place would so 
well suit the demauds of the 
situation as the large auditorium 
within the enclosure of the City 
Temple. This building is under 
the control of the local Board of 
Education. In response to our 
inquiry as to whether the hall 
would be available for evangel¬ 
istic services or not, we received 
a most courteous reply, stating 
their perfect willingness for it 
to be so occupied. Accordingly, 
arrangements were made well in 
advance; speakers were assigned 
from our own number, and 
others from a distance were 
engaged; the hymns for each 
day were printed in sheet form, 
so that they could be distributed 
throughout the audience; large 
numbers of tracts were ordered, 


to be used by bands of personal 
workers ; the seats from our two 
city churches were removed to 
the auditorium ; and an organ 
and a phonograph (with sacred 
records) provided. 

The evangelistic services 
lasted for six days, and the hall 
was filled to overflowing from 
the beginning. There were 
representatives of all the differ¬ 
ent grades of society. Mr. Chen 
Ching-yung, professor in Nan¬ 
king Theological Seminary, was 
one of the most acceptable 
speakers, having a message 
specially suited to the more 
enlightened. As a result, fifty- 
seven names of inquirers were 
handed in. Of this number 
forty-two were men and fifteen 
women. These inquirers will 
be followed up by personal work 
and an earnest effort to enroll 
them for Bible study. Will not 
all who read these lines unite 
with us in the prayer that rich 
spiritual results may follow? 

Over the main entrance to the 
City Temple was a large sign on 
which was written, “ Great 
Evangelistic Meeting.” It was 
good to see the crowds pouring 
in—on by the “Chambers of 
Horrors,” on by the hosts of 
false gods, on to the great hall, 
within, to hear the Glad Tid¬ 
ings. 

As an indication of the 
changed attitude on the part of 
the people of our city, regarding 
Christian missions, it may be of 
interest to kuow that in the first 
year of the work at Kiangyin a 
riot occurred, iu which the 
missionaries were driven out by 
an angry mob, narrowly escap¬ 
ing death. By way of contrast 
to this, a few years later, when 
the new hospital building took 
fire, seven Chinese fire companies 
rushed to the rescue and assisted 
in extinguishing the flames. 


205 


Missionary News 


1917] 

Still later, as a further illustra¬ 
tion of this increasing friend¬ 
liness, the gentry o( the city 
made a gift of $1,000 towards 
the erectiou of a new ward for 
this hospital. 

L. L. Little. 


News Items. 

An epidemic of small-pox is 
reported in Canton, to which 
Mrs. C. R. Shepherd of the S. B. C. 
has fallen a victim. 


New Mission Stations have 
been opened recently by the C.I. 
M. in Shangtsai, Honan; Cheng- 
hsien, Che.; and Liangtowtang, 
Hunan. 


Seventy-one students attended 
the Course of Missionary Studies 
held at King’s College, London, 
in the Lent Term, 1916. Com¬ 
plementary Courses were organ¬ 
ized for the Summer and Autumn 
Terms. 


The extent to which the 
resources of the missionary body 
are being taxed to meet the in¬ 
creased cost of living due to 
high exchange and high freight 
rates is seen by the fact that 
one of the larger American 
Societies has been obliged to 
issue a special appeal for G.$ 150,- 
000 00 to cover these items and 
to guarantee a rate of 2 to 1 on 
missionaries’ salaries. 


A Training Conference for 
newly elected officers of Studeut 
(Y. M. C. A.) Associations was 
held in Peking, February 16th to 
i8tb,for Chihli Province. Simi¬ 
lar conferences will be held in 
Foochow and Canton in March, 
for Fukien and Kwangtimg Prov¬ 
inces, and in Shanghai in April 


for the Kiangnan region. Trained 
secretaries are needed for Wu¬ 
chang, Foochow, Nanking, and 
Kaifeng. 


The Young Women’s Chris¬ 
tian Association has had a num¬ 
ber of accessions during the past 
few months: Miss Edith John¬ 
ston from Ireland, uow studying 
the language in Soochow ; Miss 
Clara Starkey, from England, 
appointed to Canton; Miss Eda 
Redo from America, Physical 
Director in National School of 
Physical Education, Shanghai; 
Miss Gray bill and Miss Grace 
Steinbeck from America, the for¬ 
mer appointed to Shanghai, the 
latter to Foochow. 


Post Graduate Hospital, New 
York: Medical missionaries will 
be interested to know that the 
New York Post Graduate Medi¬ 
cal College and Hospital, Second 
Avenue and 20th St., is offering 
special facilities for the post 
graduate work of medical mis¬ 
sionaries who are at home on 
furlough. The Superintendent, 
Dr. Alexander H. Caudlisb, 
will be glad to send a detailed 
schedule and statement of facil¬ 
ities to any medical missionary 
who will send for them. 


Medical Education for Women: 
At the recent meeting of the 
Board of Trustees of the new 
Union Medical College of the 
China Medical Board of the 
Rockefeller Foundation, held in 
New York, the following action 
was taken : 

“It was resolved that while 
the Board of Trustees is not 
prepared at this time to make 
detailed plans for the medical 
education of women, it is the 
purpose of the Board to admit 










206 


The Chinese Recorder 


in due time qualified women 
students to the Medical College 
on the same basis as men.” 


Several new missionary maga¬ 
zines have recently appeared: 
Church News and University 
Quarterly. Many of our readers 
have also probably seen the first 
number of the new /C&rca Maga¬ 
zine published at Seoul under a 
very able Editorial Board. A. P. 
“China’s Young Men” and 
“ Progress Magazine ” have been 
combined. The former began 
its career under the title of the 
“Chinese intercollegian ” nine¬ 
teen years ago, while the latter 
has had a fruitful existence of 
six consecutive years. The new 
periodical (beginning in March) 
will be known as “Association 
Progress.” 


Hongkong Building Corner¬ 
stone Laying. Y. M. C. A. The 
corner-stone of the new Associa¬ 
tion building for Chinese m 
Hongkong was laid February 
ioth, the Bishop of Victoria 
officiating. Mr. S. C. Lin, of 
the National Staff* was present 
to represent the National Com¬ 
mittee, reading a congratulatory 
message from them. The build¬ 
ing is to be located near Queen’s 
College, a most desirable site. 
As usual, the Chinese raised the 
funds to pay for the lot, while 
the cost of the building itself* 
about $75,000 U S. currency, 
was given by two Chicago busi¬ 
ness men. 


Film Censoring Committee for 
China.—The Committee on Film 
Censoring for China is continu¬ 
ing its work with forty members, 
censoring every day in the week 
but Saturday and Sunday. Up 
to date 600 films have been seen 
of which a little over 400 have 


[March 

been passed, the rejected being 
30.2% of the total. The Execu¬ 
tive Committee is composed of 
Dr. Y. Y. Tsu, Chairman, Mr. 
Li Chi Fan, Vice-Chairman, Mrs. 
H. C. Mei, and Mr. S. E. Heuing. 
Mr. Heuing is taking over the 
duties of Secretary of the Com¬ 
mittee from February 19th and 
all communications concerning 
this work should be addressed to 
him in future. 

THE 1917 STUDENT SUMMER 
CONFERENCES. Y.M.C.A, 

Ten Student Conferences will 
be held lu China during the 
summer of 1917, for which plans 
are now being rapidly made. 

While all dates are not yet 
fixed it is probable there will be 
five conferences just after the 
schools close in June and five 
just before the schools open 
again in September. The follow¬ 
ing is the list:— 

Early July. 

North China at Wofussu 
Manchuria at Moukdeu 
Szechwan Province at Chengtu 
Shansi Province at Taikuhsieu 
Kianguan at Shanghai 

Late August 

North Fukien at Foochow 
South Fukien at Amoy 
Kwangtung at Canton 
Shantung at Tsinan 
Yaugtsze Valley at Ruling 

The purpose of these con¬ 
ferences will be primarily to train 
the officers and members of 
committees of Student Associa¬ 
tions for their next year’s work. 
Many of China’s best student 
leaders have agreed to take part 
in these conferences. C. T. 
Wang, David Yui, Chang Po 
Ling, Ding Li Mei, Cheng 
Ching Yi, L. D. Cio, C. L- Nieh, 
P. W. Kuo, and many other 





Personals 


207 


19171 

noted men will give days of time 
to leading the students in their 
discussions. It is probable that 
Mr. Buchmati of America, who 
visited two conferences last year, 
will be secured to help agaiu in 
several of the conferences. 

It is not too early for student 
associations to begin preparation 
for these conferences by doing at 
least these three things:— 

1. Appoint a Summer Con¬ 
ference Committee to be respon¬ 
sible for bringing to a con¬ 
ference all the officers and chair¬ 
men of committees in the Associa¬ 
tion and as many members of the 
Committee as possible. 

2. Send to the National Com¬ 
mittee your suggestions of speak¬ 
ers, subjects, or methods of 
making the conferences even 
more helpful. 

3. Pray for these conferences 
and enlist others to pray for the 
committees in charge of the 
different conferences, for the 
leaders, and for all delegates who 
will attend. 


Dates of Important Meetings. 

March 1st: Executive Com¬ 
mittee of the China Continuation 
Committee, in Shanghai. 

March 5th : China Centenary 
Sub-Commission, M. E. M. 

April 12th: Forward Evangel¬ 
istic Movement Committee (of 
the C. C. C.), in Shanghai. 

April 26th to May 1st: Fifth 
Annual Meeting of the China 
Continuation Committee, in 
Hangchow. 

Miss J. G. Gregg of the China 
Inland Mission will hold meet¬ 
ings in Shensi and Kansu in the 
spring of 1917, the first ten as 
follows:— 


Shensi:—S lanfu....Feb. 26—Mar. 1 

„ Sianiu (R.M.S.)....Mar. 3— 6 

,, Lichiinuhsieu.. 10—13 

„ Kieuehow. ,, 16—39 

» Hingping. 22—25 

„ Chowchih.. ,, 28—31 

„ Meihsien.Apt. 4— 7 

„ Fengsinngfu. „ 11—14 

,, Kienyaug. 18—21 

„ I,ungcliow. „ 25—28 


Personals 


Mr. S. Pollard, son of the beloved 
missionary, the late Rev. S. Pollard, 
is classed among the Wranglers in the 
Cambridge University Tripos results 
just announced. 

Mr. Sherwood Eddy, Field Secre¬ 
tary of the American Y. M. C. A., has 
had a very strenuous time in Y. M. 
C. A. work in England and France. 
After two months in America he ac¬ 
cepted a pressing invitation to work 
amongst the men in khaki for a 
further nine months, from January to 
September, 1917. In Great Britain he 
had a wonderful time with the troops. 
Each evening in the huts he addressed 
some 500 men, with an average of 
loo decisions for Christ each night. 

Rev. J. P. Davies, of the A. B. F. 
M. S., Chengtu, has been recently 
granted permission, at the request 
of the West China Missions’ Advisory 
Board, to devote a considerable por¬ 
tion of his time to Sunday-school 
work ; and Rev. J. M. Yard, of the 
M, E, M., to cooperate with the 


Christian Eiteratnre Society in the 
production of Christian literature for 
Mohammedans. 

Rev. A. L. Warnsbuis, National 
Evangelistic Secretary, leaves on the 
17th of March for a brief furlough 
in America. He plans to return in 
November in company with Mr. Eddy. 
Mrs. Warnsbuis accompanies him. 

Bishop E. H. Roots left on furlough 
immediately after the Annual Meet¬ 
ing of the Chinese Continuation Com¬ 
mittee last May, returning on the 
27th of February. He attended the 
Executive Meeting of the Committee 
held March 1st and 2nd, where he 
gave a most interesting report of his 
experiences in America. 

A cablegram has been received from 
Dr. Samuel M. Zwemer stating that 
he hopes to reach China early in July. 
He will spend several months in woik 
among Mohammedans. Dr. Zwemer 
is on his way to America, where he 
will attend the Student Volunteer 
Conference in January, 1918. 













THE CHINESE 


RECORDER 



VOL. XLV 1 II. APRIL, 1917. No. 4 


kefcistern? at the Chinese Post Office as a Newspaper. 

Special Week of Evangelism 
Medical Evangelism 
Newspaper Evangelism 
Postal Evangelism- 

How to Preach the Gospel to the Non- 
Christian Chinese 


Material intended for Publication should be addressed, 

“ Editor, Chinese Recorder, 5 Quinsan Gardens, Shanghai.” 

Advertising and Business Matters should be addressed to 

“Presbyterian Mission Press, iS Peking Road, Shanghai." 

Published monthly by the American Presbyterian Mission Press, 
18 Peking Road, Shanghai, China. 

Subscription $4.00 Mexican (Gold $2.00 or 8 shillings) per annum, postpaid. 




















THE CHINESE 

RECORDER 

VOL. XLVIII. APRIL, 1917* No. 4 


CONTENTS 

PAttflk 

EDITORIAL COMMENT. 209 

The Forward Movement in Evangelism-Neglected Field*.—Student Enquirers.—" No 
flowers, by request." 

The Promotion of Intercession • k» M« »•« »H ••• ••• ai4 


CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES: 


How to Preach the Gospel to the Non-Christian 
Chinese . 

The Street Chapel ... . 

Student Enquirers and the Church. 

Individualistic and Socialistic Aspects of the Chris¬ 
tian Message . 

Medical Evangelism . 

The Post Office as an Evangelistic Agency... 

The Special Week of Evangelism . 

Newspaper Evangelism during the Special Week 


W. MacNAUGHTAN, 

JlMES Stobie. 
. ... Arthur Rugh. 

[• ... J. B. Cochran. 

Mrs. C. R. PATTON, M.D. 

.James a. Hbax.. 

A. L. Warnshuxs, 
D. MacGiujvray. 


OBITUARIES:—Rev. John Wright Davis, D.D., LLD..„ 
Rev. Robert Allen Haden ... 

Mrs. Alice Carter Gleysteen ... 

Mrs. Tseng Lai*sun ... . 


215 

234 

227 

331 

237 

243 

245 

253 

254 
256 

257 

258 


OUR BOOK TABLE. ..259 

CORRESPONDENCE . ... .... .. - 262 

Ruling Sacred Concert.—Seven Uses of Comparative Religion.—Cod's “ Wireless " Works.— 

The Chinese “ Hastings.” 


MISSIONARY NEWS . .265 

The Struggle for Constitutional Religious Liberty.—Fourteenth Meeting of the Executive 
of the China Continuation Committee, held in Shanghai, March I st-2nd.—News Items.— 

Dates of Important Meetings.—Personals, 


ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Workers of Different Churches who Took Part in the Week of Evangelism at ( „ rn „, 

TaiShan ($ |U) . P 

Mrs. Sites’ Two-weeks Bible Study Classes. Foochow ... 

The Late Rev. John W. Davis, D.D., LL.D. 


Page 238 
*55 




NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS 


Rev. Wirriam MacNaughtan, M.A., of the United Free 
Church of Scotland, writes from an experience of seventeen years 
in evangelistic work in China (in Riaoyang four years, Haich‘eng 
two years, K'aiyuan one year, Ch‘aoyangchen five years, Moukdeu 
three years). He is now Evangelistic Superintendent in Moukdeu 
and district, for his Mission, and Forward Evangelistic Secretary 
for Manchuria. He has also engaged somewhat in educational 
work. 

Rev. J. STOBIE, R.R.C.P. and S. (Ed.), is also a member of 
the United Free Church of Scotland. He has been engaged in 
general missionary work in China since 1894, and is now stationed 
at Asbiho, Kirin. 

Arthur Rugh, B.A., recently returned to China as National 
Student Secretary of the Young Men’s Christian Association, after 
seven years of administrative work in America in connection with 
the Foreign Department of the International Committee. Previous 
to his first term in China he was Secretary of the Student Volun¬ 
teer Movement. 

Rev. James Brain Cochran, A.B., B.D., of the American 
Presbyterian Mission (North), has been engaged in educational 
work in China for. the past eighteen years (at Nanking two years, 
Hwaiyuan sixteen years). He is a member of the China Council 
of the Presbyterian Church and also of the China Continuation 
Committee. 

Mrs. C. E. Patton, a member of the American Presbyterian 
Mission (North), appointed to work in China in 1899, has, with 
her husband, had a large experience in medical work in Kochow, 
Kwangtung. 

James Amor Hear arrived in China in 1885 as a missionary 
of the China Inland Mission, spending fifteen years in evangelistic 
and pastoral work in the province of Chekiang. For the past ten 
years he has been engaged in evangelistic and literary work and 
correspondence in connection with the International Postal Tele¬ 
graph Christian Association, Shanghai. 

Rev. A. R. Warnshuis, M.A., has been in China since 
October, 1900, engaged in evangelistic, educational, and adminis¬ 
trative work in connection with the Amoy Mission of the Reformed 
Church in America. He is now National Evangelistic Secretary 
of the China Continuation Committee, having been allocated to 
this work by the Board of Foreign Missions of the Reformed 
Church in America. 




WORKERS OF DIFFERENT CHURCHES WHO TOOK PART IN THE WEEK OF EVANGELISM AT T’AI SHAN ( p? Ui 













208 


The Chinese Recorder [March, 1917 


BIRTHS. 

At Wukingfu, January 3rd, Lo Rev. 
and Mrs. A, S. Adams of Hope, 
A. B. F. M. S., a son (Philip Sid- 
ney). 

AT Heitgchowfu, January i6tli, to 
Rev. and Mrs. B. BrETon, C. I. M., 
a son (Karl Erhard), 

AT Chengtu, January 19th, to Rev, 
and Mrs. Geo. B. Neumann, M. E. 
M., a son (Bradford Theodore), 

AT Yuhsien, Hunan, January 26th, 
to Rev. and Mrs. A. E Lehman, 
United Evangelistic Mission, a son 
(Donald Burke). 

AT Peking, January 26th, to Rev. and 
Mrs, Eakx,e H. Ballou, A. B. C. 
F. M,, a son (Hubbard Walter). 

AT Chengtu, January 27th, to Rev. 
and Mrs. J. M. Yard, M. E. M., a 
daughter (Florence Hickox). 

AT Tungluhsien, Che., February 9th, 
to Rev. and Mrs. H. Castle, 
C, M. a daughter. 

MARRIAGES. 

AT Ansiang, Hunan, December, —, 
1916, Miss M. E. McCreary, to 
Rev. S. A. Graham, both C. H. M. 
AT Yunnanfu, December 12th, 1916, 
Miss E. E. Stowe, to Rev, C. A. 
Fleischmann, both C. I. M. 

AT Paouing, January 1st, Miss L. I. 
Malet, to Rev. G. Kirkpatrick, 
both C. I. M. 

AT Hankow, January 5th, Miss A. 
Beckett, to Rev. R. Hogben, both 
C. I. M, 

At Anking, January 31st, Miss Alma 
Booth, to Dr. H. B. Taylor, A. 
C. M. 

AT Chengchow, Ho., February 7th, 
Miss Pauline Like, to A. D. 
Louthan, M.D., both S. B. C. 

DEATHS. 

October 23rd, 1916 ; Miss Gertrude 
Smith, C. M,, aged 69 years. 

AT La Mesa, Cal., U. S. A., October 
23rd, 1916, Rev. Hs^ry Dwight 
Porter, A. B. C. F. M. 

AT Clifton Springs, N. Y., U. S. A., 
December 20th, 1916, Rev. John L. 
Dkaring, aged 58; Editor of The 
Japan Evangelist. 

December 31st, 1916; Miss E. M. 
Dyer, C. A. 

AT Due West, U. S. A., January 6th, 
Rev. M. B. Grier, A, P. M.,South, 
Suchowfu, Ku. 

At Baltimore, Md., U, S. A., January 
7th, Mrs. Frank Rawlinson, 
S. B. C. 

AT Ventnor, N. J., U. S. A., January 

x6th, Frederic Ernst Neale, 


C, I, M., aged 13 years; heart 
failure. 

At Baltimore, Md., U. S. A., January 
22nd, Miss Lottie W. Price, 
S. B. C. 

February 8th, Mr. J. H. Dadisman, 
Y. M. C. A. 

AT Anshunfu, February 8th, Mrs. 

E. S, Fish, C. I. M.; heart disease. 
At Peking, February 12th, Mrs. W. H. 

Gleysteen, A. P. M.; pneumonia. 
At Shanghai, February 16th, Rev. 

J. M. W. Faruham, D.D., A. P. M. 
AT sea, February 17th, Rev. R. A. 

Hadhn, A. P. M., South. 

At Soocbow, February 24th, Rev. 
John W. Davis, D.D., LLD., A. 
P. M., South ; pneumonia. 

ARRIVALS, 

November-—, 1916, from Ireland, 
Miss Edith Johnston, Y, W, C. A.; 
from England, Miss Clara STarkey, 
Y. W.C. A. 

December 19th, 1916. from U. S. A., 
Miss Eda Redo, Y. W. C. A. 

January 6th, from England, Dr. and 
Mrs, J. C. P. Beatty, C. M. S., for 
Taichowfu. 

January 13th, from Australia, Mr. 
and Mrs. J. W, Dovey, Missiou Book 
Co. 

January 22nd, from U. S. A., Miss 
Ada Grabii.l and Miss Grace 
Steinbeck, Y. W. C. A. 

February 12th, from U. S. A., Rev. 
and Mrs. G. F. Mosher, Rev. and 
Mrs, M. H. Throop and children, 
Rev. and Mrs. T, P. Maslin and 
children. Miss M. H. Bailey, Miss 
Elizabeth II. Bailey, and Edward 
and John LiTTELL, all A. C. M.; 
Miss E. Lynch, A. P. M., So.; from 
Canada, Dr. Wm. McClure, C. M. M. 

DEPARTURES. 

January 20th, to Australia, Misses 
E. J. and M. M. Clark, C. M. S. 

February 6th, to England via 
Siberia, Mr. and Mrs. D. J. Harding 
and children, C. I. M. 

February nth, to Canada, Mr. and 
Mrs. E. A. Merian and child, C.I.M.; 
to U.S.A., Dr. and Mrs. H. W. Irwin, 
M.E.M.; Mrs. R. A. Parker, M. E, 
S.; Miss S, Viola Haas, Ind. 

February 13th, to Norway, Rev. and 
Mrs. C. OsTkrGAard and children, 
Nor. Lutb. Mission. 

February i6tb, to Canada, Miss 
Austen, M.D., C. M. M.; to U. S. A., 
Rev. and Mrs. H. J. Openshaw and 
Miss I. M. Chambers, A. B. F. M. S, 


THE CHINESE RECORDER 


Published Monthly at the American Presbyterian Mission Press, 
18 Peking Road, Shanghai, China 


Editorial Board. 

Editor-in-chief ; Rev. Frank Raweinson. (On furlough.) 



Rev.R obertC.Beebk,m.d. Rev.OX. Kieborn, m.d. Rt.Rev.F.L.NoRRis,».D, 


Rev. Ernest Box. Rev. E. C. Lobenstinb. Rev. O. Schoetzb. 

Rev. G. A. Ceayton. Mr,G ieberT McIntosh. Rev. A. H. Smith, d.d. 


Rev. J. C. Gibson, d.d. Rev. G. H. McNeur. Miss Laora M. Whitk. 


NO. 4 


APRIL, 1917 


VOL. XLV111 


Editorial 


The Forward Evangelistic Movement has 
begun and is a reality. It is not simply 
an idea that some people are talking 


Zbe jforwatb Above* 
ment tn iSvanfiellsm. 


about. There is evidence in the reports printed in the follow¬ 
ing pages that the Movement is producing results. The central 
importance of direct evangelistic work in the plans and activi¬ 
ties of churches and missions has received renewed emphasis. 
Where there has been a forward push iu evangelism, there 
large numbers of earnest inquirers have been brought in. The 
greatness of the present opportunity for a strong forward 
movement has been strikingly demonstrated. 

This is but the beginning of a great movement, we 
believe, and as Christian forces push forward we think there 
are four things that should characterize their plans : 

(i) Perma?iency . The plans must provide for continuous, 
persistent work. No spasmodic effort to hold occasional series 
of special meetings will bring the large results which should be 
secured. Such special meetings will be held and their value 
will not be underrated, but they will be considered only as 
they are integral parts of a large, permanent program, which 
also gives the right place to Bible study classes and earnest, 
tactful, personal work. Strong, religious leaders must be 
discovered and trained, and they must be set free to give them¬ 
selves wholly and unreservedly to evangelistic work ; this 








210 The Chinese Recorder [April 

part of the program must be realized at any cost, or permanency 
and large results will not be secured, 

(2) Direct Evangelism . It is no longer necessary to under¬ 
take work of which the objective is merely to popularize the 
study of Christian truth. In almost all parts of the country there 
are large numbers of people who know much about Christianity 
and who now need not so much an apologetic appealing merely 
to their intellects as they need to hear of repentance toward God 
and of faith in Jesus Christ. Clear, strong, vital, gospel 
preaching should characterize the forward movement. 

(3) The Church as Centre . There has been much broadcast 
sowing. We have preached in markets and in street chapels. 
We have scattered tracts everywhere. Our first thought has 
been to win men to Christ. It must continue to be so. But it 
is clear that to conserve the results of our work in the largest 
possible way, it is essential to plan definitely to bring these 
converts into the Church without delay. This demands that 
the churches must offer to these new members opportunities for 
service, enlisting their largest interests and activities, as well 
as providing for their progress in Christian knowledge and 
offering in their services the means for growth in grace. This 
means that the plans for this forward evangelistic movement 
and all its activities will center in the churches. 

(4) Reaching AU Classes. All classes of the people are now 
accessible. The barriers of pride and conservatism which for 
so long prevented the presentation of Christian truth to great 
numbers of the influential classes are now gone. Plans must 
now be made and definite work undertaken to reach all classes. 
We cannot longer be content to reach only those who chance 
to come to our chapels and churches. This does not mean 
any lessening of the efforts to reach the common people. The 
forces aiming to reach these people need to be greatly increased, 
and the forward movement must provide for stronger work for 
the great mass of the people. But it must also plan for work 
that is specially designed to reach the educated classes. To 
the rich also must the Gospel be preached. 

* * * 

There are whole provinces still most inadequately 
occupied. There are parts of other provinces where 
the Gospel message has scarcely been heard. The 
Forward Evangelistic Movement in its largest meaning must 


1917] 


Editorial 


211 


include also the pressing out into these neglected fields of 
Chinese and foreign preachers. This is generally known and 
agreed upon. It is also true, although not so well known, 
that the great cities in the other better occupied provinces are 
almost wholly neglected by the foreign missionary forces. The 
city of Tientsin may be used as an illustration of this fact. 
There are missionary educational institutions and some medical 
work there, and these are evangelistic in their central aim 
and accomplishment, but the distinctively evangelistic work is 
almost wholly neglected by the men missionaries. One or two 
of them can give a few hours a month to such work. All of 
them are wholly occupied in institutional work and the work 
in rural districts. The direct evangelistic forces of the city are 
those of five or six Chinese churches and the Young Men’s 
Christian Association. Wuchang is another illustration of this 
same fact. “To capture Wuchang would be to control the 
intellectual and governing forces of a population larger than 
that of the British Isles,” so writes the biographer of Dr. 
Griffith John. It is, perhaps, the second largest student center 
in the country. Mr. Sherwood Eddy has twice visited this 
great city, but experience proves that these visits have been 
quite premature. Not only so, but the time has not yet come 
when such a visit would seem to be advisable for there are not 
in that city the Christian forces that could conserve the results 
of any especial evangelistic efforts for the educated classes 
there. Shanghai has a very large number of missionaries, but 
almost all of these are fully engaged in institutional and 
administrative work. In the five or six missions that have 
accepted responsibility for the city itself, apart from the Young 
Men’s Christian Association, there are only one or two men who 
can give any time to help the Chinese churches in their evan¬ 
gelistic work in this center where there are opportunities daily 
to reach men from all the provinces. There is not room here 
to write about Tsinanfu, Soochow, Canton, and other great 
cities, great centers of missionary work for many years, and 
still so destitute of strong evangelists as to make it impossible 
to greatly influence the people in these cities. That these 
cities are practically unoccupied is shown by comparison with 
the city of Tokio, in which a recently published survey shows 
there are in churches with a membership of 17,500. If the 
Forward Evangelistic Movement is to be inclusive, reaching 
all classes of the people, not omitting the influential classes in 


212 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


Stuhent 

finqufrers. 


these cities, and if the Movement is to demonstrate that direct 
evangelism is the central objective of all missionary work, in 
the city as well as in the rural districts, it must bring to these 
cities larger and stronger evangelistic leaders. 

* * * 

A real problem is discussed in the third article 
in this number. It has been surprisingly easy in 
recent years to enroll a large number of students in 
Bible classes, and many of these have expressed their purpose 
to follow the Christ. But comparatively very few have entered 
the Church. The difficulties in the way of linking up students 
with the present churches are well described in the following 
paragraphs, quoted from a letter written by a missionary who 
is struggling with this problem in his own work : — 

“(a) The student has very little in common with the old 
type of church-member. His mental outlook is very different, 
and often, too, his social standing. 

“(d) The level of preaching in many churches is uusuited 
to the needs of the present student. 

“(c) The strong spirit of independence among students 
rebels against the foreign mission control still exercised over 
some churches, and they are unwilling to enter churches in this 
condition. In Tientsin the Independent Chinese Church has 
become virtually a students’ church owing to the attraction of 
the name ; 4 * ^ ^ ^ ( Chung-hwa Chi-tuh chiao). 

“(a?) The course of instruction for inquirers, based upon 
catechisms designed to meet the needs of a very different class, 
is often most unsuitable, 

“(c) On the student’s side there is often a feeling that 
there is no need to join a church. ‘ I believe in God, and can 
read my Bible and pray at home ; what need is there to go to 
church ?’ This attitude of mind seems to me to be the direct 
and natural result of the shortcomings of ordinary Bible class 
teaching. This is often directed solely to the end of individual 
conversion. The student is led to believe that Christianity is 
summed up and contained in the relation of the individual soul 
to Christ, and he is never led to understand all the great truths 
of the corporate life of believers, in which life alone we can 
come to the perfect man, to the measure of the stature of the 
fulness of Christ.” 

From another city, a missionary writes a suggestive 
description of methods which have been found to be measurably 


1917 ] Editorial 213 

successful in bringing students into church-membership. Part 
of his letter reads as follows : 

“The student enquirers should be encouraged by the 
indirect method to take up some work in connection with the 
Church. In one of the churches the students have charge of 
a reading room. In another they are helping in the Endeavor 
Society. In a third a bunch of students is in charge of the 
Sunday-school. In another a number of young fellows are 
working hard to raise money to build a new church. In one 
place a band of students called on the members who had grown 
cold. I should mention one of our most successful churches in 
this line. 

“Another point is that the appeal to sacrifice and service 
should be made very early and that the students should be 
expected to respond to it. They will respond.’’ 

* * * 

Our readers will rejoice that, after a long, and 
mo flowery some ti mes bitter, fight, the foreign settlements 
E reques . ^ g^anghai f ree f rom the curse of the 

trade in opium, after March 31. All friends of China will turn 
the requiem of vested interests into a hallelujah, and the 
burial of this heinous traffic within the settlements will bring 
relief to all the moral forces which have so strenuously fought 
for its suppression and, after long waiting, have seen the day 
of victory. Whilst congratulating the Chinese people for the 
noble stand they have made against the insidious foe, we give 
thanks to many friends who, from most disinterested motives, 
have come to the help of the nation and braved obloquy and 
insult from the very purest devotion to a cause which had 
God’s blessing. These are to be found not only among 
missionaries, but also among other residents in China and at 
home. It is hoped that, at no distant date, the whole country 
will be freed from this accursed thing, and over its burial 
place there shall not be heard a sigh, but a song of gratitude 
to Almighty God. It is to be feared, though, that another foe 
is creeping in, that of the illegal use and sale of morphia, 
and those who have so valiantly fought against opium may 
now well turn their attention to this, and unflinchingly do 
battle with it. We are thankful to note that the churches and 
the friends of virtue in Shanghai are setting their faces against 
other evils which tarnish the good name of the so-called 
“Model Settlement.” 


214 


Tbe Chinese Recorder 


[April, 1917 


Cbe promotion of 3nterces$lon, 

Or what man is there of you, whom if his son ask bread, wild 

HE GIVE HIM A STONE? Or IF HE ASK A FISH, WILL HE GIVE HIM A 

SERPENT? IF YE THEN, BEING EVIL, KNOW HOW TO GIVE GOOD GIFTS 

UNTO YOUR CHILDREN, HOW MUCH MORE SHALL YOUR FATHER WHICH 

rs in Heaven give good things to them that ask Him? 

As the reports reach us from the centres where the special week of 
evangelism was most signally blessed we are again impressed with the fact 
that where the preparation by prayer was most systematic and most generally 
observed not only by leaders but by the Christian community in the home 
and in gatherings other than at the central place of worship, there the 
response iu hearts touched and inquiries aroused and in actual ingatherings 
was greatest. 

Shall we not now make the prayer {ot the members of their own families 
increasingly a subject of intercession in our weekly meetings and of in¬ 
struction at all times? 

There are places where such success attended this season of prayerful 
united, humble effort without the aid of prominent workers from a distance, 
that they have resolved to repeat the campaign within a few months, in 
the hope that this spirit of evangelism may become the very habit of the 
church’s life. 

Concerning another phase of intercession the following is a suggestive 
paragraph: 

“ Prayer has been described as a certain intimate friendship with God. 

* What friends have, they have in common ’; this is true of human friend¬ 
ships, but these friendships are developed in silence, Maeterlinck gives a 
simple illustration of this in the chapter on silence in his book, The Treas¬ 
ure of the Humble. One whom be held dear above all others wrote to him i 
‘ We do not know each other yet; we have not yet dared to be silent to¬ 
gether.’ This is even more true of that wonderful Friendship with God to 
which we are admitted as Christians through union with God Incarnate.” 

We are glad to announce that the well-known book, u With Christ in 
tbe School of Prayer,” much sought for by friends of tbe Chinese Christians, 
has been trauslated by Dr. Hopkyn Rees and is now offered for sale by the 
Christian Literature Society. 

It is becoming more evident that to a certain serious and devout type of 
the Chinese educated man the possibility and reality of prayer to God 
constitute one of the most attractive and convincing features of the Chris¬ 
tian faith. Perhaps his own deep-rooted conviction of the nearness of hia 
ancestors and their interest in his welfare enables him to faintly comprehend 
this final step of confidence in and appeal to Him who, from everlasting to 
everlasting, is the Hearer of prayer and who has sent His Sou to live the life 
of prayer in our midst. 

It is also true that the most prayerful devotees of the many religious sects 
in China, when illuminated by the Spirit of God, often become tbe most 
profoundly prayerful Christians. 

Though idolatry is au evil which we long to see swept away from the 
nation, we should rejoice in its removal chiefly when the idol-worshipper 
casts his image at the feet of the Saviour whom he has come to know 
and love. 


Contributed Articles 


How to Preach the Gospel to the Non-Christian 

Chinese 

W. MacNAUGHTAN. 


missionaries are in the mind’s eye of the writer. The 
article seeks to provide examples of how certain truths may be 
stated. The audiences in view are non-Christians of a humble 
and mixed type, such as are met in country towns and villages. 
The very lowest mental strata are not perhaps in view. The 
problem is to catch and hold the interest of such audiences, 
and to present the message in such a way that it can be 
understood. In other words, to find a point of contact and 
illustrate the unknown from the known. 

SOME WAYS OF NOT DOING IT. 

The obvious point of contact is the free use of the best 
in their own religions to illustrate the higher truths of our 
own. Whilst this sympathetic mind is a great asset, and 
whilst it leads to clearness of understanding and ensures a 
cordial hearing, I must confess that I have found it singularly 
disappointing. Where I have used this method the net result 
has usually, I might say invariably, been that the listener 
smiles a patronizing approval and adds, 11 Your religion is good, 
it is the very same as ours.” Unappreciative of this flattery 
one has to begin all over again and emphasize the differences, if 
indeed the opportunity is not already gone. I think it best to 
leave their beliefs out of the address and strike boldly into the 
fundamental truths of Christianity, finding the point of contact 
in life and the deep human experiences which are common to 
all. I am aware that this is heresy from the comparative 
religion point of view. 


Note.— Readers of the Recorder are reminded that the Editorial Board 
assumes no responsibility for the views expressed by the writers of articles 
published in these pages. 




HE aim of this article is to give “ definite suggestions to 
missionaries about the presentation of the Gospel message 
to the Chinese people.” Very young and inexperienced 






216 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


The direct attack upon their religions is equally unsatisfac¬ 
tory. The other day I was distributing tracts in a railway 
carriage, and bethought myself that I had better read what I 
was thus distributing. I was met by the startling statement 
that our Lord had given the commandment that no idols were 
to be worshipped, therefore all idolaters were under the curse 
and liable to eternal punishment in the fire and brimstone of 
Hell. What effect is a statement like this likely to produce in 
a thoughtful reader ? The old granny there, the best one in 
the family, is going to Hell, not because of her misdeeds but 
because not having known the commandment she obeyed her 
conscience in devoting time to worship Buddha. She felt she 
was wrong every time she neglected her religious duties. What 
picture of the Father does this leave in the minds of those who 
accept it as true ? The ne’er-do-well son who reads this may 
well feel flattered because he certainly hasn’t given much time 
to idol worship. There is uo curse in the heart of any mission¬ 
ary who knows old granny, there is only sorrow that her 
ignorant worship gives her so little return, and a longing to 
tell her of the better way. Blind Ch‘ang, the martyr, as he 
sat bound awaiting his death, uttered a great truth when, in 
reply to a man who asked him, “Why don’t you worship 
the true Buddha?” he said, “I do worship the true Buddha. 
Jesus is the true Buddha.” Many are worshipping God though 
they name Him Buddha, and will doubtless learn better bye- 
and-bye when He tells them His true name and nature and 
receives them Home. 

THE FATHERHOOD OF GOD. 

Our message is that God was in Christ reconciling the 
world unto Himself. We have come to know the Father 
through Jesus Christ. This great foundation truth of the 
Gospel is perhaps the one most ready to our hand, and in its 
comprehensiveness and implications embraces all the others. 

I use the Chinese custom of sworu relationships to bring 
out some aspects of this truth. It is ideally possible at least 
that a very high personage might so adopt a humble person as 
a son. We Christians have a message which is called “joyful 
news,” and this joyful uews is that the great God of Heaven 
is our pitiful and loving Father, who cares for and longs after 
each individually, and recognizes each minutely enough to 
tell the very number of his hairs. Think what this means if 


1917] How to Preach the Gospel to the Non-Christian Chinese 217 


yon can. Look at it this way : if the President for some reason 
or other made you the offer to become your adopted father, or 
sworn brother, would you accept the offer ? What excitement 
and hope and congratulations it would bring to your home; 
at one leap you would be to the front, visited by gentry and 
officials, with an entrance to any society. Of course you 
would have to leave your old life and try to conform to the 
new. (A few local touches make this vivid, and create a 
good deal of amusement, but all the more the point is under¬ 
stood.) This gives a reality to the Gospel message of the glory 
and wonder of sonship to the eternal Father. 

Another aspect of the Gospel message, the willingness of 
the Father to save, and the difference this makes to us, may 
be illustrated from the impossibility of gaining entrance to a 
provincial governor, no matter bow urgent our business. But 
what a difference it makes if the governor himself desires to 
see us and invites us to come. 

The joyful news is that the Heavenly Father is the one 
who seeks us, and not we Him. If you wish to meet the 
goveruor on important business, can you see him? Go with 
your card to his palace and see what happens. Try the effect 
of kotowing to the guard and entreating the gate-keeper. 
But what if the governor desires to see you—does that make 
a difference ? If he insisted on seeing you, he could bring you 
by force. But if he desired to see you as a frieud, he would 
invite you, and with his invitation in your hand you would get 
right through to his very presence. The joyful news is that 
the Heavenly Governor invites you to be His guest in the 
heavenly home, and offers to be your friend and father now. 

The Fatherhood of God is a point on which to suspend the 
fact that Christianity is not a foreign religion. Is there any 
objection as far as you can see to loving and obeying your own 
father—not some foreign power or religion, but your very own 
father ? 


THE INCARNATION. 

I usually find it best to speak of Jesus in terms of God 
becoming man. We have just been emphasizing monotheism, 
and this way of expressing the Trinity is for the time being 
less confusing than speaking of Jesus as the Son of God. 

How do we know about God? We open our eyes and 
gaze into the blue and cannot see Him. We strain our ears 


218 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


and we cannot hear Him. We stretch out our hands and we 
cannot touch Him. Unless He reveals Himself to us we are 
left to guess what He is like. But the joyful news is that we 
do know Him, and have heard Him speak, and see His form in 
the world. He became a mau and was called Jesus. He didn’t 
come to Europe or America ; he came to Asia, and was born 
in a little country called Judea. 

Why did He come ? If to-night your child, who is 
playing on the street, did not return home, would you take a 
few puffs at your pipe and go off quietly to sleep, and not 
trouble your head about him ? You know you wouldn’t; you 
would be out rousing the neighbourhood until the child was 
found. That’s what God did ; He came down to seek and to 
save His lost children. The vast majority of men are poor. 
He became a poor man, and thus showed His love for the poor. 
He pitied and helped the sick and the ignorant and the sinful. 
He desired to show His great love for men and win their love 
for Himself. He gave His life for this, and when His life did 
not succeed in accomplishing what He desired, He gave also 
His death. He died willingly, cruelly tortured to death by the 
society of His time, because He opposed their evil and they 
hated Him. 


THE CROSS. 

Why did Christ die f There is no simple answer to this 
question—no satisfying answer simple or otherwise. And yet 
some answer which appeals to the audience must be found, 
otherwise the story of the crucifixion falls on very callous ears 
indeed. I have seen individuals laugh at the story of the 
buffeting and spitting. I know that often the Chinese laugh 
when they are deeply moved, just to prevent themselves from 
crying. But this laughter was obviously amusement at the 
buffoonery of the trial, because the prisoner had absolutely no 
relation to them and no interest for them. 

The legal interpretation, which seeks the meaning in the 
satisfaction of the law, by the penalty falling on another, 
whilst it can be readily understood by the Chinese, seems to 
solve one difficulty by creating another. The Jewish con¬ 
sciousness built up on Law could feel this tremendous appeal. 
But to the Chinese the law is flexible in the extreme, and 
inexorable Law which must be satisfied is to them either a 
picture or makes God out a terrible, inexorable Judge. Why 


1917] How to Preach the Gospel to the Non-Christian Chinese 219 

doesn’t God just forgive and be done with it, if He is a loving 
Father? Any kind father would forgive if his son repented, 
just as the father did in the story of the Prodigal, 

Human life and love give, I think, the most telling 
illustrations of the inevitableness of the Cross. There is no 
such thing in human love, in presence of apostacy, as forgiveness 
without suffering. I take the Prodigal’s father as an illustra¬ 
tion, even though or just because there is no mention of the 
Cross in the story. The outline may be something like this : 

I. Graphic picture of the Father who had already lost 
his son, even though he was still at home. The son’s heart 
was already far away and in the enemies’ country. Was 
there no unseen blood flowing from the Father’s heart? The 
Father’s problem was not to keep the boy in the house ; 
that could be done by force ; but to win his heart. 

II. The son had the time of his life when he got right 
away from restraint and wallowed in congenial sins. The 
Father was lying awake at night. The gambling and filth 
which delighted the son brought shame and agony to the 
Father’s heart. The sins of the son were falling on the 
Father. There was the inevitable cross which love bears. If 
the Father could disown and forget his son, the burden would 
he gone. As long as love makes the two one, then the cross 
is planted in the Father’s heart. 

III. Supposing the son had prospered in the far city, 
what then ? 

(1) The Father might give him up ; which would mean 
defeat; or 

(2) The Father might have influence enough to have him 
sent home in chains. But he would not gain his love thus. 

(3) The Father would be compelled to go and seek him 
and win him back; or he might send someone like-minded as 
his representative. Again we see the inevitableness of the 
cross when love unites a holy life to a sinful one. The 
privations of the journey may feebly represent the incarnation. 

(4) The impenitent son refuses to return: “He came 
unto His own and His own received Him not.” The Father 
may leave him, which would mean defeat; or he may per¬ 
severe, which might raise vindictiveness. The gambling 
parties are spoiled by the unbidden presence. Lust made to 
appear shameful frets at the unwonted curb. At last there 


220 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


is a plot by boon companions to shame the old man and 
compel him to leave. They threaten him with it, but his 
mind is steadfast and he hopes that his suffering and perhaps 
death, may do more to open the eyes of his son than all he 
has done yet. The shameful deed is done and the old man 
may be ill-used almost to death ; and even at the end he 
appeals—“ Won’t you repeut and come home ? ” 

This story brings out three points which are the main 
truths of the cross : 

The Father’s forgiving love is revealed to the uttermost. 

The sin of the son and his friends is made vivid by its 
work of hatred toward the loving Father. 

The Father’s utter oppositiou to the sinful life is also 
revealed. 

The Father has made bis last and most awful appeal, and 
if the son’s heart is troubled and opened, he will turn in 
loathing from the sinful life which made him such a brute. 
If not, he has rejected everything that God can do to save. 

The analogy cannot be pressed too far. The one truth 
which it seeks to show is that the Law of Love which unites 
the holy heart of God to sinful men makes the cross inevitable. 
The Law demands the Cross, but it is not statutory law, with 
so many penalties to be borne, but the Law of Love aud 
Freedom. 


TO AWAKEN THE SENSE OF GUILT. 

There is a natural sense of wrong-doing as between man 
and man, but it usually lies very dormant, and with many at 
least it seems to have little relation to God. We must be 
able to strike this chord if we expect to reach the hidden 
depths of the heart. 

The attack must be against individual sins, and the 
problem is to show them up as poisonous enemies of the 
individual aud society. At present I find that the background 
of love of country may be used effectively to show up certain 
sins. Take impurity, for example. We may take for granted, 
alas, that any male audience which gathers in a chapel have 
all committed this sin. It never occurs to these men that 
their act has any consequences beyond themselves. I have 
pictured to such an audience a scene on a river steamer on 
the Sungari. A man on board had a group of little girls with 
him. When the steamer moored they were free to go about 


1917 ] How to Preach the Gospel to the Non-Christian Chinese 221 

to a certain extent, but when a landing stage was reached, 
he herded them all into a little space, like a dog watching 
a little flock of lambs, lest they should escape. Here was this 
little group of innocents, sold or stolen, destined to slavery, 
and to be stamped into the mire by the foul feet of men, 
eventually to be thrown out to the dung heap when they were 
no longer useful. The great Father of the innocents will 
have something to say to those concerned in this bestiality. 
The man who supports this system is an enemy to his 
country. 

Covetousness. Chinese proverbs are rich in scathing 
com men ts on covetousness. It is a cruel, bitter enemy to 
the Chinese nation. During the Russo-Japanese war, as the 
battle front closed in on Liao Yang, the inhabitants of the 
villages poured into the city, having left or lost nearly their 
all. Covetousness at once took command. Greed stripped 
them of dl they had left. The rent demanded for one month’s 
residence in some houses was about equivalent to the cost of 
the house itself. It was the opportunity of a robber, the 
market value rose, and the good citizens robbed their destitute 
friends more effectively than the devastations of war. This 
is the covetousness which makes free men slaves and destroys 
China. In contrast to this was the work of the Red Cross 
in the same town, which to the extent of its opportunities gave 
lodging free. Which was the friend and which the enemy? 
The one represents the Spirit of Christ, the best friend of 
China, and the other is the spirit of the enemy. 

THE IMMORTAL SOUL. 

The modern man denies the existence of the soul. The 
old-fashioned man says there are three souls. The following 
is a method of dealing with this subject. 

I. What is man ? I startle the audience by denying that 
they can see me. What they see is my body and my clothes, 
but not me. I am the invisible spirit indwelling and using 
the body. “I” have a “body.” “I” and the “body” are 
two different things. I really cannot say I have a soul any 
more than I can say I have a Scotchman. I am a Scotchman 
and I am a soul. Therefore, point number one ; I who am 
a soul do exist. And you who say you haven’t a soul, are 
a soul, and moreover you are one aud not three. 


222 


1'he Chinese Recorder 


[April 


II. What is the use of a man ? Just try that question on 
any audience or individual, and see the blank effect. Yet not 
to know the use of an article, say a watch, is to misuse it, 
or leave it useless. Wealth, name, to leave to posterity, to 
“pass the days,” can all be explained as euds to man’s life. 
The Christian answer is that man’s use is to be a child of 
God. It is the highest use possible iu the universe, and to 
miss it is to have been born in vain. 

III. Does ?nan survive death? Man’s body dies. But 
if the house has fallen it does not necessarily mean that the 
tenant is dead. Whether we survive or not, is not in our 
coutrol. We could not control such a tiling as the nationality 
into which we were born; how much less can we control as 
to whether or not we shall survive death. Death and life are 
in the hands of God. God lives forever, and it is His will 
that we live forever. 

IV. God. The father-love of God as revealed iu the 
incarnation and cross, is proof of our immortality. No father 
who loved his child in such a way as that would be willing 
to lose him eventually if he could help it. 

ATHEISM. 

Atheism is more prevalent than we are apt to believe. 
The student class is frankly atheistical, and the merchant 
class is so materialistic as a whole that they are not much 
different. 

The audiences we are supposed to be dealing with are 
the more humble. But in passing I may say that one of the 
most effective things to say to the student on the question is 
that atheism is not up-to-date. The best modern scientists are 
theists if not Christians. Atheism is a theory that cannot be 
made to hold water. The modern Chinese student cannot bear 
to be considered a “ back number.” 

The good old arguments are very effective. Of course we 
know that the argument from design can be turned against 
us. A student asked me, “If God created all, did He create 
disease microbes ? ” 

A watch makes a good object lesson on which to base 
the argument from design. It is impossible for anyone to 
believe that a watch could come into existence except by the 
agency of a mind which planned and executed. The cover 


1917 ] How to Preach the Gospel to the Non-Christian Chinese 223 

of a watch is a protection for the wheels and spring. A watch 
could go perfectly well without a cover only it would need 
to be suspended in the air; it certainly couldn’tbe carried in 
the pocket. Our skull is such another cover. We could get ou 
perfectly well with skin and hair, until we happened to bump 
our heads—when the results might be disastrous. The part 
of the skull most often bumped is the front, and the part least 
bumped is the side. The front is thick and the side is thin. 
How did these things (even with the processes of evolution 
to help them) come to be? we say unto ourselves. It may be 
difficult to believe in a God, but it is much more difficult to 
believe that these things came to be without a planning mind. 

More effective than such arguments are testimonies. I 
have seen an audience visibly moved when I told how as a 
boy I was sitting in a great Exhibition Hall listening to an 
organ recital. A gale of wind was blowing, and the roof of 
the hall was partly made of thick, dimmed glass. The hall 
was nearly empty. I was urgently and irresistibly moved to 
change my seat, which I did, accompanied by my few boy 
friends. We had no sooner taken our places aimlessly a few 
rows further forward, than a great heavy sheet of glass crashed 
down edgewise 011 the very seat I had vacated. At once I 
recognized God. Can any atheist produce a theory which 
meets the case ? 

Another line of testimony is most useful. I believe in 
God because I am His friend ; I know Him and we love each 
other. If He doesn’t exist, I am living for the wind. This 
testimony if given with fire moves an audience. 

The Decision . I believe that a great deal of effort is 
dissipated by a failure to touch the will of the hearer. He has 
been brought into touch with unusual spiritual themes, which 
have interested and moved him. And he leaves saying, 
“Good doctrine, good doctrine.” The fish has been swim¬ 
ming well within the net, and there seemed no way of getting 
it ashore. The present method of the evangelistic campaigns 
in issuing cards is, I think, on the right lines. The hearer 
is induced thus to make a simple decision towards the truth. 
The personal touch, however, is the main thing. I have 
sometimes been able even at the road-side to have prayer with 
individuals ; but this is usually difficult to manage. To train 
our Chinese brethren in this type of work is perhaps our most 
effectual service. 


224 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


When a listener, who is touched, is told that he ought 
to believe, his invariable reply is either, “Of course I believe,” 
or “How am I to believe?” They want to do something 
tangible. We may be suddenly nonplussed as to what to say 
next. It is as well to have some thought-out plan ready for 
such a situation, which, whilst it may have its limitations, is 
better than no plan at all. I suggest the following : 

1. Are you willing to turn from idolatry to worship the 
true Lord, and are you willing to turn from sin which is His 
enemy ? 

2. Repeat earnestly with closed eyes, after me, this 
prayer: “Heavenly Father, save me, and make me your 
good child.” 

3. Will you promise to learn more about Jesus’ Gospel, 
and enter your name as an inquirer ? 

(The imperfections of this article are partly accounted for 
by its having to be written in the scraps of time seized during 
three days of an itineration, and midnight oil has not been 
lacking. The ideas are offered as practical suggestions to 
less experienced missionaries, drawn from a fairly long and 
varied experience.) 


The Street Chapel 

JAMES STOBIE. 

What it should not be ) and what it may be. 

instead of a k y an Vang ti; where the stove is good and 
the preacher can always spend an hour or two with the door 
open, but he himself safely esconced at the stove with kettle 
and pipe. 

It should not be a place where members and friends 
from the country are always sure of room on the k'ang, and 
a cheap lodging during their visit to town for any reason, and 
where many a difficult business case can be satisfactorily 
settled, and even where at times the Chinese may indulge in 
his favourite pastime of gambling. 


m 


T should not be an “institution” for the housing of 
native workers, members, and their friends; where the 
chapel-keeper, as we say in the north, is a kao k y ang ti 





1917] 


The Street Chapel 


225 


When one has been long enough in the country to find 
that such abuses exist, the shock received tempts one to think 
the chapel method should be abandoned. 

Rather let us see how the chapel can be made what it was 
always intended to be, a centre of light for heralding the 
Gospel, the ever-open door where the seekers after truth cau 
hear “The Truth” proclaimed, and where many a wayside 
hearer may be attracted to come again and be won by the 
Evangel. 

Firstly, it is in my opinon important that the missionary 
take charge of the work himself, and have as helpers a band 
of good workers, his best evangelists. 

Eet us never neglect careful preparation of suitable ad¬ 
dresses and prayer with the workers, and let us do our best 
to make the service, while it lasts, attractive iu the best way. 
The Bible will furnish the best text-book, and the need of 
the sinner the best plea for commending the Gospel to him. 
If any experiences of mine may be of help to other mission¬ 
aries, I shall gladly give them, although I feel they come far 
short of what might be done. 

We, in this town, owe a fresh incentive to street chapel 
preaching to the visit of our chief senior evangelist to the 
Sunday School Conference in Moukden conducted by Mr. 
Tewksbury towards the end of 1915. On his return this 
evangelist conducted a week’s training class for workers, and 
gave us the gist of the instruction received at Moukden. 

The principal poiut emphasized was the need in our work 
for personal dealing. We decided to carry this out specially 
in our street chapel work. It was agreed that no street chapel 
preaching could be considered effective unless an opportunity 
was given to those present to remain for conversation. Some 
of those spoken to were willing to record their names, and 
within a month of this effort being started over a hundred 
names were enrolled. More than half of these were single 
men, with no fixed place of abode, who have since left the 
town and gone to other parts of the country. Of the forty- 
odd names, of whom we still have trace, most of them have 
been receiving instruction in our Sunday school and at the 
usual Sunday service. They have also attended the weekly 
enquirers’ class regularly and a fourth of the number were 
baptized after examination. The workers met daily for 
prayer, Bible study, and hymn practice. The two chapels 


226 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


were opened daily by hymn-singing at the door—this never 
fails to attract a crowd. In the evenings the chapel in the 
most crowded thoroughfare of the city was open for two 
hours, when continuous preachiug went on, with sales of 
Scripture and other literature at the door. Here again we 
had crowded audiences. After preaching we always invited 
those who were willing, to remain, when the helpers dealt with 
them individually, explaining to them further the subject of 
the preacher’s address, and inviting questions. 

To follow up, once a week an enquirers’ class was held 
iu our church premises, to which all who had entered their 
names were personally invited by the workers. This part of 
“the follow-up” is most important and should on no account 
be neglected. 

At the enquirers’ class we adopted the Sunday school 
method—the superintendent giving a short introductory address 
on the lesson for the day. Thereafter the workers each took in 
class three or four of those present for instruction, which lasted 
about half an hour. The text book used was that prepaied by 
Mrs. Seymour ($j g jjjg ^ fig), 72 lessons on the life of Christ. 

We have found this course an admirable one. In addition, 
as a subject prescribed by our Synod for baptism, we have 
used the Chen Tao Wen Ta. A weekly prayer-meeting of all 
the workers at the station was held. Special cases met with at 
the street chapels were reported on and prayed over. This, 
too, is in our opinion of great importance. 

During summer once a week, in the afternoon, one of our 
chapels was opened for women only. The same methods were 
employed, the foreign lady workers, hospital assistants, school 
teachers, and Bible-women taking the place of the evangelists. 
Two of the latter, older men, were however in attendance at 
the door to keep order, and we had no trouble whatever. 

Previous to the service, the workers, native and foreign, 
visited the women in their homes and invited them to come. 
These services were a great success, and we were only sorry 
when the excessively cold short days of winter compelled us 
to give them up. We hope to resume them, and after our 
experiment we believe it is possible to do good and effective 
women’s work in some of our street chapels. We are more 
than ever of opinion that a great door and effectual is opened 
to us along the line of street chapel preaching. Let us avail 
ourselves of the opportunity, hoping for a bountiful harvest. 


1917 ] Student Enquirers and the Church 227 

Student Enquirers and the Church 

ARTHUR RUGH. 


negligible quantity. Now it is different. Investiga¬ 
tions in ten cities reveal the fact that out of several hundred 
Government school students who have expressed their desire to 
join the Church only a small number of them have been 
admitted to the Church. The Church is in such serious need 
of the help of these students that we must learn how, not half, 
but all of these honest enquirers can find their home and field 
for service in the Church. A study of the question results in 
the following recommendations r 

r. That Bible classes for student enquirers he held in 
connection with the Church. 

2. That enquirers’ Bible classes aim not only at conversion 
but at conviction of the place of the Church and the Christian’s 
opportunity in it. 

3. That the requirements for admission to church- 
membership be adapted to the peculiarities of the student 
enquirers. 

4. That in student centers the Church provide pastors 
capable of leading students as a working force in the Church. 

5. That the program of the Church be so framed as to use 
these students as a working force. 

Only a brief summary of the evidence gathered on each 
point will be possible. 

I. BIBLE CLASSES IN CONNECTION WITH THE CHURCH. 

Government students are usually prejudiced against the 
Church especially if it is under foreign rule. Many more 
students can be enrolled in classes not connected with the 
Church, and where students will enrol in non-church classes 
and will not enrol in a church class it is clearly well to enrol 
them wherever they will enrol. But the evidence of ex¬ 
perience is that it is very difficult to land in the Church 
students of classes held in neutral places. There are two 
reasons for this failure. 

First, the Bible classes held iu neutral places have not 
been recognized as belonging to the Church and therefore have 


H -""|ERE is a problem. Time was, not long since, when 
the number of students, exclusive of these in Christian 
schools, who applied for church-membership was a 





228 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


not emphasized sufficiently the Church and the Christian’s 
relation to it. Second, the churches, as a rule, have not had 
the leadership nor the enthusiasm for these men which enabled 
them to assimilate this group. One missionary states the 
problem thus:—“Experience shows that where churches have 
had contact with the students and have called for decisions a 
large percentage yields returns. This is due to the enthusiasm 
with which mission workers go after those who are entirely of 
their own catching. In other words we do not put as much 
effort on names handed over to us as we do on those we get 
ourselves. This is perhaps wrong but it is human nature.” 

The process would seem to be enrol as many students as 
can be successfully taught. Wherever they meet, include in the 
teaching strong emphasis on the Church, and wherever the 
class can be held in connection with a Church which can hold 
and use such a class in the program of the Church then hold 
the class in connection with the Church. 

II. TEACHING CONCERNING THE CHURCH. 

Perhaps one reason for the larger results in church- 
membership from church Bible classes is the natural emphasis 
in these classes of the privileges and duties of church-member¬ 
ship. If Bible classes should aim vigorously, not only at 
conversion but at instruction in the history of the Church and 
its ordinances the path from the class into the Church would 
not be so difficult. 

“In no other religion in China has fealty to a faith 
carried with it the obligation to confess one’s faith before men, 
to associate himself with other believers and in association 
with them do what he may to win other adherents. The 
easiest thing for the student believer is to go no further than 
to admire and in his own way carry out the truths of Chris¬ 
tianity. We must supplement both our message and our 
methods to magnify the Church as well as the doctrines of 
Christianity of which the Church is the guardian.” 

There is much in the sectarian history of the Church 
which it is profitable to forget and the relation of the enquirer 
to the Living Christ must continue to be the central theme of 
the Bible study but clearly an adequate teaching of the glorious 
history of the Church and of the Christian’s duty and privilege 
in that Church needs to be much more emphasized in the Bible 
classes for enquirers. 


1917] 


Student Enquirers and the Church 


229 


III. REQUIREMENTS FOR CHURCH-MEMBERSHIP. 

Repentance and renouncing of sin and simple faith in Christ 
and allegiance to His program on earth are uniform require¬ 
ments of Protestant churches for church-membership and it 
would seem there would not ueed to be difficulty here, but iu 
practice the tests applied for the evidence of this faith and 
allegiance are not uniform and are not in every case conducive 
to a happy entrance into church life. 

Two men apply for church-membership. One uneducated 
laborer has attended church service frequently, has heard others 
answer the questions asked of applicants for church-member¬ 
ship ; he has nothing to lose, all to gain socially as well as 
religiously and really wants to be a Christian. It is fitting 
that he should be tested before admittance, but what shall the 
test be ? The other man, a brilliant scholar in a Government 
college, has searched the Scriptures with keen mind and honest 
heart for two years. He knows Christ’s program and claims 
and, accepting them, is born anew of the Spirit. He knows 
what social prestige he will lose by uniting with the Church 
but the spirit of Christ is in him and he asks for a chance to 
live and serve in the Church for Christ’s sake. It is fitting that 
he should be tested before admittance, but what shall the test 
be and shall it be precisely the same as that of the uneducated 
laborer ? 

Through a hundred years of mission work, mostly with 
the lowly, often suspicioned of desiring foreign favor, certain 
tests for church-membership have become staudard which can 
be improved for the product of a well-taught enquirers’ Bible 
class. There is evidence also here and there in a pastor and 
Church Board of pride in their position and authority which 
confuses the enquirer with non-essential questions. The attitude 
of mind on the part of church officials resulting from a hundred 
years of examining uneducated enquirers sometimes of doubtful 
motive has also become fixed and must be changed radically if 
still more student enquirers are uot to he lost to the Church. 

IV. PASTORS CAPABLE OF LEADING STUDENT MEMBERS. 

Here is the root of the matter. No need to criticize any 
one at this point. Where in most cases there are so few such 
pastors available uo one is to be blamed for not putting such 
men in charge of a church in a student field. But the problem 


230 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


must be stated once again lest we forget. Give us in the 
ministry college graduates who love the common folk and the 
student also and who understand both groups and there is not 
much problem left. The level of preaching in many churches 
is unsuited to the needs of the present student. The remedy 
for this difficulty suggested in mauy places and practised in a 
few is a separate student church which would seem to be a 
doubtful expedient. A church divided on a caste basis can 
not live or grow. As far as preaching is instructional clearly 
it is difficult to preach a sermon suited to both groups but as 
far as preaching is dynamic appealing to the will and calling 
to heroic service rather than to controversy on theological 
problems one sermon will do for all, for the heart and the will 
of the student and of the laborer are reached by the same path. 

The preachers we have will do well to study this rapidly 
growing student group, church bodies may well restudy the 
location of the pastors available, placing student pastors in 
student fields and there is much in favor of extending the 
policy practised in a few places of securing an assistant pastor 
adapted and assigned to the task of reaching the student group. 

V. A CHURCH PROGRAM ADAPTED TO STUDENT MEMBERS. 

The modern Chinese student is more active than medita¬ 
tive, more practical than philosophical, church services and 
prayer-meetings will make their unmeasurable contributions to 
his life but they will not keep him in the Church. 

The tired laborer may find comfort enough in the church 
service to bring him back again and again but the student is not 
looking for comfort but for a crusade. The church that will 
hold him will have correct theology and cultured preaching 
but it will also be a center of heroic activity, a council of war 
from which he may join with others in an attack on the sins 
which threaten his life and his land. Not a few churches fear 
these students as a problem which they feel unable to assimi¬ 
late. When pastors think of these students not as a difficult 
field but as a force to be led in a crusade for righteousness 
many more students will be won and held. 

The pastor who is expecting to hold the average modern 
student in his church by preaching and pastoral calls is 
doomed to certain failure. Tet the pastor lead bis church in a 
campaign for the social, moral, and religious regeneration of 
his city and country, giving the student his fitting place in the 


Aspects of the Christian Message 


231 


1917] 

campaign and preaching as the leader of the campaign and the 
students will devote to the church their unbounded enthusiastic 
loyalty. 

Individualistic and Socialistic Aspects of the 
Christian Message 

J. B. COCHRAN. 

“(tt 1 0W we at ^is ^ me rea ^ ze ^ est * n ^ le 

H social conceptions of missionary method without re- 
laxing our grip on the old individual emphasis?’’ 
—John R. Mott. 

In the first place let us not be alarmed by names. It is 
quite as unreasonable to confine tbe word “socialistic” to the 
most radical form of Markian philosophy and condemn all 
Socialism, as it is to confine the words “Higher Criticism ” to 
“ Destructive Criticism ” aud condemn all “ Higher Criticism.” 

A few years ago any measure of reform proposed could be 
effectually damned if to it could be applied with any show of 
reason the term socialistic, aud our people were wholly blind to 
the fact that in our system of public schools of which we are 
most justly proud a most thorough-going socialism had been 
practised from very early days of our republic in handing over 
to the state the all-important function of educating youth. 

Therefore let us have no quarrel with our brother who 
demands of us that our Gospel message must have a social as 
well as an individual significance until we are quite sure what 
it is that he would have us preach. 

There are four aspects of the Gospel that are included in 
our subject: The Gospel message as it affects the soul aud 
morals of tbe individual; 

The Gospel message as it affects the body of the individual; 

The Gospel message as it affects the soul or morals of men 
as members of society; 

The Gospel message as it affects the external social environ¬ 
ment. 

At times the issue is confused and anything which has to 
do with the health or bodily comfort, anything humanitarian, 
is considered socialistic whether it has to do with man as au in¬ 
dividual or in groups. 





232 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


As we sit quietly and without prejudice of former opinions 
try to determine from the example of our Great Leader in how 
many of the above aspects our Christianity should express itself, 
we see him seated at a well beside the road bringing to the 
parched soul of a sin-sick woman the water of life: again he 
appears on a city street from which all other men have fled in 
fear and heals a leper with his touch: through two long days he 
preaches to the multitude the Fatherhood of God and the 
Brotherhood of man and that the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand, 
and at night feeds them all with loaves and fishes. And so we 
have the authority of his example for all these activities and can 
take part in each, feeling that it is truly Christian. 

But as we take stock of the fewness of our numbers and 
the variety and extent of the activities upon which we have em¬ 
barked we wonder if we are not, perhaps, neglecting the active 
preaching of the Word. Schools and hospitals are a form of 
social activity in which we have taken part from the begin¬ 
ning, followed by famine relief on an extensive scale. We have 
besides asylums for defectives—orphans, lepers, blind, deaf, in¬ 
sane. More recently we have health campaigns, informational 
lectures, institutional churches. Each of these activities takes 
large toll from our workers and our time and increases the 
uneasiness caused by the suspicion that direct evangelism is too 
much neglected. In the most recent estimates of the American 
Presbyterian Mission, North, with its thirty-odd mission stations, 
we find request for eleven new institutional churches, most of 
them to cost $1,000 Mex., and a much larger number of district 
evangelistic centres to be run in a similar way on simpler lines. 
Often these activities are undertaken without a thorough 
counting of the cost or without an adequate plan to insure 
success and some of them are of so new an aspect that they 
must still be considered in the experimental stage on the mission 
field and even the promoter himself may be quite in a fog as 
to his ultimate port. 

A missionary was invited by a New York money magnate, 
president of a large company, to luncheon in the luxurious 
restaurant of the office building. The missionary was at a loss 
to determine the reason for the invitation as the president was 
quick to repudiate before his two directors the imputation that 
he was the member of a certain church. As the conversation 
turned upon the political, economic, social, and commercial life 
of the Chinese, greater and greater interest was aroused, 


1917] 


Aspects of the Christian Message 


233 


Finally the president remarked, “ Well, I am interested in your 
famine relief and hospitals but I can’t stand for your religious 
propaganda.” ‘‘Have you carefully observed the progress of 
our famine relief?” was the reply. “The first year funds 
were secured and money distributed. Many starving people 
were tided over until harvest, but the distribution of money 
without increase of grain caused a rise in the price of foodstuffs 
unfavorable to that part of the community on the verge of 
famine, and made for the dependency of those assisted. With 
the second famine grain was brought in and given instead of 
money and public improvements were inaugurated that the 
famine sufferers might work for what they got. After this it 
was felt to be the part of greater wisdom to remove the cause of 
famine rather than relieve it when upon us, and the American 
Red Cross undertook the survey for the drainage of the Hwai 
basin and the conservancy of flooded land. We are trying to 
go one step further to the root of the matter and remove the 
burden of China’s famines from the conscience of the Western 
world by bringing to Chinese officials and people that feeling of 
responsibility for their fellows which will lead them to care for 
their own relief measures. The means we use is the spreading 
of that religion the principles of which have led you to assert 
that you approve of our famine relief and hospitals.” 

The value, importance, and success of our religious propa¬ 
ganda are so apparent that when a famine comes upon us and we 
recall the dissensions aroused among the Christians, the temp¬ 
tations to dishonesty—not always resisted—for those engaged in 
relief, the six months lost from mission work, the heavy toll in 
the lives and health of valuable workers, who can wonder if 
there is hesitation before entering upon such an undertaking ? 
But as we think of Him who gave Himself without reserve for 
men we do not see how we can follow Him and refuse to feed 
the starving if the means are in our power. 

There is no doubt that the power of God unto salvation is 
in the preaching of the Christ and His sacrifice for men. There 
is equally no doubt that our plain Christian duty calls us away, 
only for a time perhaps, from the witness-bearing of words to 
the witness-bearing of deeds. Life is before us and with a 
careful logic we decide that the best life holds for us is the 
knowledge of and belief in Jesus and the best we can do for the 
race is to impart this knowledge and belief to our fellows. We 
pome with a real zeal for winning men. Impatiently we endure 


234 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


the necessary years oflanguage study and adaptation. We are 
just ready to go out and preach and are given charge of a school. 
Somewhat restlessly even to the end, if our hearts are right, we 
buckle down to routine instruction and steady discipline, finding 
a lertile field for seed planting in the youth within our care and 
just because we are eager to be out ourselves, speaking of our 
Master, we impart in them this great desire and are comforted 
to see our lives multiplied in theirs. 

Or let us consider the effect of the Gospel message of 
individual salvation upon a small community^ The Geng 
village to the west of us is, I presume, typical of many another 
such village throughout the eighteen provinces. Twelve years 
ago it was rather looked down upon by its neighbors. To be 
sure the people were of a sturdy stock but only at irregular 
intervals was a school opened in the village for a year or two and 
closed again, so that only a few of the inhabitants could read 
and fewer still could write. They were much given to litiga¬ 
tion, had a fair number of opium-smokers and a large number 
of constant gamblers, while at the New Year nearly every man 
and many of the women took their turn and tried their 
luck. The village is situated near a small mountain range at 
the intersection of the borders of three magistracies and was 
often disturbed by rough characters. At this time one of the 
prominent men of the village came to Hwaiyuan and had his 
sight largely restored in the hospital. He was impressed by 
the Gospel message and persisted in his study, bringing iu some 
of his nearer relatives. His younger brother had been wasting 
their money in gambling but with an aroused interest in the 
Gospel he gave over the habit and the family fortunes began 
to improve. Another relative had heard of breaking with opium 
in the hospital, made the attempt, and came out freed from that 
slavery. Others seeing the good results entered inquirers’ 
classes with the purpose of breaking with opium or gambling. 
All litigation was discouraged and the leaders in the Christian 
community, being wise and tactful, were soon settling many 
troubles out of court even for their non-Christian neighbors. 
With opium, gambling, and litigation went the poverty of the 
believers, and their good fortune interested others. The stead¬ 
fastness of the individual was supported by the group conscious¬ 
ness and fostered by the weekly meetings together. These 
social advantages all were attained by the constant holding up 
of our Savior as the example and preaching of the duties of 


Aspects of Christian Message 


1917J 


23$ 


the Christian as an individual. With the increase of Christians 
a day-school was established and the graduates, passing through 
our high school, are already going out as day-school teachers in 
neighboring, communities. So the character and reputation 
of our country village have been changed. Opium, of course, 
is done away. There is so little gambling and it is so frowned 
upon that a child must be unusually determined in order to 
acquire the vice. Litigation is considered foolish. The elders 
of neighboring villages are enrolling their names as inquirers 
because they have seen the transformation of a community. 

But now we find that another step forward must be taken. 
Many of them have a very selfish form of Christianity. It 
means money in their pockets. From the beginning they have 
been quite faithful in spreading the message to friends and 
neighbors, but this has been their only form of service. The 
attitude to girls has been changed and this year they are erect¬ 
ing the first school for girls in the country of all this northern 
district. A wonderful step forward for that social order. Still 
this, too, is for their own girls and they need to have the sense 
of what their village can do as a village for that entire region. 
We are pleased therefore to see them interested in a drainage 
scheme which involves three “fang” and to find that the 
starting of the plan in the Geng village inspires the confidence 
of the neighbors. And so, starting with the purpose of bring¬ 
ing the Gospel to these individual men, we find ourselves from 
beginning to end brought to see the constant play between the 
individual and social aspects of the Gospel. The first man is 
reached by the organized effort to relieve the physical suffering 
of the community by opening a hospital. The coining of in¬ 
dividuals to a faith in Christ reforms the village and raises the 
social environment. The improved environment appeals to 
individuals in neighboring villages and they desire as in¬ 
dividuals to follow Christ Opportunity brings responsibility, 
and the village which has come to the fore through the reformed 
life of its individuals must take the lead in improving the 
community, and so we see the interplay of forces. Winning 
individuals forms a Christian community. A Christian com¬ 
munity brings in individuals. Christianity is intensely in¬ 
dividualistic. But the Christian cannot follow the teachings 
of his Master and disregard his social obligations. One cannot 
love one’s neighbor avS oneself and throw refuse over the 
back wall. 


236 


The Chinese Recorder 


t April 


But there is no ground for our anxiety lest we increase so 
much our social service beyond the strength of our missionary 
force that we neglect the preaching of the Word. It is true that 
few have a greater facility for learning the most modern 
methods of church work and community service than our 
Chinese brethren can have, but it is also true that we have a 
freer access to that Christian literature which inspires and helps 
to inspire others. A few years ago I asked a well-known 
Japanese clergyman if it is true that they wish no more Ameri¬ 
can missionaries in Japan ; he replied, “ We want no more pay¬ 
masters but we want inspired preachers of the Gospel of Christ.” 
Jesus worked in turn for man’s body and for his soul, for the in¬ 
dividual and for the multitude. He healed the sick that came 
to Him and when he found no time was left for His teaching He 
commanded the healed not to proclaim the healing. He 
preached to the multitude until they tried to force upon Him a 
kingdom, when He dismissed them and devoted Himself to the 
training of twelve individuals. 

It is the part of those who have the direction of missionary 
activities to see that all is carefully planned, that no part of the 
field is left unnoticed, that in the care for the soul of the in¬ 
dividual his body is not forgotten, and that in the care of his 
body and soul his environment is not forgotten, and that in the 
care for environment the individual is not forgotten. Here, as in 
our own land, the great duty of the church is to inspire Chris¬ 
tians to Christ-like living and here as at home it must be done 
both by teaching and example. Each missionary society must 
consider carefully whether its work is properly balanced to 
reach both the individual and his environment and plan 
accordingly. 

But those plans having been made let us each, no matter 
what may be the activity to which we are assigned, know our 
Master so well that we cannot but love Him and love Him so 
deeply that we cannot but speak of Him; and knowing Him 
and loving Him see men as He saw them. We cannot win men 
unless we care for the men we would win. What is the attitude 
that each individual Christian should take ? 

A Christianity centred in Christ, burning with love and 
the desire to help others to know Him. 

A broad outlook on life which recognizes that Jesus is con¬ 
cerned with the entire man and which encourages every form of 
humanitarian service. 


19 17 ] 


Medical Evangelism 


23 ; 


A wise use of social service to attract non-Christians but 
keeping constantly in mind that the best service we can do a 
man is to bring him to Christ. 

We have a twofold message. 

“What shall it profit a man if he gain the whole world and 
lose his own soul ? 55 

“The Kingdom of God has come nigh unto you.” 


Medical Evangelism 

MRS. C. K. PATTON, M.D. 

0 ^“"HUR theme may be taken to mean either the preaching 
of medicine or the use of medicine in preaching. We 
employ it in both senses. We use the work at Kochow 
merely to illustrate ; this is our apology for the use of 
local coloring. To complete the theme we might add the 
words “by a woman physician ” for we restrict our discussion 
to that sphere. 

The medical work which was opened in Kochow City 
in the year 1909 has been, happily, almost free from either of 
those two classes of problems with one of which almost every 
medical missionary has to deal ; the set of problems on the 
one hand which arise where the medical work is the “door 
opener” in an unfriendly field and ideals and methods of 
work—both evangelistic and professional—*must be molded and 
modified to win an unfriendly people; and on the other 
hand those problems which face the physician who, given a 
work already established along the older lines of missionary 
effort, tries to remodel and develop it on the lines which 
our Medical Association has worked out. The people of 
Kochow welcomed the coming of a foreign physician, for the 
most part had no prejudice against taking foreign medicines, 
and expected, and often reported, miraculous results from the 
medicines and treatments given. There was, of course, the 
danger of a mis-step at the outset and a rather discouraging 
lot of examinations of hopeless and chronic cases resulting in 
disappointment to patients and relatives. But these came 
from an over-confidence in the ability of the physician and 
were an evidence of friendliness rather than the contrary. 
On the other hand no medical work had ever been done in 







238 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 

any of the six districts which comprise the field. The people 
had had very little contact with foreigners and, with the 
exception of some two or three within the Christian body, did 
not expect the free distribution of medicine except to the 
very poor, 

Tims the problem which we met was a more advanced 
one, namely, the adjustment of the medical work and its 
policies to the other work of the station. As is well known, 
when medical work is used largely as a “door opener” the 
methods used are of a temporary nature, to be supplanted 
later by more ideal methods. In our case, there being no 
such necessity, the future could be reckoned on from the 
beginning. 

The field had been developed largely on evangelistic lines, 
and for this reason, and because of our own conviction, an 
effort has been made to make the medical work preeminently 
evangelistic—a part of a complete whole. 

The small building erected for medical work was attached 
to the large institutional church building and was called the 
“ Fuk Yam I Uen.” The term “ Fu Yin T'ang” is uni¬ 
versally known and stands for the Gospel in brief. Thus the 
name, even, links the medical work with the other work of 
the station throughout the field. There was no expectation 
or desire to build up a large hospital or even a large clinic 
clientele as such things go. The modest extent of the work 
has enabled us to, at least, keep ever before us the two ideals 
of good painstaking professional work and thorough evangel¬ 
istic effort, though in both we have fallen far short of the 
ideal. This is not, however, a story of attainment but a 
modest outline of aims, methods, and policy. 

The evangelistic aim is borne in mind in taking the 
history of the patient, and therefore the location of her village in 
respect to one or more of our chapels is ascertained, and she 
is asked if any of her immediate family or any in the village 
in which she lives are Christian. The name of some Chris¬ 
tian friend or relative, written in Chinese character, and the 
name of the chapel with which this Christian is connected 
often proves of great help in keeping in touch with the patients 
and arranging lor their further instruction after they have 
left us. To enable us to get some of these additional details 
and to speak to each patient personally of the Gospel, we find 
it is necessary to devote an average of twenty minutes to each 


MRS. SITES’ TWO-WEEKS BIBLE STUDY CLASSES. FOOCHOW. 






t 9 i 7 l Medical Evangelism 239 

dispensary patient. The fact that the work is limited to 
women and children has kept the numbers attending clinic 
small and made it possible for us to give the necessary time 
to each patient. (I might add that being merely a “married 
woman” of whom little seems expected by the home Board 
and not having a home constituency eager for large statistical 
returns I have not felt the necessity of building up a large 
clientele to justify my existence !) 

Through the registration of the patient we are able to 
disseminate considerable Christian literature. The sheet on 
which we record the patient’s registration number is another 
means of linking up the medical work with the whole work 
of the station. For this we use a tract gotten up by another 
member of the station, called “A Guide for Entering the 
Church.” This sheet, in addition to the Lord’s Prayer, the 
Apostles’ Creed, and the Ten Commandments in abbreviated 
form, gives a short, well-worded explanation of the object of 
our work and the location of each of the chapels in the field. 
Street posters on the prevention of plague and other literature 
of a purely medical nature, prominent among which is the 
tuberculosis calendar, have been used, but these have not 
proven the aid to the evangelistic side of our work that the 
“ Guide ” has. 

As helpers in the evangelistic side of the work, we have 
been training a class of women who are to he neither visiting 
nurses nor Bible-women in the usual seuse of the term, but 
are to combine something of the characteristics of both— 
“Apostles of the Gospel and Hygiene,” if you will allow so 
dignified and comprehensive a name for such a humble output ! 
These women are taught those elementary principles of 
hygiene and the care of children and the home which every 
European or American woman knows by intuition or, at 
least, through experience in her own home as a child. They 
are also taught the early recognition of infectious eye diseases 
and malignant growths. The greater portion of their in¬ 
struction, however, and the stress in their training is laid on 
Bible study and the development of Christian character. 
These women study three months each year and spend nine 
months in work. They are used (a) to get into intimate 
contact with the patients and their relatives who attend the 
clinics, thus forming links which enable them to (b) follow 
up the patients later by visits to their homes and villages, and 


240 


The Chinese Recorder 


(April 


(c) forming in these villages, and with the help of patients 
whose co-operation has been won by former attentions, classes 
for instruction. In such classes the women are taught to read 
Romanized character, are given instruction in the Gospel and 
in the hygienic care of the house and children. 

To enable them to get into close touch with the out¬ 
patients we have at least two of these women students 
present on each dispensing day. After a short service lasting 
about one-half hour, the patients and their relatives are 
divided into two classes and a student is put in charge of each 
group. In one class are grouped those who have come for 
the first time and the instruction given them follows closely 
the outline given in the u Guide to Entering the Church,’ 1 
which the patient will receive when her history is taken. In 
the other group are placed those who are making return visits 
and already have some idea of the purpose of our chapels 
and work. This latter group is taught some lesson from the 
New Testament which we have outlined for the student, have 
helped her develop and heard her go over, point by point, 
on the preceding day. This grouping of the patients is only 
relative, of course. Chinese women do not “stay put” very 
readily and if a chance word from the other group captures 
their attention they immediately wander over to that group. 
The success of the grouping depends largely on the ability of 
the student in charge of the group to hold attention and 
interest. That ability in turn depends on, and comes with, 
experience and training and, still more, on her earnest desire 
to bring the women in her group to a personal belief in the 
Saviour whom she herself trusts and loves. 

The Sunday services also furnish another opportunity for 
contact with the patients. The city address of the patient 
has been obtained in the history. The city is divided into 
sections and a section is assigned to each student. Sunday 
morning the student visits all the present and former patients 
in that section, urging them to attend service, and teaches 
and explains to them the Golden Text of the Sunday 
school lesson. The seating space on the women’s side of 
the church is also divided into sections, each in charge of a 
student, and here she seats the women she has been able 
to gather in, keeping them from talking during the service 
proper aud holding them for Sunday school afterwards if 
possible. . 


191 7] Medical Evangelism 241 

Special occasions, such as weddings and feasts in their 
homes or at their clan halls, give the students a further 
opportunity for impressing Christian teachings on our 
patients. 

But it is the work of these students in distant villages 
during the nine months when they are free from study, that 
has netted most in changing the lives and homes of the 
patients. Often the patient herself cannot give the student 
room in her crowded home, but room is found for her in the 
family of a Christian in the same village. By this work the 
majority of the women who are members of our country 
chapels have been brought iu and the value of the work 
cannot be reckoned wholly by the number of members. Many 
a woman in our six districts whose home, it may be, is too 
far distant for church attendance or whose husband, perhaps, 
will not allow her to join the church, is, each night, opening 
a little the solid wooden shutter which formerly shut up 
completely the window of her sleeping room, is washing her 
children’s hands and the fruit they eat in hot water before 
each meal, and is teaching them before they eat it to recite 
with her the simple little “thanks before food” which these 
women students have taught her. 

Just as in the medical work the evangelistic aim is 
prominent, iu the evangelistic work of the station the medical 
has a place. Each year a Conference is held for all the 
Church officers and Mission employees, a general evangelistic 
rally. Last year we seized this opportunity and gave them 
three talks on medical subjects. The talks on Prevention of 
Infection by Intestinal Parasites and Tuberculosis were well 
received, but the talk on Malaria seemed to arouse the greatest 
enthusiasm. Several would-be druggists and doctors among 
our church officers were greatly interested in the life history 
of the mosquito and in the method of giving quinine based 
upon the development of the malarial organism. The charts 
and posters given in the Journal of this Association some 
months ago and some sent us by physicians in America were 
copied or adapted and used as a medical exhibit. We took as 
our slogan for these talks “Prevention is better than cure.” 
And so thoroughly was the Chinese equivalent of this slogan 
drilled into the minds of our delegates that, much to our 
amazement, it was made a part of the Beuedictiou at the close 
of the Conference! 


M2 


The Chinese Recorder 


[Apt-i 


Among the. problems which came up for solution in this 
virgin field were (i) the medical care of the men who came 
begging for treatment. This problem we talked over with 
church officers from various parts of the field and, by their 
advice and our own inclination, the work was limited to 
women and children. We were brought to this solution of 
the problem (a) because it was in keeping with Chinese 
custom ; ( b ) because of the limitations of the physician’s 
strength ; and, most important of all, (r) because we felt that 
it was only with the women and children we could have that 
close contact which would enable us to accomplish our evangel¬ 
istic aim. 

Another problem was the arrangement of hours. We 
soon found that there was a clash between our preconceived 
notions, gained from hospital experience at home, of strict 
adherence to hours of beginning and closing work and the 
Chinese idea of relating their attendance to the time of eating 
rice or the distance to be travelled. 

We have solved this by conforming as nearly as possible 
to the Chinese custom. Our own hours for eating were 
changed to agree with the Chinese schedule. The forenoon 
dispensary hour differs in mid-winter by more than an hour 
from that of mid-summer. The degree with which the 
heiuousness of the offense of breaking over our fixed hours is 
impressed upon the patient who errs, in spite of these adjust¬ 
ments, depends upon the distance she has had to travel and 
whether she is making a first or return visit. 

A third problem, the most difficult of all, was the matter 
of charges as it affected the evangelistic side of the work. 
We started with the principle that pauperization was a 
hindrance to the making of whole-hearted, faithful Christians. 
Our Chinese advisers could not wholly see with us “eye to 
eye” in this matter. They had the old Buddhistic idea of 
good works as shown in alms to the poor and its power to 
attract adherents. Two or three were bold enough to voice 
the idea that the church members, at least, should have free 
medicines and treatment because we were all “one brother¬ 
hood.” Notwithstanding this we decided not to pauperize 
but to charge as much as the means of the community would 
warrant. We made this decision although we realized that 
it would cut down the number of those who heard the Gospel 
through this evangelizing agency, and we did it because we 


The Post Office as an Evangelistic Agency 


243 


believed that the establishment of the work on right principles 
and the intensive cultivation of a few would do more toward 
realizing the evangelistic aim of our station thau treating large 
numbers without such cultivation. 


The Post Office as an Evangelistic Agency 

JAMES A. HEAL. 

m N these days the thoughts of all men are tinned to military 
affairs and everyone is interested in the composition of 
armies, the duties assigned to each corps, each working 
out its own individual affairs but as part of one great 
whole. All with one purpose in view, interacting and inter¬ 
locking in multitudinous ways, but carrying out the plan of 
the one in comtnaud, working and suffering and hoping for 
the day of the completion of the great task and the glory of 
victory. 

The Christian Church iu all its manifold activities is the 
army of God doing warfare for the souls of men. Evangelistic 
work is one of its many divisions, sub-divided again into many 
regiments. In the homelands it has long been known that 
special classes can best be reached by those who work entirely 
amongst them, making such arrangements as experience shows 
to be best adapted to that class, for instance, Railway Missions, 
Police Missions, Coolies’ Missions, etc. In recent years China 
has inaugurated several up-to-date public services—Railways, 
Police, and what has become the great Postal Service. The 
International Postal Telegraph Christian Association has taken 
for its sphere of work the great army of men engaged iu these 
two services, and as the means of reaching them largely uses 
the Post Office itself. Readers of the Recorder know from 
personal experience of the widespread usefulness of the Chinese 
Postal Service, which is increasing iu number of offices, miles 
covered, and postal packets dealt with year by year. When 
our work began about ten years ago there were only a few over 
1,000 offices throughout the Empire, now there are about teu 
times as many : to be precise, up to October 31st, 1916, there 
were 8,528 offices on the list besides many other local offices iii 
the larger cities. To this number must be added 656 Telegraph 
offices which are under different management. So our 




244 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


“parish” is now 9,184 offices scattered over the length and 
breadth of the land. To almost all we have sent, as soon as pos¬ 
sible after the office has been entered on the official list, a copy 
of the New Testament with a letter asking the men to carefully 
study the important truths therein contained, and offering to 
explain anything they fail to understand if they will write to 
the Association. 

For the last nine years we have also sent out each quarter 
an eight-page evangelistic magazine (bi-lingual > called The 
Gospel Mail , to every office on the list. When first published 
we found 1,500 copies more than sufficient, but this year we are 
printing 9,500 each quarter, which number barely goes round.. 
In response to these we receive many letters all of which are 
answered prayerfully and carefully. Two thousand personal 
letters have been received aud as many sent, practically all 
dealing with the claims of Christ. To our knowledge many 
have become enquirers and some have joined local churches. 
Only a few days ago I received a well-written English letter 
from a clerk with whom I have corresponded for some time, 
asking to be introduced to a mission in the large city to which 
he had been transferred as he wished “to be baptized as early 
as possible so as to be a true follower of Jesus.” 

The work is almost entirely seed-sowing, as indeed almost 
all evangelistic work is. We hear sometimes through fellow- 
missionaries of the influence of the Association upon the men 
in various districts. We urge them wherever possible to attend 
some local place of worship, but in many of the cities and towns 
where post offices are now opened, there are as yet no missions 
at work. We always desire to get them in touch with Chris¬ 
tian workers on the spot, and it would be a very great help if 
missionaries either at their stations or on itinerations would make 
a point of calling at the post aud telegraph offices and have 
friendly talks with the men. Christian literature is regularly 
sent out by post to every post and telegraph office in the 22 
provinces ; how much reaches its destination of course we 
cannot say, but a kindly enquiry occasionally or a few words 
of friendly exhortation might give the needed stimulus to some 
who might otherwise consign it to the wastepaper basket. 

We have a roll of membership for those who desire to ally 
themselves with us, consisting of Prayer Union members (who 
must have already joined a Christian Church), associates (those 
who thus show their desire for Christian influence), and helpers 


1917] 


The Special Week of Evangelism 


245 


(any Christians outside the offices who desire to help on the 
work amongst the men). The chief idea of such a membership 
is that we are thus brought into more personal touch with those 
whose names and addresses we have enrolled and can write to 
them more freely. We should be glad if missionaries who 
come across interesting cases or meet with men to whom a 
personal letter or some of our literature might appeal, or know 
of Christian meu iu the services, would send particulars to the 
Association with names and addresses in Chinese. Also we 
would ask those having charge of schools or colleges from 
which young men leave to take up work in either of the two 
services, to send their names and offices to us and we shall 
endeavour to get iuto touch with them. Or in some of the 
larger cities could not missionaries arrange some kind of Bible 
study class in English or Chinese for these men? If approached 
in a friendly way and the class arranged to suit the hour 
convenient for their duties, I feel sure they would respond. 
This Association would always be glad to hear of such efforts 
and to wish them God-speed. 


The Special Week of Evangelism 

A. L. WARNSHUIS, 

T iHE Special Week of Evangelism has been widely observed. 
Reports are coming in from all the provinces and 
from churches of all denominations. It is still too 
early to attempt to summarize these reports, or to draw 
any conclusions; but the following extracts from report letters 
will suggest the character of the work that has been done and 
also the large results secured where the aim of the Week was 
understood and adequate preparation made. 

In Peking it was decided to hold the meetings separately, 
there being no convenient place for a union meeting. The 
Methodist pastors in the city decided to prepare in the follow¬ 
ing way: 

“ i. That beginning with the first of January all pastors 
should use the same subjects in preaching and that they should be 
with the one idea of arousing the membership to work. 

“2. On the 15th of December, all the nightly Bible classes 
that are held lu the city began the study of the Book of Acts. 




246 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 

“3. In each church a book was provided for those who would 
be willing to do personal work, who were asked to sign their names. 
If they were able to lead group meetings they were to do so; if 
they could talk to individuals they were to do so ; if they could do 
nothing but invite people to come to meetings, they were to do this. 

“4. All those who were willing to do personal work were 
asked to join a personal workers’ class that met once a week for a 
month before the meetings. At least two hundred joined this class. 

“5. The meetiugs were announced every Sunday in each 
church and special prayers were asked for the meetings and special 
prayers were offered. 

“6. A weekly meeting of the pastors was held, to see that the 
details were all worked out in the various churches. It was decided 
to hold two large night meetings and a great number of group 
meetings during the day. From among those who had signed for 
personal work, leaders were assigned to the group meetings. The 
same person was always responsible for the same place. The 
success of the meetings at each place was dependent on the leader, 
and every night in the big meeting the number of people who had 
attended each group meeting was announced, so that the growth of 
these meetings was stimulated. 

“ 7. We planned to get some distinguished leader to come and 
help us, but no one could be obtained, so we were obliged to depend 
upon local talent; that Is, Rev. Tin Fang preached in one place and 
Rev. G. T- Davis in the other. 

“ During the week of special meetings 275 meetings were held; 
some of these were very long and lasted five hours, spread out 
through several rooms. By a fairly careful count there were 33,400 
present at these meetings and 1,487 people expressed a desire to 
become Christians and went forward to the altar or were talked 
with personally. One church with a membership of 180 had 252 
people doing personal work on the last day. Up to the present 369 
people have been found worthy to be taken on probation. 

“ Duriug the week 30,000 pieces of literature were given away. 
We did not have street meetiugs, but depended entirely on the 
group meetiugs. The members went from house to house in¬ 
viting their friends and neighbours. By this means all the people, 
except in a very few cases, were known by the people who invited 
them, and it will be easy to follow them up. 

“The great result was that the members found they could 
really do something , and they are all anxious for a similar meeting 
next year, 

“ In the night services each church was assigned a place in 
the big hall, and when the meeting commenced everyone could tell 
at a glance whether the churches had taken all the space allotted 
to them. In regard to advertising, we had a very capable com¬ 
mittee that worked out a series of postcards and sent them to 
prominent officials and merchants. A great many people whom it 
would have been impossible to visit personally came because of the 
persistence of the cards. One merchant after he had received three 
cards thought it was time to go and see what was wanted of him. 


1917] 


The Special Week of Evangelism 


247 


“ In regard to follow-up work : the group meetings are being 
held once a week ; in addition we have special meetings every 
Saturday night for the new converts and they are divided into 
classes ; the same thing is done on Sunday mornings. Then we 
have several men who are devoting most of their time to calling on 
the new converts, as well as several women. 

44 We face a tremendous difficulty now, which is that our 
church buildings were entirely inadequate before these meetings 
and uow we are simply crowded out of house and home ; every¬ 
thing is full, as we are trying for the next few months to do every¬ 
thing possible to cultivate the new members and train them in 
various classes. 

“ Many of our leading men, like the Director of the Telephone 
Office in the southern city, have been interested but have never 
done any active work; this time the Director was so stirred up 
that he brought about thirty men from his office every night, and 
most of them have decided to become Christians. 

“ Several of our business men gave all their time for the week 
and did not go near their shop or office. But now many of our 
leaders realize that they themselves can win people to Christ. As 
one man said, 1 At last I have reached the point where, if I should 
die to-night, I could go gladly for I have not been idle.’ ” 

Hengchowfu , Hunan , reports large blessings, and has 
demonstrated the results of long, careful preparation as de¬ 
scribed in the following letter : 

“Preparation was begun in October at the station’s annual 
Bible Convention, which is open to all believers from city and 
country fields. Through the representatives present, every one 
of our congregations would learn of the nation-wide movement, 
its purposes, and methods. An outline translation in Chinese, 
with Scripture texts, of 1 Studies for Personal Workers,’ by 
Howard Agnew Johnston, was made available for all who would 
use it, and normal class sessions attended by all the Chinese 
preachers were held. Our twenty Chinese preachers or evangelists 
were strongly urged to teach one lesson every week to their 
people, till the opening of the Special Week. In the city the 
regular mid-week prayer-meeting was made a personal workers’ 
training class for all believers, both men and women. This was 
a union meeting of the two Presbyterian congregations, and for 
the entire fifteen weeks had a splendid attendance. Prayer was 
made an important feature of these meetings. From the end of 
October, every Sabbath sermon was one of a series on the duty 
and privilege of soul-winning. All along it was urged that during 
the Special Week the emphasis should be put on work for 
acquaintances, and work in homes, rather than street work or 
door-to-door visitation. This was not meant to exclude work for 
any non-Christian, but it was felt that the supreme thing was to 
reach those already In touch with the Church or with Christians. 
Hence no territory was assigned to anyone, leaving each free to 
enter the most natural openings. Dong in advance every Chris- 


248 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 

tian was urged to write down a list of persons for whom he 
expected to work during the Special Week, and to be daily- 
praying for them. 

“Some Chinese leaflets received from the Continuation Com¬ 
mittee were printed on a single folder and every Christian supplied 
with one copy for his own personal use. There were three: (i) 
Christianity is God’s plan for reforming the world (with five 
headings); (2) the order of presenting the doctrines of man, God, 
and salvation (with three headings); (3) the exposition of John 
3:16 (under five headings, with their Scripture texts). All were 
urged to master the contents of this folder, especially section III, 
and to use the material in their testimony. This was called ‘The 
Witness Sheet.’ 

“A call was issued for volunteers to open their homes for 
neighborhood prayer-meetings. The meetings were for Christians 
only, and solely for prayer, not even a Scripture lesson or hymn 
being used. Meetings were held at eleven houses, in as many 
sections of the city. They were well attended, the numbers on 
Saturday night being as many or more than on the first night. 
Uniform printed prayer topics were provided for these meetings. 
At the start of the Special Week every Christian who would agree 
to use one, was provided with a card having four topics and 
sufficient blank space for recording: (1) the worker’s name; (2) 
names of persons with whom he worked in their homes; (3) names 
of persons who promised to accept Christ as Saviour; (4) other 
important items. Supplies of the Witness Sheet and Prayer Topics 
were sent to all of the out*stations. 

“ During the Special Week, fifty-seven Christians, not in 
church employ (thirty-nine men, eighteen women), used workers’ 
cards. This is about 74 per cent of the entire baptized member¬ 
ship. The names of 316 persons were entered on their cards. 
There were other Christians who did work but did not hand in 
workers’ cards. Each day during the Special Week a oue-hour 
prayer meeting for Christians was held. Besides prayer, the object 
of this meeting was to report experiences. Both at the beginning 
and the close of this meeting, every day, ‘ Must I go—and empty- 
handed,’ was sung. The only other hymn used in these meetings 
was, * Bringing in the Sheaves.’ These meetings were an effective 
dynamic for the services of the week. There was no other or¬ 
ganization ; each person working where and as opportunity afforded, 
except that they were encouraged to go in pairs. The message 
used has been referred to above. literature was not distributed, 
for a special reason. The aim w’as to throw the responsibility on 
personal testimony. It is so easy to be superficial in literature 
distribution and to shove off on to a tract the responsibility that 
belongs on the lips. So for this Special Week, the temptation was 
avoided. Persons who became interested were later provided with 
literature. 

“Sunday afternoon, February 4th, was held the only meeting 
for non-Christians. It was advertised only by personal invitation, 
and was a ‘ Decision Meeting.’ The attendance must have ex¬ 
ceeded six or seven hundred. Instead of any sermon or talks 


1917] 


The Special Week of Evangelism 


249 


there were simply a number of Chinese testimonies, bow and why 
the speaker believed in Jesus. After these, the appeal was made 
for those ready to confess Jesus as Saviour, to stand up, and also 
to have their names recorded before they left the building. One 
hundred and thirty-seven persons had their names recorded. 

“ Briefly, the immediately apparent results are, deepened 
interest on the part of the Christians, the restoration of some who 
had fallen away, and greatly increased attendance at the regular 
services of the Church. At least nine or ten permanent neighbor¬ 
hood prayer-meetings have been started, which will meet at least 
once a week. The call for them came chiefly from Chinese Chris¬ 
tians themselves. 

“ Continuation work. I think the value of such work de¬ 
pends, to a very large degree, upon the follow-up efforts. If Chris¬ 
tians feel that they are only to exert themselves on special dates, 
it will be disastrous. We are striving to have every convert per¬ 
manently enrolled in each of two classes: (i) regular Sabbath 
school class: (2) mid-week evening Bible study and catechism class. 
Every convert will be put on the list of some Christian, who will 
be expected to visit him in his home at least weekly. The use of 
workers’ cards will be continued, each worker to hand in his card 
at the end of each month.” 

Another letter from the same city says : 

“One of the most notable features has been the prominence 
of the family. It has been touching to see men concerned about 
their wives, their daughters, or daughters-in-law. A large majority 
of our women who are learning to read are being taught by their 
husbands. It has been splendid to see the people working for 
their own brothers and sisters, wives, husbands, parents, and 
children. One member with his wife is rejoicing that all of his 
wife’s sisters and brothers with their husbands or wives, and the 
old mother, are now genuine enquirers.” 

From a Sunning , Kwangtung , report: 

“ A restaurant proprietor in our congregation arranged meet¬ 
ings in his shop, and was gratified to have thirty of his employees 
ask to be admitted to Bible classes ..... The effect on the Church 
has been excellent. New enthusiasn and sense of corporate 
responsibility. Many members did their first bit of public work 
and discovered gifts which they have not supposed they possessed. 
There was a decided deepening of the religious life.” 

From Hongkong: 

4 ‘The zeal and enterprise of our Eon don Missionary Society 
(and I believe also of other) churches were beyond praise. Our 
people entered fully and heartily into the spirit of the movement 
and were carried forward by the impetus imparted by weeks of 
preparation. 

44 Remarkable enthusiasm was stirred up in the churches 
beyond anything that could be recorded in my previous experience 
extending over thirty-seven years.” 



250 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


From Kansu: 

Most of otir members, men and women, took part, the notable 
exceptions being one or two whose spiritual life has been cold for 
some time. Those willing to help were divided into seven bands, 
which after prayer together went off to visit different districts 
of both city and country. We believe that most parts of the 
city have been reached, in many cases by house-to-house visitation. 
We have also visited all the villages within a radius of about 
fifteen li, numbering about sixty, preaching from house to house, 
selling Scripture portions and distributing tracts. Over 1,900 
portions have been sold, and the tracts must number several 
thousand. The weather has been ideally perfect, and the workers 
have shown great keenness.” 

From Tsinan , Shantung: 

“ One of the greatest blessings resulting from the meetings 
was the new inspiration and joy found by the workers in the 
meetings. The work was so different from the lonely work of the 
individual. The foreigners and Cbiuese formed some very fine 
ties of friendship, being together so much in the work.” 

From Hangchow , Chekiang: 

“The men are about fifty per cent of the ones actually 
resident in the field; the women about twelve per cent. Quite a 
few T of our men have their families elsewhere and go home at 
this time of the year. 

“Immediate effects: (1) An awakening on the part of the 
Christians greater than ever before to their personal responsibility 
for the spread of the Gospel. (2) A great joy from consciousness 
of service done. (3) A realization on the part of the evangelists 
of the latent force in a group of ordinary Christians. 

“It has been the most encouraging thing I have encountered 
in the country work in my own field in many years.” 

From Shanghai: 

“The report of the work done in our field during the week of 
evangelistic effort is not complete but it has surprised ns to find 
the number who were willing to accept ‘the challenge of a definite 
task/ and we are making an effort to continue the distribution 
of the leaflets and to systematize the work more fully. 

“During the Week 66 men and 24 women distributed 39,895 
leaflets. 

“Our Presbyterian Cburcli at South Gate reports 25 men and 
41 women having promised to distribute 2,000 leaflets every week 
throughout this year.” 

From Soochow , Kiangsu : 

Tract distribution was arranged for. The first one, a calendar, 
was distributed so that every home received one. In all 50,000 
were distributed, and provided a fine opportunity for personal 
invitation. The city was thoroughly organized for this distribution 
in divisions by churches and then under the leaders and then 
by the Christians themselves. In the midst of the Week a second 


251 


1917] The Special Week of Evangelism 

distribution was made, and now three weeks later we are in the 
midst of the third distribution, making in all 150,000 tracts in the 
city-wide movement. Besides this there was a very marked effort 
to sell Bibles and Bible portions, be groups and individuals, for 
which I have tio statistics.” 

From Changsha , Hunan : 

“Our main purpose was not to get the chance passer-by, but people 
already connected with us through some member or some institution. 

“All classes came to our meetings, from the bottom to the top 
of society. I saw one man there who is a member of one of the 
great families of China. There was a good strong minority, at 
all events, of people of at least some education. 

"As regards our own church, this campaign is the greatest 
thing we have ever seen. The earnest work of at least 40 men, 
besides the great amount of invisible outside canvassing, is far 
beyond anything we have ever bad. It is like a dream come true. 
The very building looks twice as large as before, from the new place 
we feel it bound to take in the neighborhood, and lias already taken. 

* 1 Follow-up Work. We selected Wednesday, February 7th, 
for the first follow-up meetings : men and women to be asked to one 
meeting, but approached by different methods, (a) Men : of the 
674 cards signed in the meetings we took out 61 duplicates; then 
58 signed by women, and threw out two as too incomplete. This 
left 553 men’s addresses. 

“ Wednesday turned out to be about as bad a day as we have 
had all winter. Snow and rain and hail, wet streets and cold, a 
stiff north wind. We had a first meeting at 3 p.m. for those 
outside the city wall (about 80 men) and all the women. We 
were astonished when 36 men and 6 women came. 

“ During the first w’eek after the meeting a total of over 200 
new enquirers have been connected up with church workers. Our 
evangelistic workers plan to call at all addresses where we have 
not yet connected up. So we are not giving up those who have 
not yet come. Bible-women will also follow up the women. 

”1 should have said that we made a house-to-house canvass 
of all near neighbors, with our original invitation tickets. We 
may prove wrong, but we think we have made a new start iti our 
work with the neighborhood, with the real native stock of this 
place, and we hope to be never such strangers with them again.” 

There are some reports which show that the purpose of 
the Special Week was not clearly understood. A spasmodic 
effort to hold special meetings was made without adequate 
preparation and with uo effort to enlist the church-members 
in active service. The results were, of course, disappointing. 
Personal workers cannot be trained in a night, and a strong 
evangelistic movement cannot be arranged in a week. 

Other reports show that the experience of the Week has 
been teaching valuable lessons, as for example, the following 
from Fit chow , Kiangsi: 


252 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


“ As to promoting all-the-year-round evangelism, I feel strongly 
that the first requirement is the development of a deep, genuine 
evangelistic spirit among our workers. With that there must be 
a widening of the general conception of the function of the Church. 
That its mission is to reach and transform the whole life of the 
community, and that this can be accomplished only as Christ gets 
a chance at people where they naturally live, must grip the 
consciousness of all of our workers. The majority of our churches 
seem to run on this program : inquirers study the catechism until 
they can prove themselves ready to join the church on trial; 
probationers study the doctrines of the church and attend services 
till they show themselves fit to join the church ; members come to 
church on Sundays and to prayer meeting once a week, and give to 
all church collections, and refrain from violating the Command¬ 
ments, and from other offences. But the membership has never 
been given anything to do to develop life. The Church isu’t or¬ 
ganized for activity. When we have churches that are at work to 
serve the life of the community we can have enough for our 
Christians to do to keep them from stagnating. The sense of a big 
job on hand is bound to drive a Christian to his knees.” 

From Chang chowfu^ Fukien : 

“At present the real solid work has to be done by the 
preacher and perhaps one or two who are willing to give him 
sane help. Our people have not been trained to take up work 
voluntarily and stick to it. 

“What I feel strongly is, that our one need above all else is a 
real awakening amongst the Christians to a sense of their respon¬ 
sibility for personal work. We want to turn some of the merely 
‘Christians’ into ‘live Christians.’ Many at present are not 
heathen, but yet are not Christian. At least the great facts like 
prayer, Bible study, personal service, mean at present little to 
them. I am convinced that we shall not make any big advance 
{here) till we do more aggressive work amongst the Christians. 
We also want more work done amongst the preachers; I feel 
strongly that at present we miss here the ‘ personal appeal ’ from 
the preachers, in their sermons. I have rarely heard the appeal to 
‘come out on the side of Christ and confess Him.’ The great 
appeal at present is to ‘ study the doctrine ’ : it is the doctrine 
rather than Christ , the Saviour from sin.” 

The deepest impression that remains after reading a large 
number of reports is that the fields in China are “ripe unto 
harvest.” The time has come for a great forward movement 
in evangelism. The church-members are willing and able to 
render effective service, if faithful leadership and helpful 
training be given. “The real secret of getting evangelistic 
efficiency out of the stated life of an ordinary congregation is 
in massing on unconverted neighbors the avowed determination 
of the whole fellowship, pastor and laymen, that they must 
come into the church. “ 


1917] Newspaper Evangelism during the Special Week 


253 


Newspaper Evangelism during the Special Week. 

D. MACGILUVRAY. 


m N Hongkong five papers reproduced special articles. 
In the case of one paper a charge of #32 was made and 
in the case of the others, with the exception of the 
Great Light daily which inserted them free, a small 
charge was made. Approximately 9,000 copies were sent out 
each day, and the churches besides distributed 2,500. The 
articles evoked a lively newspaper discussion of Christianity. 

Moukden, The Tung San Sheng Kung Pao published 
one essay. Its ordinary circulation is 200 copies. There was 
special distribution by Christians. The Hsing Shih Pao with 
ordinary circulation of about 2,000 copies helped splendidly. 
The editor not only published the articles, but appointed a 
Chinese Christian to supply him with special reports from 
all over the province. This is the more remarkable because 
the editor is himself a Mohammedan. Being attacked for 
the course he took, he defended himself in his own columns 
on the ground that Christianity was “a serviceable piece of 
wood to hold up the falling house of China.” The Moukden 
Japanese paper published one essay. The Dairen paper owned 
by Japanese declined the articles. In Moukden a great stir 
was made; the Confucianists opened a campaign of three 
days’ lectures, on the 14th, 15th, and 16th of the first moon, 
copying the Christian advertisement almost word for word. 

Shanghai . Five Shanghai papers published the articles 
free. When some outside places saw this, they changed their 
minds and also published the articles. 

Kirin. One paper inserted the eight articles and charged 
$22, but another inserted the articles free. These two papers 
have a combined circulation of 2,200. 

Hangchow. The editors of two papers agreed to co¬ 
operate, but when our articles appeared in Shanghai papers, 
they did not think well to use them in their own. But they 
are quite willing to publish exclusive articles on Christianity 
once a month. 


Kaifeng , Ho. The three dailies published all the eight 
articles free. The circulation is about 5,000 daily. Tetters of 
appreciation were received from the Military School and two 



254 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


of the papers have expressed their willingness to insert similar 
articles in future. The papers were sent to missionaries in ten 
centres. 

Shaoshing . One of the Shaoshing daily papers published 
the eight articles free of charge, and will welcome similar 
articles in the future. 

Chefoo. Two of the principal papers in Chefoo published 
all the articles free of charge. These papers have a circulation 
of over 2,000 copies. 

Soochow. The chief daily papers of Soocbow were glad 
to publish all the articles. The circulation of the Shanghai 
papers was very large in Soochow also, and so by means of 
these two agencies the articles must have been read by many 
thousands of people. 

Changchow , Ku. The leading daily papers of the city 
published all the special articles and in other ways assisted 
the campaign. 

Reports from all places have not yet arrived, but much 
useful experience for a second effort of this kind has been 
accumulated, and the thanks of the Christian community of 
China are due to the numerous editors and publishers who 
extended to us the courtesy of their columns. 


Obituaries 


Rev. John Wright Davis, D.D., LL.D. 

T 1 HIS missionary evangelist, educator, translator, and writer 
was born at Salisbury, North Carolina, U. S. A., on July 
25th, 1849. He united with his home church at the age 
of seventeen, graduated at Davidson College two years 
later, speut one year in special study at the University of Virginia, 
graduated from the Union Theological Seminary of Virginia, in 1873, 
sailed in September of same year for China, located iu Soochow, 
was married to Miss Alice Schnmeker, December 4th, 1878, mother 
of John and Alice, his surviving children. Mrs. Davis died in 
U. S. A., March 10th, 1906 ; Dr. Davis died February 24th, 1917, 
at Soochow. 

By ancestry, he was American of the Scotch-Irish blend, 
sturdy and intellectually alert, 






THE LATE REV JOHN W. DAVIS, D.D., f.r, D. 



1917] 


Rev. J. W. Davis, D.D., LL.D. 


255 


As a youth, he enjoyed the companionship of serious-minded 
instructors. His college record was brilliant, winning the life¬ 
long confidence of Professor Blake and his wife, who bequeathed 
to his care their savings for founding the Blake Hospital in his 
field. As a student of the Chinese language, he was careful and 
accurate; in dealing with the people he displayed such patience, tact, 
and fairness, that he early secured much needed mission property. 

He first made his mark as a preacher in the days of the 
“street chapel,“ theu, as a translator of the Dialect, became 
much esteemed. His gifts as a teacher emerged in training his 
own helpers and the younger missionaries. The degree of D.D. 
came from his Alma Mater in 1885, DUD. in 1908. While on 
furlough, he taught New Testament Greek in Columbia (S. C.) 
Theological Seminary, returning to China in 1902 to teach in a 
Theological Class at Soochow. This group of Chinese students 
was the nucleus of the Union Theological Seminary founded at 
Nanking, in 1905. Dr. Davis was the senior member of the faculty 
there and Professor of Theology until his resignation in May, 
1911. Returning to Soochow he built a chapel near the North 
Gate (Dzi Men) keeping busy to the limit of his strength, preach¬ 
ing, teaching and in literary work until his death. 

Space limits this sketch to a brief summary of bis life and 
labors. As a Calvinist from conviction more than by inheritance, 
his relentless logic allowed him no compromise with shallow 
thinking or sentimental opportunism. Truth to him was more 
precious tbau apparent success or popular applause. He was 
conservative, not from ignorance or prejudice, but from careful 
investigation and the impregnable assurance of personal experience. 
Duty always found him ready for hard work in the higher offices 
of Church or mission or in the lowliest service to his family, 
fellow missionaries, or the Chinese around him. In the domain 
of thought, he yielded to none ; in the sphere of action, he accepted 
the majority vote for or against him with undisturbed calmness. 
It was his rule to take daily bodily exercise, cultivate his mind, 
and discipline his soul. 

As a preacher, he grasped the fundamentals of faith, expressed 
them in simple language, illustrated vividly and appealed to the 
intelligence of his hearers, high or low. 

He impressed, even when he did not convince, his audience. 
As a teacher, he was painstaking and thoroughly prepared on 
every lesson; he furnished abundant information, but never 
undertook to supply a lack of brains or effort on the part of 
students. As a literary worker, the translation of the Scriptures 
was his most strenuous labor. He did much in Soochow 
Colloquial and some in the Wenli New Testament. 


256 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


He published in Chinese, “The Art oi Preaching Briefly 
Explained,” “Gospel Hymns” with Annotations, a “ Tract on the 
Soul, ” and others. He left MSS. ready for the press—‘ * A Collection 
of Chinese Proverbs ”—and was at work on the History of the 
Mid-China Mission in English. Dr. Davis was also teacher of the 
largest Bible class that assembled annually at Mokanshan during 
the summer months. He was a man that did not “ dabble in 
diversities” but was always ready to do as many different sorts of 
things as he was sure that he could do and do well. 

In the bounds of his own mission, he was strict with himself 
but indulgent to his younger colleagues ,* he could work har¬ 
moniously on committees with men to whose views he was opposed, 
and for policies that he did not approve, provided that the 
mandate came from the majority. In the wider ranges of mission 
work, some thought him narrow and isolated, but those in his 
confidence knew that he had both respect and sympathy for 
consistent members of other denominations with a distaste for 
compromisers of any sort. Even those who differed with him 
loved him, for he was a lovable man. At his funeral, gathered 
many from all quarters to pay a tribute of respect. May his 
memory long abide. 

With tongue, pen, and life, he bore a consistent testimony to 
the Crucified Saviour and has gone to serve the Exalted Christ, 
his only Master. 

W. H. H. 


Rev. Robert Allen Haden 

Born at Keatchie, Louisiana, August 13th, 1865, baptized at 
fourteen, graduated from College 1890, Divinity School, 1891, came 
to China September, 1891, studied Chinese at Soochow and Chin* 
kiaug, was pioneer at Wusih and Kiangyiu. Unusually successful 
in winning and teaching groups of inquirers, a tireless worker and 
explorer of new fields, he founded a number of churches. On 
return voyage to join his family, he was lost at sea on the 17th 
of February in efforts to rescue fellow passengers. 

“ He saved others, himself he could not save.” 



1917] 


Mrs, Alice Carter Gleysteen 


257 


Mrs. Alice Carter Gleysteen 

C. H. FBNN 

The North China Mission of the American Presbyterian 
Church, North, has again been called upon to mourn the loss of 
one of its most valued members, Mrs. Alice Carter Gleysteen, 
who died in Peking, Monday, February 12th. As Miss Alice 
Carter she was born in Montclair, New Jersey, May 21st, 
1875. She came to China in 1903, having been, for mauy 
years, a devoted student of missions, having formed the personal 
acquaintance of many missionaries through the proximity of her 
home in Montclair to New York City, and having taken a special 
interest in China and the great work of evangelizing China’s 
millions. She had been a constant visitor to the office of the 
Foreign Mission Board in quest of the very latest and fullest 
information, both for herself and for the Mission Bands and Study 
Classes for which she was responsible in her home town and church 
and presbytery. On her way to the field she spent some time in 
Korea studying the wonderfully successful missionary policy there 
in vogue. Never has our mission seen a more devoted and faithful 
student of the language, her three years’ course being completed 
promptly within three years of residence in Peking, a rare accom¬ 
plishment. 

Friends she already had among us before her arrival, and most 
successful was she in keeping them and winning more, hike her 
close friend, the late Miss Grace Newton, for whom she so recently 
prepared the beautiful memorial published in the Recorder, she 
had a notable capacity for friendship, and we to whom she most 
revealed it thought ourselves indeed happy. Her abounding hospi¬ 
tality reached beyond the mission to the many strangers within our 
gates, while her gracious motherliness extended its arms beyond her 
own children to the Chinese boys in “ Truth Hall.” In this large 
school tinder the superintendence of Mr. Gleysteen, she also gave 
many hours to teaching, and exhibited her characteristic faithful¬ 
ness aud accuracy in the keeping of accounts, not merely of the 
school’s expenses but also of extensive building operations. 

It was these last qualities, combined with unusual insight into 
human character, ideal relations, and real values, that made Mrs. 
Gleysteen one of the wisest counsellors the mission has ever 
numbered among its members. Whether in statiou or in mission, 
whether in things temporal or things spiritual, she was almost 
invariably right; and many a mission problem has found a happy 
solution in a quiet suggestion from her, while many another 
problem, of a financial nature, has been solved by her generous use 
of private means. 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 


258 


But perhaps the characteristic for which Mrs. Gleysteen will be 
best remembered among us is her beautiful serenity. The annoy¬ 
ance of defective hearing, the care and discipline of children, the 
inevitable irritations of housekeeping and missionary work, the 
endurance of severe pain,—none of these things could seriously 
ruffle the calm serenity of her spirit, the consummate fruit and 
evidence of the faith and love which filled her heart and enabled 
her to “bear all things, believe all things, hope all things, endure 
all things.” She lived the life hid with Christ in God. She bore 
the image of the Master in her face; and in all her ways, as she 
went in and out among us, she adorned the doctrine of our Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Christ. 


Mrs. Tseng Lai-sun 

The oldest and one of the most respected of the Chinese 
Christians, Mrs. Tseng Lai-sun, passed away at her residence, 
ii Boone Road, Shanghai, on January 17th, at the advanced age of 
ninety-two years. Born in Java in 1825, she came, as a young 
girl, under the influence of Miss Aldersay, a devoted English 
missionary working in Surabaya. Desiring to become a Christian, 
she had to face much persecution from her relatives. In 1841 she 
was taken to Batavia, where she was baptized by Dr. Medhurst of 
the London Mission. 

On the opening of the northern ports, Miss Aldersay came to 
Ningpo and started the first girls’ mission boarding school in China. 
The future Mrs. Tseng accompanied her as her first pupil and 
adviser in things Chinese. For seventy-six years Mrs. Tseng lived 
an earnest and consistent Christian life. She devoted much of her 
time to the advancement of the education of Chinese girls, in giving 
help to the needy. She and her husband were among the first 
students to be sent by the Chinese Government to America, and 
subsequently Mr. Tseng became secretary and interpreter to Viceroy 
Li Hung-chang. Two of her daughters were educated in England, 
and afterwards became well-known in Shanghai as Mrs. N. P. 
Anderson and Mrs. Buchanan. Mr. Spencer T. Lai-sun, who died 
recently, was one of her sons. 

The funeral service in the house was conducted by the Rev. 
H. N. Woo, of the American Church Mission, himself eighty-two 
years of age, and a friend for fifty years of the deceased. The cere¬ 
mony at the graveside was conducted by the Rev. C. E. Darwent, 
of the Union Church. Mrs. Tseng Lai-sun had been a member of 
the Church from its earliest days, her name appearing third on 



Our Book Fable 


259 


1917 ] 


the Church roll. The large number of foreign and Chinese friends, 
and the profusion of beautiful wreaths, bore eloquent testimony to 
the great regard in which Mrs. Tseng Lai-suu was held, and Mr. 
Darwent in very appropriate words gave expression to this esteem. 



R3 IS # DU. Kev to the Gospel Narrative by J. P. Norris, D.D formerly 
Archdeacon and Canon of Bristol. Translated into Chinese by Frank 
L . Norris, D.D., Bishop in North China , and John N. Hsu. Published 
by the Church Literature Committee of The Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui 
by the help of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge , London. 
To be obtained from the Bookroom Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui , Peking 
or Hankozv, and from the Bookroom , St. John's University, Shanghai. 
Price jo cts. 

Fifty years ago the original of this book was published in 
English by the father of Bishop Norris who lias now translated 
it into Chinese. 

The opening chapter is a scholarly review of ancient testimony 
to the authenticity of the gospel narratives. Tacitus and Pliny, 
Chrysostom and Justin Martyr are cited to prove the credibility of 
the sacred writings. The second chapter discusses the internal 
character of the gospels and the succeeding chapters are a harmony 
of the gospels in narrative form which makes easy and pleasant 
reading. The third part of the book contains valuable notes on 
several interesting questions arising out of the study of the words 
and works of the Christ, and concludes with a chronological table 
of the events recorded in the four books. 

The translation of the book must have been a labour of love 
to the author. The style is easy Wenli, very lucid atid smooth. 
The book is well printed on white mao-pieu paper and its concise 
statement of the sequence of events in the life of our Lord renders 
it a valuaole possession to any well-read Christian or tboughful 
student of religion. 


J. D. 


Gleanings from Theological Magazines and Literature. By G. G. 

Warren. 

A little while ago a friend who was staying with me for a few 
days left a memento which will indeed make his visit remembered. 
It was a little book as regards size, but it is one of the exemplifica¬ 
tions of the saying that tells of “ valuable goods wrapped in small 
parcels.” 

Prof. H. E. Fosdick’s, “The Meaning of Prayer” is published 
by the Westminster Press, Philadelphia. A short Introduction by 
J. R. Mott, as one would expect, picks out the best thing in the 
book. “ Prof. Fosdick’s treatment of the subject .... show's clear 
recognition of the simple and central fact... .that prayer is something 
the reality and power of which can be verified only by praying.” 
The best thing in this book is that part of it consists of actual 




260 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 

prayers. A reader of the book can hardly help praying these 
prayers. I have a few books of prayers on my shelves; also a few 
about prayer. The advantage of “The Meaning of Prayer” is that 
it combines the two. 

The arrangement of the book is such as to make it a manual 
of Bible study, on very much the same plan as Prof. Hogg's 
“Message of the Kingdom.” There is a daily reading on some 
aspect of prayer for a week ; this always contains a few verses of 
Scripture, a brief (but very helpful) comment, and closes with a 
quoted prayer. Then the readings of the week are the subject of 
longer comment—these weekly summaries occupy nearly half the 
book. This summary is followed by about a page of “Suggestions 
for Thought and Discussion.” The ten topics for the weeks of 
study are The naturalness of prayer ; Prayer as communion with 
God; God’s care for the individual; Prayer and the goodness of 
God; Hindrances and difficulties; Prayer and the reign of law; 
Unanswered prayer; Prayer as dominant desire; Prayer as a battle¬ 
field ; Unselfishness in prayer. 

The turn for epigrammatic writing which Prof. Fosdick has, 
tempts a reviewer to quote, e.g., “Hunger never could have persisted 
without food, nor breathing without air, nor intellectual life 
without truth, nor prayer without God. Burke said that it was 
difficult to press an indictment against a nation. It is far more 
difficult to sustain a charge against all mankind” (p. 13). A 
comment on the reading from the Parable of the Prodigal Son: 
“ Note the change from ‘ Give me ’ to ‘ Make me' ” (p. 24). “ ‘If 

thou knewest the gift of God . . . thou wouldest have asked.' 
(John 4:10)” (p. 67). “We have turned the parables of Jesus in 
the fifteenth chapter of Luke upside down. According to our 
attitude in prayer, the shepherd is lost, and the sheep have gone 
out on the mountainside to hunt for him” (p. 88). “The new 
knowledge of the universe has made their childish thoughts of God 
inadequate, and instead of getting a worthier and larger idea of 
God to meet the need, they give up all vital thought about God 
whatever” (p. 98). 

The prayers quoted are from all ages of the Church, and 
from all types of writers. Some of them are especially beautiful. 
Personally, I could wish that all the prayers had been mellowed 
with age. The modern prayers quoted strike me as more likely to 
fade than to mellow under the changes wrought by time. The 
prayers not quoted are, of course, the vast majority. But I have 
been wondering why no quotation comes from incomparably the 
greatest collection of prayers in Christian Literature: “The 
Book of Common Prayer”; why Trench’s sonnet on prayer should 
be given as a prayer (I cannot manage to pray that) and nothing 
of Chas. Wesley; and above all why there is no mention of the 
prayers that are even more beautiful and more fitting to our needs 
than the collects of the Anglican Prayer Book—the twelve or 
thirteen prayers to be found scattered in the writings of St. Paul. 
The book that has influenced my praying more than any other is 
an exposition of those prayers: “The Prayers of St. Paul,” by 
Dr. W. B. Pope, published by the Wesleyan Methodist Book Room. 
The careful exegesis of every sentence, of almost every word of those 


Our Book Table 


261 


19171 

prayers is couched in language so beautiful that the language of 
the Bible itself, which is frequently quoted makes no break in the 
rhythm. Perhaps my partiality is partly due to the fact that I 
heard some of the expositions from Dr. Pope himself. The 
memory of his lectures is ever fragrant because of the opening 
ceremony. He was always in his chair when we reached the 
class room (which, by the way, had been built originally for the 
College Cbapel). When we had taken our places, he rose and in 
three or four sentences “ collected ” the thoughts he w r as going to 
give us—very often, collected them in the very language of St. 
Paul’s prayers. I have never heard any other man who could pray 
extempore with the brevity and beauty one finds in the collects of 
the Anglican Prayer Book. For many years, I have used some or, 
at times, all of St. Paul’s Prayers daily, for myself, for my family, 
for friends, or for the churches to which I minister. 

“To which end, we also pray that our God may count (us) 
worthy of (our) calling and fulfil every good pleasure of goodness 
and every work of faith with power; that the name of our Eord 
Jesus may be glorified in (us) and (we) in Him, according to the 
grace of our God and the Eord Jesus Christ.” 


Social Evangelism, By Harry F. Ward. (Library of Christian Prog - 
ress.) Missionary Education Movement of the U. S. and Canada. N. Y. 
1915. Pp. 145. On order by the Mission Book Co. $1.20 Mex. 

This is a book that, whether one is interested in social service 
or not, every evangelistic missionary—and all real missionaries are 
that—should read. Its primary emphasis is on evangelism, and 
its absorbing interest lies in the way in which the reader’s idea of 
the meaning of evangelism expands as he reads on through the 
book. Evangelize not only the individual but his environment,— 
for such evangelizing not only makes it easier for the Christians to 
be strong by lessening surrounding temptations and discourage¬ 
ments such as social vice, drink, lack of employment, etc., but 
helps to create a far stronger Christian character in the individual 
Christians. “The man who is made Christian in all his out- 
reachings and then set to work as a transforming social power, is 
a vastly more effective being than the man who becomes Christian 
merely in bis intellectual or emotional life.” 

The message of the book for us in China is even more urgent 
than for the workers at home for whom it was primarily written. 
For here the environment of our Cbristiau communities is not only 
full of the ordinary temptations such as are common in Christian 
lands, but there is the awful and constant downpull into the black 
maelstrom of heathendom. There are the stupid superstitious, 
the fathomless ignorance of all laws of health, the strangling web 
of family relationships, the pitiful poverty, together with the 
increasing growth of threateningly oppressive industrial conditions. 
All these things and many more demand action on the part of 
Christians. The creation of a strong Chinese Church demands the 
complete uplift of the Church’s environment. “ Every evangelistic 
effort,” says Dr. Ward, “should find its climax in calling men to 
dedicate their lives in concrete service to the community, to live 



262 


The Chinese Recorder 


[April 

the life of God among their fellows. It is quite obvious that we 
cannot Christianize men thoroughly unless we Christianize the 
conditions that so largely influence men. We must seek to remove 
the conditions that wreck men, as well as endeavor to reclaim 
them.” 

For the sake of the tremendous need that exists in Chinese 
non-Christian society, and of the tremendous responsibility toward 
that society now lying upon the Chinese Church, every missionary 
should stir up his own soul to face the problem of social 
evangelism. The careful reading of Dr. Ward’s book will help us 
all to answer the questions which such a self-examination will 
raise : "Am I giving social service its proper emphasis ? ” 41 Do 

I appreciate its immensely vital relation to evangelism?” f ‘Do I 
really understand the meaning of evangelism as Christ taught it 
in Matt. 25 :45? ” 

Mrs. Chas. T- Ogievie, 


Correspondence 


The Presbyterian Mission Press 
is desirous of finding the owner 
of a Hammond Typewriter placed 
in its care a few years ago and 
remaining uncalled for. 


KUI/ING SACRED CONCERT. 

To the Editor of 

The Chinese Recorder. 

Dear Sir;—A t the Sacred Con¬ 
cert to be given at Kuling this 
year, Mendelssohn’s “ Elijah” 
will be sung. 

I have received the vocal and 
instrumental scores, and shall be 
glad to forward them to such 
'members of the choir and orchestra 
as purpose rendering help at the 
Coyicert and who wish to begin 
work on their parts. 

I wish to emphasize the rule 
of the Committee that copies 
may only be sent 011 the express 
understanding that in the event 
of the recipient being prevented 
from attending the rehearsals, 
his or her copy be returned for 
the use of some other singer. 
Only by adhering to this rule 


can we ensure having sufficient 
music for the chorus. 

The price is $1.00 for paper 
covers, and $1.30 for stiff boards; 
postage extra. 

Thanking you for kindly in¬ 
serting this notice, 

I am, dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

Wieson H. Geu.BR, 
Hon, Sec., Kuling Musical 
Association, 

Hopeh, March 13th, 1917. 

SEVEN USES OF COMPARATIVE 
REUGION. 

To the Editor of 

The Chinese Recorder. 

Dear Sir : — Test someone 
should think that I am entirely 
opposed to the study of Com¬ 
parative Religion because in the 
last Recorder I wrote about 
the Seven Snares of Comparative 
Religion, I hasten to say that 
there are many students of Com¬ 
parative Religion who do not 
fall into these snares. I can see 





1917) 

that such study has at least 
seven uses : — 

1. It shows that God has not 
left Himself without witness, 
among high or low. 

2. It shows man groping for 
the light. 

3. It shows man is a religious 
animal. He must have a re¬ 
ligion of some sort. 

4. It shows how man has 
erred and sought out may inven¬ 
tions, e.g,, deification of himself. 

5. It tells the story of the 
origin, growth, and development 
of Ethnic Religions, and some¬ 
times shows how they were cor¬ 
rupted or influenced by other 
faiths. 

6. It shows that apart from 
Christianity all other religions 
seek salvation by the works of 
the law. 

7. It shows the infinite superi¬ 
ority of Christianity and the 
uniqueness of Jesus Christ. 

Yours cordially, 

X. 

Shanghai, March 9th, 1917. 


god’s “wirreess” works. 
To the Editor of 

The Chinese Recorder. 

Dear Sir :—In the earlier days of 
my praying parents,the one maga¬ 
zine which they took in regularly 
used to have paragraphs headed: 
“The Providence of God Illus¬ 
trated” or “Vindicated”; the 
paragraphs consisting of per¬ 
sonal testimonies on the subject. 
And in the spring of this year 
(1916) a remarkable incident 
occurred, which may be of great 
encouragement to all readers 
who are learning to form habits 
of intercession. Indeed, after 
all, it is such incidents as these 
that our congregations most 
need, and appreciate, as il¬ 


263 

lustrating any didactic or semi- 
philosophical discourses upon 
the duty and privilege of 
intercessory prayer. 

The reader must pardon all 
personal references, without 
which I could not tell my tale. 

Some seven or eight years ago, 
I paid a visit to Chinkiang, and 
was asked to speak on prayer- 
topics iu the fine Girls’ Boarding 
School there. This was followed 
by a series of letters to the 
school, with an English basis, 
and Chinese comments. And 
later I heard that these letters 
had been copied out, and were 
being circulated among Chinese 
students both in Japan and in 
the United States. This seemed 
to me a call to embody them, 
somewhat trimmed and polished, 
in a little book for intelligent 
young folks in their later teens. 
The result was the little volume 
entitled “Eet us Pray.” 

This rudimentary book called 
for one of deeper thought (as 
some of the reviewers iu Britain, 
India, and the Colonies sug¬ 
gested). And two years later, 
following a serious break-down 
from over-work, an earnest 
Christian friend promised to 
pray each early morn that I 
might be able to write this larger 
treatise. Entirely under the 
prayer-aid of that friend, during 
my months of convalescence, 
there was written, paragraph by 
paragraph, in my one unwearied 
hour before breakfast, the work 
known as “Prayer and the 
Human Problem.” 

The smaller work had fallen 
into the hands of a distinguished 
Irish novelist, son of a noble 
Congregational minister. He 
(Coulson Kernahau) scored its 
pages and made an index, for 
the book had made a great 
difference to him—as he related 
in a letter commending the larger 


Correspondence 



264 


The Chinese Recorder 


work to a foremost firm of British 
publishers. And now there has 
come to hand a remarkably fine 
article ou prayer introduced by 
a barrack-room chat, entitled 
“The Story of a Strange 
Prayer” {Sunday at Home , July 
1916), in which he himself tells 
au almost stranger story as to 
how he came to write it. 

He and I are friends by cor¬ 
respondence, of a very intermit¬ 
tent character. We have only 
met three times in all. But he 
has been on my prayer-list. 

Now, his story is that on a 
certain day of March, he seemed 
almost to hear my voice telling 
him to kneel down and pray ; 
and then write an article on 
prayer. He tells the readers 
that he is sending the article out 
to China, to learn what happened 
there, on that day in March. And 
X have sent him a copious reply. 

To summarize that reply. Two 
years ago there was delivered 
an address in a Killing prayer¬ 
meeting, which was afterwards 
published in the Recorder, 
Shanghai, and in several colon¬ 
ial magazines, in which I urged 
the formation of a world-wide 
Teague of Intercession, with an 
appropriate Prayer Manual, of a 
simpler and more general nature 
than the various denominational 
missionary prayer-manuals, so 
as to enlist and train far more 
than the present ten per cent or 
so of our home congregations in 
the intercessory army of God. 

Nothing definite came of this 
appeal. So an English “ Home 
Prayer Manual” was prepared, 
in consultation with my own 
sons and others. But that little 
work failed to obtain the backing 
of any large organization,—each 
of which, in Britain, had their 
own schemes. 

But in March this year, how¬ 
ever, on the acceptance of a 


[April 

Chinese “ Home Prayer Manual” 
by the North and Central China 
R. T. S., one’s prayers were re¬ 
aroused for the home lauds, that 
someone of light and leading 
would write on prayer in some 
widely -circulating magazine. 

I must coufess that I had not 
my friend, Coulson Kernahan, 
definitely in view. And I am 
rather glad, now, that I had not ,* 
else the incident he relates might 
have been explained away by 
some as an instance of telepathy, 
pure and simple. Whereas, 
what I cannot but feel did really 
happen, was that my fervent 
prayers, offered in general, were, 
by higher hands than mine, 
“ switched ou” (if oue may use 
the expression) to the heart and 
soul of this notable British 
author. And that, doubtless, 
he also will feel to have been 
the case. 

One more instance, this, of the 
glorious fact which God’s inter¬ 
cessors have already learnt (and 
might learn more frequently if 
they were more truly prayerful) 
that God’s “wireless” really 
and truly works. 

Yours truly, 

W. Arthur Cornaby. 

Hankow. 

THE CHINESE “HASTINGS.” 
To the Editor of 

The Chinese Recorder, 

Dear Sir: — I have been 
honored by a request to review 
the Chinese “ Hastings ” in the 
pages of the Recorder. A 
mere glance at the new work with 
its shapely size, clear type, and 
excellent arrangement, shows 
that it is to occupy a position iu 
the library (“book cupboard” 
is perhaps a more correct word) 
of our Christian fellow-workers 
whose only language is Chinese, 


265 


Missionary News 


wn 

that has no parallel on the 
book-shelves of those of us whose 
native language is a Western 
one. 

If I could turn back to the 
happy quiet of the ordinary mis¬ 
sionary's life that I lived amongst 
when I first came to China, I 
think that by another month or 
two I could write such an article 
on the Chinese “ Hastings” as 
the Editorial Board rightly feel 
should be found in the pages 
of the Recorder. With such 
scraps of time as can be grabbed 
for the purposes of serious study 
iu these days, I can only hope 
to write anything worth reading 
if the readers will wait two or, 
better still, three months. 

Meanwhile, of course, all Re- 
CORDER readers will have their 
own copy of the Chinese “ Hast¬ 
ings,” and will see to it that by 
hook or crook all their Chinese 
colleagues engaged in preaching 
shall have their copy. 


Mr. Carnegie has spent, and 
well spent, a good deal of money 
in endowing libraries. Here is 
a chance for men of more moder¬ 
ate means doing a work that is 
literally comparable to endowing 
libraries. For Chinese preachers 
a Chinese “Hastings ” is a 
library. Let no Chinese preacher 
be debarred from the treasures 
of this volume merely on the 
ground of the altogether incon¬ 
siderable price charged for it. 
The price is too high for under¬ 
paid men who find a difficulty in 
providing themselves and their 
families with food and clothing. 
Let missionaries in their annual 
meetings, deacons or stewards in 
their monthly meetings, face the 
question: Are we wisely expend¬ 
ing the funds at our disposal if 
the Chinese preachers find it 
impossible to procure a Chinese 
” Hastings” ? 

Yours truly, 

G. G. Warren. 


Missionary News 


Reports and Minutes 


THE STRUGGLE FOR CONSTITU¬ 
TIONAL religious liberty* 

Since the last meeting of the 
Executive the time of your 
Chinese Secretary has beeu spent 
chiefly in Peking, in connection 
with the work of the Committee 


on Religious Liberty. This 
Committee was formed by reli¬ 
gious leaders of different faiths, 
in the early fall of 1916, and is 
commonly called the “Society 
for Religious Liberty (fH ^ |j| 
^ Acting in accordance 

with the decision of the Execu- 


*The above is a summary of the report presented by Rev. C, Y. Cheng, 
Chinese Secretary of the China Continuation Committee, to the Executive 
Committee of that body, at its meeting on March 1st, 1917. Mr. Cheng 
went to Peking with the permission of the Executive Committee. In their 
judgment, the account he here gives deserves general attention from the 
Christian forces in China. He weut in a private capacity and did not officially 
represent the Continuation Committee. In the opinion of the Committee, 
Mr. Cheng used his opportunity with great tact and skill, and has rendered 
valuable service. Upon hi9 arrival in Peking he was elected the Chairman of 
the Protestant section of the Committee on Religious Liberty. The struggle 
•which this Committee carries on is not ended and its success will require 
wide-spread moral and spiritual support. 


L. H. Roots. 







266 


The Chinese Recorder 


live, as expressed at its thirteenth 
meeting, I left for the north on 
the 25th of November, last year. 
Immediately upon arrival I was 
brought into touch with both 
the work and the workers. 
With your kind permission, I 
shall now report very briefly 
what has been done in Peking 
as I have seen it during the past 
two months or more. 

The proposal to make Confu¬ 
cianism the State Religion of 
China was first presented before 
Parliament in Peking in 1913 by 
the well-known Confucianist, 
Dr. Ch’en Huan-chang ({JjjjSS) 
Dr. Ch’en has for years sought to 
revive Confucianism and make 
it a state religion. A Chinese 
44 Hanlin,” and a graduate from 
Columbia University, from which 
institution he later received the 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 
Dr. Ch’en represents the devout 
and conservative elements in 
China. He has studied both 
Confucianism and Christianity. 
Iu his essay f ‘K’ung Chiao Dun 
(?l Ifr),” Ur. Chen ascribes to 
Confucianism many of the great 
teachings for which Christianity 
stands, such as the fatherhood 
of God, the brotherhood of man, 
equality of men and women, 
universal peace, etc. 

In the autumn of 1913 Dr. 
Ch’en presented a petition to 
Parliament in Peking, in which 
he strongly urged that an article 
making Confucianism the state 
religion of China be inserted in 
the Constitution. At the same 
time a counter-movement was 
organized first by the Protestant 
Christians in Peking, and was 
later joined by representatives of 
other religious bodies. This 
counter - movement declared 
against the making of a state 
religion, and began a vigorous 
fight for religious liberty. 
Both movements received sup¬ 


[ April 

port in Parliament. After two 
or three months of parleying 
between the opposing sides, the 
late President, Yuan Shih-kai, 
issued a statement declaring that 
as China is composed of different 
races and men of different 
religious creeds, Confucianism 
should not be made the national 
religion of China. However, 
this did not decide the issue. 
Some members of Parliament 
endeavoured to satisfy the sup¬ 
porters of both movements by 
introducing into the tentative 
Constitution the sentence which 
is known as the 2nd clause of 
Article XIX, which provides 
that Confucian teaching be made 
the basis of moral instruction in 
all public elementary schools. 
This was a compromise which 
was meant to satisfy both sides, 
and really satisfied neither 1 
When, therefore, the tentative 
Constitution came up last fall 
for re-consideration and adoption 
as the permanent Constitution 
of the Chinese Republic, a 
chance was given for the renewal 
of the old fight. Those who 
believed strongly in the principle 
of religious liberty had an 
opportunity to fight for the 
removal of this objectionable 
clause. Those who wished to 
see Confucianism made the state 
religion of China had also the 
opportunity to fight for the 
insertion of a new article in the 
Constitution. 

The whole issue before Par* 
liament is not as simple as it at 
first appears. A large number 
of very intelligent aud influential 
men, among whom I believe we 
may number the present Presi¬ 
dent himself, would much prefer 
to have the matter of religion 
left out entirely from the Consti¬ 
tution. 

In Article XI of the Constitu¬ 
tion religious liberty is explicitly 


267 


Missionary News 


191 7 ] 

granted to the people. This many 
deem to be sufficient. Other men 
think they see an inconsistency in 
the fact, that while Article XI 
guarantees religious liberty to the 
people, Clause 2 of Article XIX 
makes Confucianism the basis 
of moral instruction in the 
schools. Still others object to 
the insertion of this clause in 
the Constitution purely on edu¬ 
cational grounds. The little 
boys, they say, cannot master 
the classics and at the same 
time be trained in all the subjects 
of modern learning. Besides, if 
Confucianism is made the basis 
of moral instruction in the ele¬ 
mentary schools, it will neces¬ 
sarily mean that the moral 
instruction of the children will 
be limited. All the good teach¬ 
ings which are in other religions 
will be made secondary if not 
left out entirely. So you see 
the whole question becomes a 
very complicated one, and is 
being considered from many 
points of view. 

When I reached Peking the 
Society for Religious Liberty 
was already in existence. It 
included in its membership 
Protestants, Roman Catholics, 
Buddhists, and, later, representa¬ 
tives from the Greek Church, 
Mohammedans, Taoists, and men 
of no religious profession. The 
Protestants and Roman Catholics 
took the leading part in the whole 
movement. The Chairman of the 
Society is Mr. Hsii Ch’ien 
Vice-Minister in the Ministry of 
Justice, a member of the Chung 
Hua Sheng Rung Hui, Peking 
(Church of England Mission). 
A weekly conference was held in 
the Central Park and was attend¬ 
ed generally by about twenty-five 
to thirty persons. Resolutions 
were passed at these meetings 
from time to time,and the minutes 
were printed and circulated. 


A great deal was done by this 
body of men in entertaining and 
interviewing the members of 
Parliament. Over one hundred 
members of Parliament became 
members of this Society. Some 
two hundred other members 
expressed themselves as being 
sympathetic with the work, 
though for various political 
reasons they could not join the 
Society as members. 

For the sake of greater work¬ 
ing convenience and efficiency, 
the Society was divided into 
three sections one Protestant, 
another Roman Catholic, and a 
third consisting of representatives 
of all the other religions. Each 
section works separately and 
has separate meetings. The 
whole Society comes together 
for a weekly conference in the 
Central Park. Here reports are 
heard from each section, and 
future plans and prospects are 
discussed. 

Two audiences were granted 
by President Li Yuau-huug to 
the Society’s representatives. In 
these two interviews the Pres¬ 
ident appeared sympathetic but 
did not commit himself to any 
definite help that he could render. 

Now let me summarize briefly 
the work of the Protestant section 
of the Society. About 50 peti¬ 
tions and over 150 telegraphic 
messages were sent to the two 
Houses of Parliament from the 
Churches throughout China. 
These with one accord pleaded 
for the safeguarding of religious 
liberty and against the estab¬ 
lishment of a state religion. 
Over 40 telegrams, 90 express 
letters, 10,000 circular letters 
and 40,000 copies of printed 
matter were sent from Peking. 
Reports on the progress of the 
work were published from time 
to time. These had a mail 
circulation of from 200 to 300 


268 


The Chinese Recorder 


copies. The eighteenth report 
was the last sent out before my 
leaving Peking. A number of 
articles upholding religious liber¬ 
ty in China were written by 
different members of Parliament. 
These have been sent to various 
parts of China and printed in a 
number of leading newspapers. 
The articles are dispassionate, 
fair, and convincing. 

The movement fortunately has 
not been embarrassed by want 
of funds. Over $700 was con¬ 
tributed to the Protestant section 
alone for its work. The sum of 
$800 was advanced to it by two 
Christian laymen in Peking. Of 
this amount $600 was later 
returned. The part which the 
Peking churches take in the 
work of the Protestant section is 
very large indeed. Each week 
the pastors and leaders meet for 
consultation and discussion. 
Many parts of Shansi, Honan, 
Chihli, Shantung, and Man¬ 
churia have been visited by the 
six leading pastors in Peking. 
The results of these visits were 
most encouraging. These pas¬ 
tors were willing to give up their 
owu local work, each taking a 
province to visit, and as a result 
they did a great work. Besides 
these Peking pastors there were 
four special representatives sent 
to the capital to do whatever 
they could there for the prop¬ 
aganda, Rev. Nieh Cheug-yi 
(31 jSJfe) a,,< * Mr - Ytin-yen, 
Ph.D. from theKiang- 

si churches, Rev. Hwang Sui- 
chiang (=g[ j$), representing 

the Hupeh and Hunan churches, 
and Rev. Yii Shih-lien 
from Shanghai, representing 
many churches in China. 

Throughout the objectives of 
the work have been (1) to arouse 
the Christian churches in China 
and other religious bodies to a 
keen interest and an active co¬ 


[April 

operation in the movement; (2) 
to interview and secure the 
support of all the members of 
Parliameut; (3) to create and 
direct public opinion in support¬ 
ing the principle of religious 
liberty, through personal ap¬ 
peals, public addresses, and the 
daily press. 

Tike most matters of this kiud 
the work of the Society has not 
beeu without its difficulties: 
(1) Not a few of the military 
governors have expressed their 
approval of the movement 
seeking to make Confucianism 
the state religion. They sent a 
number of telegrams to Parlia¬ 
ment, aud as they are the most 
powerful officials iu China to¬ 
day, their interference was a 
very real hindrance to the prog¬ 
ress of our work. (2) The 
militaristic spirit among some 
of the Society’s members created 
difficulties which required 
considerable tact and force 
to control. Some were ready 
and anxious to take up the 
sword against their opponents. 
To fight aud die in a Holy War 
was to some quite justifiable, 
and they called it committing a 
‘ ‘ red sin, not a black one.’ ’ To 
others it w ? as the surest w 7 ay to 
Heaven. It remained for the 
Protestants to restrain their 
fellow members of the Society 
from any rash and unlawful 
action. This they did by openly 
declaring that, should any unlaw¬ 
ful action such as resort to force 
be adopted without consulting 
them beforehand, they would at 
once withdraw from the Society. 

Notwithstanding the fact that 
we had these and other difficul¬ 
ties to face, we received much 
valuable assistance and secured 
many benefits. It was encour¬ 
aging to see the representatives 
of so manj^ different religions 
brought together and working 


269 


Missionary News 


i9t;] 

harmoniously for one and the 
same purpose. That means 
mutual appreciation, better 
understanding, and closer rela¬ 
tionship in the future. Hardly 
anything like this joining of 
hands among religious bodies to 
accomplish some definite end has 
been known in China before. It 
is one of the remarkable results 
of this movement and the sight 
of it has deeply affected the 
Chinese people. A letter of in¬ 
troduction from Bishop Norris to 
Bishop Innocent of the Greek 
Church resulted hi the latter 
through his representative becom¬ 
ing an active member of the 
Society, and iu his sending a 
petition to Parliament in the uarne 
of his Church. 

Especially have the splendid 
activities of the Christians left a 
deep impression on the minds of 
non-Christians hitherto uninter¬ 
ested in Christianity. They have 
seen the churches presenting 
a strong united front against 
what seems to them a real peril, 
no less to the Church thau to the 
nation. The sight of their 
united activities has given these 
outsiders a truer understanding 
of Chinese Christians and the 
Christian Church and we hope 
•will change the thinking of many 
regarding the Christian religion. 

A great deal of helpful pub¬ 
licity was given by the news¬ 
papers to the work. Copies of 
the message sent by the churches 
and other organizations to 
members of Parliament were 
also sent to the Society and 
these were printed and delivered 
to the homes of the legislators, 
as well as to their Parliament 
address, thus ensuring their 
receipt. 

No final action has yet been 
taken by Parliament on Articles 
XI and XIX. The whole question 
of religious liberty is at present 


being considered by the Special 
Committee appointed to draft a 
permanent Constitution by Par¬ 
liament, to which it has been 
referred. The outlook, however, 
seems very hopeful, and a letter 
received recently from Peking 
strengthens this opinion. The 
work of the Society still goes on, 
and the Protestant section is 
ably directed by the pastor of 
the independent Chinese Chris¬ 
tian Church, iu consultation with 
the pastors and leaders of the 
other five churches in Peking. 

C. Y. Cheng. 
Shanghai - , March, 1917. 


FOURTEENTH MEETING OF THE 

EXECUTIVE OF THE CHINA 

CONTINUATION COMMITTEE, 
HELD IN SHANGHAI, 
MARCH IST-2ND 

Bishop Roots, just back from 
furlough, spoke of the growing 
confidence in the work of the 
China Continuation Committee 
amongst supporters of missions in 
America. 

Rev. C. Y. Cheng read an 
extremely interesting report on 
the work done by the Society 
for safeguarding the Religious 
Liberty of the Chinese people. 
(The full report is given else¬ 
where in this issue of the Re¬ 
corder.) 

Iu accordance with recom¬ 
mendations made at the China 
Natioual Missionary Conference 
iu 1913, that means should be 
adopted to develop work for 
Moslems iu China, the China 
Continuation Committee is under- 
taking to further the object of 
Dr. Zwemer’s visit iu such ways 
as it can. 

The Committee discussed the 
larger question as to wbat ar¬ 
rangements can be made for 
inviting distinguished visitors 
from abroad. In Japan this is 



270 


The Chinese Recorder 


being done by the Continuation 
Committee, and it was felt desir¬ 
able to consider how provision 
can best be made for it in China. 
At the present time many valu¬ 
able opportunities for utilizing 
the services of such persons are 
being lost, as no one is under¬ 
taking to keep in touch with 
them. A committee consisting 
of: Mr. D. B. Hoste, Dr. G. H. 
Bondfield, and Mr. David Yui, 
was appointed to consider the 
matter and to report at the next 
meeting. 

The Foreign Secretary report¬ 
ed considerable correspondence 
during the past few months in 
regard to the subject of Mission 
Comity, showing a growing desire 
for some statement on Comity 
similar to the valuable one re¬ 
cently adopted in India. 

Since the last meeting of the 
Executive some progress has 
been made in studying the ques¬ 
tion of the simplified writing of 
the Chinese language, An in¬ 
formal conference on the subject 
was held in Shanghai during 
the latter part of February. The 
meeting was attended by rep¬ 
resentatives of the Kiangsu 
Provincial Educational Associa¬ 
tion, the Commercial Press, the 
Chung Hwa Book Company, and 
by a representative group of 
Chinese Christians and mission¬ 
aries. At this meeting it was 
made clear that the Board of 
Education of the central Govern¬ 
ment is deeply interested in this 
whole subject and that there is 
good reason to hope for Govern¬ 
ment action in the not distant 
future. A fuller report of the 
meeting will appear in the May 
issue of the Recorder. 

Important letters were received 
from the Chairmen of both the 
British and American Sections 
of the Special Committee on 
Literature, of the Continuation 


[April 

Committee of the World’s Mis¬ 
sionary Conference, Edinburgh. 
These show the trend of thought 
at the home base regarding the 
place of Christian literature in 
mission work. The present plan 
is to secure on both sides of the 
Atlantic strong, centralized liter¬ 
ature committees to which funds 
shall be paid by the missionary 
societies and which shall be made 
responsible for the strengthening 
of the work of Christian Litera¬ 
ture in the different mission 
fields. This correspondence re¬ 
quested the advice of the China 
Continuation Committee as to 
some body which could speak on 
behalf of the different agencies 
now engaged in the production 
and circulation of Christian liter¬ 
ature. The matter was referred 
to a committee consisting of: 
Rev. G. A. Clayton, Dr. G. H. 
Bondfield, and Bishop L- H. 
Roots, “ to draft a definite scheme 
for a Christian Literature Com¬ 
mittee or Council,” for report 
at the next meeting of the Ex¬ 
ecutive Committee. 

With regard to the proposed 
Missions’ Building in Shanghai, 
it was; 

Voted that "in accordance with 
the article of the Constitution which 
makes the promotion of co-operation 
and co-ordination among the Chris¬ 
tian forces of China one of the maia 
objects for which the China Continua¬ 
tion Committee was organized, a com¬ 
mittee consisting of : Mr. Lobenstine, 
Dr. Lowrie, Dr. Bondfield, and Bishop 
Lewis, be appointed to consider the 
proposal of the American Presbyte¬ 
rian Mission, as set forth in the 
Minutes of the China Council meeting 
(1916), the size and style of the 
accommodation required, the location 
where such a building could best be 
erected, the probable cost of such a 
site and building, and the best man¬ 
agement of such an institution. The 
committee to have power to add to 
its number. 

It having been found impos¬ 
sible during the past year to 
secure a Chinese Associate Secre- 


Missionary News 


271 


1917 ] 


tary, and it being necessary to 
make arrangements for imme¬ 
diate assistance to Mr. C. Y. 
Cheng as soon as possible, it 
was decided to increase Mr. 
Cheng’s office staff and to give 
up the idea of securing at this 
time an Associate Secretary. 

In order to accommodate the 
Cbiaa Christian Educational 
Association, the date of the 
Annual Meeting, at Hangchow, 
was postponed by one day. It 
will thus begin on the morning 
of April 27th and extend through 
May 2nd. A meeting of the 
Executive will be held in Shang¬ 
hai April 25th. 

The following recommendation 
regarding the growth and impor¬ 
tation of opium in China was 
passed : 

VoTUn that whereas the increas¬ 
ing importation of morphine into 
China constitutes a serious menace 


to the Chinese people, the China 
Continuation Committee join with 
the National Medical Association of 
China and the China Medical Mis¬ 
sionary Association, in calling the 
attention of the Chinese Government 
and of others interested in the wel¬ 
fare of China, to the great danger 
arising from the introduction of this 
drug. 

Votrd further, that the Continua¬ 
tion Committee urge upon the Con¬ 
ference of Missionary Secretaries of 
Great Britain and Ireland, and upon 
the Foreign Missions Conference of 
North America, the importance of 
taking such action as they may deem 
wise in furthering opposition to this 
nefarious traffic. 

Mr. Warnshuis was requested 
to endeavor to secure, while at 
home on furlough, funds for a 
Reference library for the China 
Continuation Committee, as this 
is felt to be necessary. 

E. C. Lobbnstine, 
Secretary. 


News Items 


The cornerstone of a Can¬ 
tonese Union Church was laid 
in Shanghai on the 37th of 
March. 


A piece of land very centrally- 
located, in Chefoo, has been 
purchased recently by the Young 
Men’s Christian Association for 
a building site. 


The Japanese Congregation 
(American Church Mission), 
Hankow, has called an experi¬ 
enced priest who has been work¬ 
ing among the Japanese in Sacra¬ 
mento, California. 

The Swatow Young Men’s 
Christian Association held a 


formal opening of its newly- 
rented headquarters on the 21st 
of February. The membership 
has increased from 31 to 112. 


At a recent meeting of the 
Kwangtung Christian Council 
it was decided to cease being 
merely a “talking body” and 
engage a Chinese Secretary who 
shall give his full time to the 
work of the Council. 


The pupils in more than forty 
of the Primary Schools of the 
American Church Mission took 
the examinations this year as 
provided by the Central China 
Christian Educational Associa- 







272 


The Chinese Recorder 


tion ,* in all 910 were examined, 
669 of whom passed. 

New mission stations have 
been opened recently at Kbits- 
chung, Kwangtung (Amer.Bapt.) 
and at Wangtsai, Kweichow 
(C.I.M.). In Swatow new 
school buildings have been 
opened by the English Presby¬ 
terian Mission. 


A biographical sketch of the 
life of Prof. H. L. Zia is in 
course of preparation, also a 
compilation of bis writings. 
Any helpful information along 
these lines will be gladly wel¬ 
comed by the Editors of the 
Publication Department of the 
National Committee (Y.M.C. A.). 


Boone University, Wuchang, 
has one hundred students this 
term. A special teacher of Chi¬ 
nese Philosophy has been added 
to the staff. At present there 
are forty-five students in the 
College and Divinity School 
(eight men taking the latter 
course), and 278 in Boone Pre¬ 
paratory School. 


The opening of the “ Shepherd 
Dooms ’ ’ Industrial School of 


[April 

the American Church Mission, 
Hankow, has been made possible 
by the return recently of Rev. 
T. P. Maslin. St. John’s English 
School, of this Mission, has 
opened with over a hundred 
boys, many turned away for lack 
of accommodation ; the Boys’ 
Primary School has enrolled 
over sixty boys, the Girls’ 
School has an attendance of 
more than eighty. 


Kaifeug reports that the 
various missions working in the 
city are advancing. It is but a 
few short years since there was 
bitter antagonism to the entry 
of the foreigner and his religion. 
Recently a notable week of 
evangelism has attracted thou¬ 
sands to each of the larger 
mission centres, and Pastor 
Ding Ei-mei has addressed large 
congregations of city people. 
The Young Men’s Christian As¬ 
sociation has a paying and con¬ 
tributing membership of 222 and 
has so appealed to the business 
and official community that a 
fairly large budget has been suc¬ 
cessfully raised locally. These 
facts speak for themselves of a 
larger and nobler life into which 
our good people of Kaifeng are 
being gradually drawn. 


Dates of Important Meetings 


Apr it. : 

Earlj’ April: Shanghai, Executive 
Council of the China Sunday School 
Union. 

4th-28th: Meetings for Women, 
conducted by Miss J. G. Gregg of the 
China Inland Mission, at Meibsien, 
Fengsiangfu, Kienyang, and bung- 
chow, Shensi. 

5th-26th: Shanghai, Asiatic Con¬ 
ference, Seventh-day Advent Mission. 

12th : Shanghai, Forward Evangel¬ 
istic Movement Committee. 


23rd-25th : Shanghai, Biennial Meet¬ 
ing, Advisory Council, China Chris¬ 
tian Educational Association. 

24th : .Shanghai, Special Committees 
on Comity, the Chinese Church, 
Survey anti Occupation, and Theo¬ 
logical Education. 

25th: Shanghai, Executive Com¬ 
mittee of the China Continuation 
Committee. 

27th-May 2nd: Hangchow, Fifth 
Annual Meeting of the China Con¬ 
tinuation Committee. 







1917] 


Personals 


273 


Junk : 

4th-i5th: Wenchow, Special Meet¬ 
ings, China Inland and United Me¬ 
thodist Missions, for Preachers and 
Church leaders. 

25th-July 3rd, Ruling, Young Wom¬ 
en’s Christian Association Conference. 

July : 

Early July : Student Conferences 
(Y. M. C. A.) : 

Wofussu, Chi. Moukden, King. 
Taikuhsien, Sha. Chengtu, Sze. 
Shanghai, Ku. 


July 25th-August8th : Killing, Read¬ 
ers’ Conference re preparation Au¬ 
tumnal Evangelistic Campaign. 


August : 

Rate August: Student Conferences 
(Y. M. C. u.) : 

Foochow, Fu. Amoy, Fu, Canton, 
Tung. Tsinan, Sung. 23rd - 31st: 
Ruling. 

i5th-3oih: Peitaiho, Readers’ Con¬ 
ference re preparation Autumnal 
Evangelistic Campaign. 


Personals 


It is definitely expected that Mr. 
Bachman will reach China in June. 

Prof. R. H. Bailey, Dean of the Agri¬ 
cultural College, Cornell, is spending 
several months in China, devoting 
a part of the time to botanical studies 
in Honan. 

Word is received from Dr, Mott of 
the sudden death on the 17th of 
February, of Arden Eddy, only son of 
Dr. and Mrs. Sherwood Eddy. He 
was stricken with pneumonia while at 
the Hill School. 

Dr. Wm. Adams Brown made an 
extremely interesting report to the 
Union Theological Seminary of his 
recent visit to the Far East. This has 
been printed in pamphlet form and is 
well worth reading. 

Dr. Geo. J. Fisher, head secretary 
for Physical Work (International 
Committee Y.M.C.A.), arrived in 
Yokohoma, March 27th, for an itiner¬ 
ary in Japan, China, and the Philip¬ 
pines, inspecting physical work. 

Rev. W. MacNaughtan.of Moukden, 
will be in Shanghai during the month 
of April, summarizing reports of the 
Week of Evangelism, in the absence 
of Mr. Warnstmis, and preparing the 
annual report of the Forward Evangel¬ 
istic Movement Committee. 

We are informed that Dr. Henry 
Haigh, Secretary of the Wesleyan 
Methodist Missionary Society, is due 
to reach China in June. Dr. Haigh 
will visit the stations of the Wesleyan 
Methodist Mission and will spend a 
part of the summer at Ruling, 


It is expected that President Harada 
of the Doshisha University, Bishop 
Hiraiwa of the Methodist Church in 
Japan, Dr. Wainwright, Galen M. 
Fisher, and Mr. Bowles will represent 
the Japan Continuation Committee at 
the Annual Meeting of the China 
Continuation Committee at Hang¬ 
chow. 

Dr. Edward J. Stuckey of the Union 
Medical College, Peking, has enlisted 
in the Royal Army Medical Corps for 
service as Medical Officer with one of 
the Labour Battalions of Chinese 
coolies now being recruited in North 
China for service behind the British 
lines in France. He has received 
indefinite leave of absence from the 
College. Mrs. Stuckey and the chil¬ 
dren remain in Peking. Altogether 
four members of the London Mis- 
sionar3 r Society have volunteered for 
this service. We are informed that 
thirteen members of the Canadian 
Presbyterian, seven of the English 
Baptist, and one of the Southern 
Methodist, Missions, have volunteered 
for similar service. 

BIRTHS, 

At Chenchow, January 2ist, to Mr. 
and Mrs. P. H. DOWNING, A. P. 
M., twin boys (Philip Kenneth and 
Donald Edward). 

AT Ichowfu, February 1st, to Mr, and 
Mrs. G. F. Browne, A. P. M., a 
daughter. 

AT Chefoo, March nth, to Mr. and 
Mrs. H. F. Smith, A. P. M., a son 
(Stuart Sutherland). 




THE CHINESE 

RECORDER 

3 ffi ft It 

VOL. XJvYIII. MAY, 1917. No. 5 

the CLinet.1* i'oM Oft.ee ** » Newspaper. 


From the Stin>c[ 


VoCdtiuiial I raining 


Attitude* towards Chinese Religions 


Kitchens of Misoonarv Instilutiun^ 


Material Intended for Publication should he addressed, 

“ Editor, Chinese Recorder, 5 ^uiasau Gardens. Shanghai." 

Advertising aud Business Matters should be addressed to 

•• Preshvteriau Mission Press. rS Peking Road. Shanghai." 


Published monthly by the American Presbyterian Mission Press, 
IS Peking Road, Shanghai, China. 

Subscription 54.00 Mexican (Uold $1.00 or S shUlios*) per annum, poerpaia* 













THE CHINESE 

RECORDER 

VOL. XLVIII. MAY, 1917. No. 5 


CONTENTS 

PARE. 

EDITORIAL COMMENT.275 

Russia. —The Orthodox Greek Church.—The Jews.—lndividual Evangelism.— The Chinese 
Church—To Our Subscribers. 

The Promotion of Intercession .280 

CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES: 

From the Sunset . 

Vocational Training . 

Our Attitude Towards Chinese Religions ... 

The Kitchens of Missionary Institutions ... 


OBITUARIES:-Rev. J. M. W. Farnham, D.D. J. W. L. 322 

Miss Annie Simpson, E.B.M. ... .. E. C. S. 324 

Mrs. Gilbert McIntosh. M. M. F. 325 

OUR BOOK TABLE .326 

CORRESPONDENCE .327 


Self-support and Chinese Administration.—Missing Parcels and Magazines.—An Apprecia¬ 
tion and a Suggestion. 


L. Newton Haves. 281 
Miss C. J. Lambert. 292 
Arthur Sowerby. 296 
... Henry FowtER. 313 


MISSIONARY NEWS ...*• ... 33 ° 

Some Extracts from the Report of the "fndo-China Mission of the Christian and Mis¬ 
sionary Alliance.”-Bible Institute, Young Women’s Christian Association.—United 
Methodist Church, Tientsin.—G. Sherwood Eddy’s Visit to China in 1917.—Mis¬ 
sionary Fellowships Offered by Union Theological Seminary, New York City.— 
Evangelistic Campaign in Szechwan.—Peking Union Medical College. 

lux'srRArioNS. 


F-ntrence to Chin Tan Gorge. Upper Yangtse River 
The Late Rev. J. M. W, Farnham. D.D. . 


Frontispiece, 
Page 322 







NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS 


L. Newton Hayes, A.B., M.A., General Secretary of the 
Y. M. C. A. in Cheogtu, Szechwan, is a son of Rev. J. N. 
Hayes, D.D., Soochow, and came to China in 1907. He was 
tutoring in the family of Lord Li for two years, and then took over 
the educational work of the Y. M. C. A. in Tientsin. He went to 
Chengtu in 1915. 

Miss Clara J. Lambert, a member of the Church Missionary 
Society, is Principal of the Girls’ School in Foochow. She writes 
from an experience of twenty-seven years in educational work. 
Her outside activities are numerous, as Secretary of Fukien 
Uniform Examinations, Chairman of Union Kindergarten Board, 
Fukien, Corresponding Member of the Forward Evangelistic 
Committee of the China Continuation Committee, etc. 

Rev. Arthur Sowerby (Order Double Dragou, 2nd Class), 
of the English Baptist Mission, has been in China for thirty-five 
years, engaged in educational and literary work, spending twenty- 
eight years in Taiyuanfu, two years in Hsinchow, aud five years 
iu Tieutsin and Peking. For nearly thirty years he labored in 
pioneer missionary work in Shansi, for over four years he was 
English tutor to President Yuan Shih K’ai’ssons, combined with 
literary work. He is at present engaged only in literary work. 

Henry Fowler, L. R.C.P. and S. (Edinburgh), F. P. & 
S.G., F.S.T.M. & H. (London), of the London Mission, Siaokan, 
Hupeh, writes from an experience of fifteen 3 r ears in medical 
mission and leper work in China and general inspector of L. M. S. 
hospitals. He is a member of the L. M. S. Advisory Council, and 
has been secretary and chairman of various medical conferences 
held in Hankow, Shanghai, etc. 




ENTRANCE TO CHIN TAN GORGE. UPPER YANGTSE RIVER 











274 


The Chinese Recorder 


[Apiil, 1917 


AT Chefoo, March nth, to Rev. and 
Mrs. T. Darlington, C. I. M., a 
daughter (Ruth). 

AT Siaochang, March 23rd, to Rev. 
and Mrs. W. F. Dawson, E. M. S., 
a daughter (Ivy Beamish). 

DEATHS. 

At Wesley Memorial Hospital, Chi¬ 
cago, U. S. A., February 20th, Mrs. 
J. G. Vaughan, M. E. M. 

At Shanghai, March 3rd, Henry 
Benn Stewart (formerly of the 
missionary body), aged 46 years. 
Heart failure. 

AT West Kilbride, Ayrshire, Scot¬ 
land, March ioth, Mrs. Gilbert 
McIntosh, P. N. 

AT Shanghai, March 12th, George 
Albert Gibb, C. I. M., aged 14 
years, from hydrocephalus. 

AT Chowtsun, Shantung, March 12th, 
Miss Annie Simpson, E. B. M., 
aged 57 years. 

At Yungan, February 14th, Evelyn, 
aged 4 y z years, only daughter of 
Dr. and Mrs. W, W. Williams, 
M. E. M. 

AT Eaohokow, March 19th, Miss M. 
Black, C. I. M., from syncope. 

ARRIVALS. 

January 17th, E. H. Carne, C. A. 

January 20th, from TJ.S.A., Rev. and 
Mrs. M. B. Birrel and daughters, 
Mrs. G. B. MinTKR, Rev. and Mrs. 
R. S. Burris and infant daughter, 
Misses N. E. Turley and C. M. 
Garrison, all C. and M. A.; Misses 
F. Edwards and K. Greaves, S. P. G. 

February 14th, from U. S. A., 
Mabel Davis, M. E. M., for Hing- 
hwa; Mr. and Mrs. Paul C, Wiant, 

M, E. M. for Foochow. 

February 17th, from U. S. A., Miss 
E. CORRIHKK, A. P. M., So. 

February 20th, from U. S. A., Rev. 
and Mrs. C. F. Howe and child, 
A. C. M. 

February 21st, from U. S.A., Miss 
Helen H. Fihlden, A. B. F. M. S. 

February 27th, from U. S. A., Rt. 
Rev. and Mrs. L. H. Roots and 
children, Misses L. E. Lbnhart and 

N. G. Johnson, A. C. M.; from 
Canada, Miss E. B. Griffith, C. I. M. 

March iotb, from U. S. A. Miss 
Phyllis Kurtz, A. P. M. 


March 14th, from England, Misses 
Edwards and TreAvus, S, P. G. 

March i8th, from England, Misses 
E. M. Smith, H. E. Farman, and 
H. M. Bond. 

March 19th, from U. S. A., Mr. and 
Mrs. E. H. Munson and children, 
Y. M. C. A.; Mrs. W. B. Hamilton 
and Miss M. E. Hamilton, A. P. M.; 
Miss J. E. M. Eebkus, M. E. M. 

DEPARTURES. 

February 17th, to U. S. A„ Mr. 
C. W. Rankin, M. E. S.; Miss Ma- 
dorah Smith, M. E. M.; Miss M. A. 
Hill, A. C. M.; Dr. and Mrs. J. C. 
Humphreys and children, A. B. F. M. 
S.; Miss Grace Coppock, Y.W.C.A. 

February 18th, to Canada, Mr. and 
Mrs. J. h. McPherson and children, 
Y. M. C. A.; to U. S. A.. Rev. and 
Mrs. H. J. OpEnShaw, Miss Irene 
Chambers, A. B. M. (North). 

February 19th, en route from B. E. 
Africa, Rev. and Mrs. J. R. Buckley, 
P. M.; to U. S. A., Dr. J. C. Humph¬ 
reys and family, A. B. M. (North). 

February 28th, to U. S. A., Dr. 
and Mrs, Wm, Ashmore, Dr. and 
Mrs. C. B. Eksher, Miss M. Sole- 
man, A. B. F. M. S. 

March 1st, to U. S. A,, Dr. and 
Mrs. F. W. Goddard and children, 
A. B. M. (North); Rev. and Mrs. 0 . R. 
Wold, H. S. K. 

March 4th, to U. S. A., Dr. Ethel 
Polk, Miss Birkhead, M. E. S. 

March 9th, Rev. and Mrs. Dowry 
Davis, P. S. 

March loth, to U. S. A., Rev. A. F. 
Groksbeck, D.D., A. B. F. M. S. 

March 17th, to U. S. A., Rev. and 
Mrs. A. E. Warnshuis, C. C. C.; 
Prof. E. C. Jones, Miss Ruth G. 
Brown, M. E. M. ; Mr. and Mrs. 
G. II. Cole and children, Mrs. J. H. 
Dadi.sman and daughter, Y. M. C. A.; 
to Canada, Miss Warren, C, P. 
M.; Miss M. E. Standkn, C. I. M.; to 
England, Rev. E. Walker, A. C. M.; 
Dr. Julia A. Wood, W. U.; Miss 
V. M. Young, S. A. S. 

March 20th, to Europe, Dr. J. B. 
Fearn.M.E. S. 

N. B. Stewart, E. P. M.; 0 . P. J. 
Smith, B. M. S.; Mrs. D. V. Smith, 
Miss M. E. Darsson, M. E. M.; C. W. 
Rankin, M. E. S.; C. W. Scott, 
S. P. G.; A. G. Shorrock, B. M. S. 
(No date given.) 


THE CHINESE RECORDER 


Published Monthly at the American Presbyterian Mission Press, 
18 Peking Road, Shanghai, China 


Editorial Board. 


Editor - in - chief : Rev. Frank Rawlinson, (On furlough.) 


Associate Editors 


Rev. W. Hopkyn Rees, d.d. 
Rev. G. F. Fitch, d.d. 


Rcv.RobertC.Beebe,m.d. Rev.OX. KrLBORN, m.d.. Rt.Rev.F.L.N orris, d.d. 
Rev. Ernest Box. Rev. E. C. Lobknstink. Rev. O. Schultzk. 

Rev. G. A. Clayton. Mr.G ilbert McIntosh. Rev. A. H Smith, d.d. 

Rev. J. C. Gibson, d.d. Rev. G. H. McNeur. Miss Laura M. White. 


VOL. XLVIll MAY, 1917 


NO. 5 


Editorial 

■Russia When 120,000,000 people throw off their bonds and 
join the family of democracies, there is cause for 
jubilation to the world’s ends. The Revolution in Russia 
promises to be as epoch-making as the French Revolution. The 
world-war added the last spike to the coffin of autocracy. A 
few years ago exeunt the Manchus, and now the Romanoffs. 
A Russian writer spoke of throwing a torch far into neighbouring 
nations, but perhaps China's torch landed in the midst of 
Russia herself. To some it may seem as if “the sun had fallen 
out of the sky,” but as in the days of ancient Rome we seem to 
hear “the plunging of the nations in the night.” Then the 
Northern Tribes were pushed forward by mysterious forces, but 
uow we see Christianity in the fullness of time producing this 
which we now see and hear. It is the slow but never-ceasing 
impact of eternal truth. 


Gbe ®rtboboy ©teefc 
Cburcb. 


* * * 

In the midst of the tossing waves of agita¬ 
tion has stood the Orthodox Greek Church, 
never changing since the last of the Seven 
Ecumenical Councils, taking no part in the life of the nation save 
as ministrant at the altars and persecutor of heretics. She was 
careless of the progress of science and theology, and as complete 
a specimen of arrested development as China herself before 
1912. Will she still continue with the old cerements about 







276 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


her and care for none of those tilings now going on around her? 
The temporal and spiritual powers were intertwined, like the 
elm and the vine in ancient Italy. When the elm is cut down, 
what will be the fate of the vine? Death, unless there be a 
resurrection. Let us pray for it. It is surely not impossible. 
In any event the old power to persecute Jews or Christians is 
gone for ever, and it may be that other forces long repressed 
may gather strength and we may see the Reformation of the 
16th century, which never touched Russia, repeated amongst 
her millions in the 20th century. What possibilities if Russia 
should come to the help of the Lord against the mighty on the 
mission fields of the world ! An eleventh hour worker she may 
be, but there are last that shall be first! 

* * * 

And in this connection we might ask, And what 
ttbe Jews. Q f t j ie j ews ? There are said to be over six millions 
of them in Russia. Two hundred thousand of them were 
recently deported, carried away into exile under most trying 
circumstances, young and old, men and women, and left almost 
helpless and hopeless ill a far away strange laud. Their suffer¬ 
ings were intense and many have perished. Notwithstanding 
all this the Jew clings with a wonderful tenacity to Russia. 
Three hundred and fifty thousand of them are in the Russian 
army, Russian Jew fighting with intense hatred his brother 
Jew in the German army. Hundreds of them have received the 
coveted award for bravery, that of St. George’s Cross. 
Probably half a million of them are fighting in the armies of 
the warring nations. A recent booklet, written by a Christian 
Jew, an editor of some note and pastor of a Jewish Christian 
church, has for its frontispiece a picture representing an aged 
Jew holding a terrestrial globe in his hands and searching the 
world round to see if there is a place where he might be 
welcome, but exclaiming, “A great universe, but no place 
for me.” And yet they fill some of the most important 
positions, both in government and finance in the world to-day. 
The recent American Ambassador to Constantinople, who for 
a while was entrusted with the interests of eleven nations, and 
who exhibited extraordinary wisdom and ability, was a Jew, 
but one who offered to contribute, personally, one million 
dollars gold to help save the Armenian Christians from the 
hands of the cruel Turks. 


1917J 


Editorial 


277 


The Jewish colonies in Palestine, upon which the hopes 
of so many of the Jews had been centered, have been practically 
erased from existence. The work of years of patient labor and 
the gifts of numberless Jews from all over the world in the 
endeavor to rehabilitate the Holy Laud, have all been swept 
away as in a night. Not yet has been fulfilled the prophecy 
of Isaiah : “ Behold, I will bring them from the north country, 
and gather them from the ends of the earth. ... He that 
scattered Israel will gather him, as a shepherd doth his flock.” 
It can only be when Jehovah leads them. Shall we not unite 
with the Psalmist: “Oh pray for the peace of Jerusalem. 
They shall prosper that love thee.” 

* * * 

. The reports of the Evangelistic Week 

Vndfrtdual Evanaeltem. , . .. 

are demonstrating the power that lies 

dormant in very ordinary church-members. Some of the best 
evangelistic meetings ever held iu some churches had not a 
single speaker or leader of distinction. Little groups of men and 
women visited their friends or relatives or acquaintainces bring¬ 
ing to them the gospel message. With hearts already touched 
they gathered iu large numbers to hear evangelistic appeals in 
the evenings. The warmth of the whole body of workers 
glowed through the meetings and acted as a contagion of 
love and good fellowship, thus opening the way for a revelation 
of the Redeemer’s love. Some places were almost swamped 
with new enquirers. 

The reaction on the church-members themselves has been 
most marked. They have tasted the joys of soul winning and 
been uplifted by success. There is now no difficulty in such 
places in organizing individual workers’ bands. Bible classes 
and meetings for prayer have received new stimulus. 

None of the great world movements have spread by other 
than individual work. Christianity had its great leaders but it 
spread by individual influence. Socialism at present does not 
depend for its growth on great speakers but on talks at meal 
hours and on the road home from work. 

Another remarkable discovery has beeu that students, 
officials, and gentry can be reached by others than men of note. 
Iu one place the missionaries and Chinese leaders in preparing 
for meetings invited the officials and gentry and merchant 
guilds to tea in small groups. They responded heartily to the 


278 


The Chinese Recorder 


{May 

good fellowship, and were willing to preside at the meetings. 
The military lent the musical bauds to brighten the proceed¬ 
ings ; and altogether, with the resources at hand, great meet¬ 
ings were held which roused up the whole neighbourhood. 
The speaking was thoroughy prepared for, and given with 
fire. 

* * * 

The Chinese Church has certain problems in 
Cb (Jburcb eSe w kieh finality has not yet been reached. One 

of these is apparently how to deal with polyg¬ 
amist converts. The practice of missions in China is by no 
means uniform, and the Chinese when left to themselves are 
rather apt to take the easy way and under certain conditions 
permit or condone the practice. The Catholic Church is very 
clear on the point, and in its Year Book just published calls 
attention to the wobbling of the Kiangsu Federation on this 
question. It is not within our province to dogmatize where 
churches differ, but one longs to see the Chinese Church place 
herself so fully under the Divine Spirit that one may cease to 
fear for her purity. 

The matter of ancestor worship which is causa causans of 
polygamy appeared to have been decisively settled at the 
conference of 1890, but we hear that recently a paper on the 
subject was read by a Chinese who evidently favoured a 
different view from that of the foreign missionaries who 
assembled in 1890. The cult of the dead is treated in the 
Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics under 25 heads for as 
many peoples. Iu this connection a study of ancestor worship 
amongst the Japanese and more especially the attitude of the 
Christian Church there to the practice is of paramount interest 
to the Church in China. Shinto appears in its earliest begin¬ 
nings to have been nature worship with ancestor worship 
subordinate. But real aucestor worship became firmly 
established after the introduction of Chinese literature and 
civilization. Now-a-days the Japanese Government pronounces 
the Shinto rites to the dead to be civil and not religious, but 
no one can be deceived by such declarations. The number of 
Christians in public life is now so great that they find them¬ 
selves in a dilemma. It may well be that similar temptations 
will come to Christian public men in China and the spirit of 
compromise must be zealously guarded against. The Church 


1917] 


Editorial 


279 


in the early Roman Empire had to fight with the same cult. 
Her method was one of compromise. The worship of martyrs 
and saints was offered as a substitute, with results known to all. 
There are even signs that the Chinese Church is paying more 
attention to its God’s acre, so as to remove the reproach that 
it has gone to the opposite extreme. Thus the Christians of 
Hangchow not only celebrated Easter by a united choral 
service, but 011 the Tuesday following made a Pilgrimage to 
the Emperor’s Island in the West Lake where appropriate 
services were held in the open air. All such plans are worthy 
of the widest imitation. 

* * * 

On account of the rise in the price of paper, as 

Subscribers muc ^ as 100 P er cent > au( ^ notwithstanding the 

fact that the price of subscription has been raised 
from $3.50 to $4.00 per annum, the Recorder was run at a 
loss last year, and the proposed budget for the current year 
promises a further loss. Accordingly we should like to have a 
frank chat with our readers. The Recorder has no subsidy 
or reserve funds to fall back upon, but is run entirely on the 
“self-supporting” basis, of which we hear so much in these 
days. The Editors and Editorial Board serve voluntarily, 
without any charge on the funds of the magazine. There are 
three ways in which the loss may be obviated:—(1) The price of 
subscription could be raised. This, however, might result in 
a falling off of subscribers, and so entail, not a gain, but a 
further loss. (2) The number of pages might be reduced. 
This we do not like to contemplate as the size of the magazine 
is no larger at present than it should be, it baviug already been 
reduced four pages from its size last year. A third method 
remains, that of a hearty and persistent effort on the part of our 
subscribers, each and every one, to increase our subscription 
list. A goodly number of new subscribers would turn the 
deficit into a surplus, which would be used solely to make the 
magazine more helpful and attractive. May we bespeak the 
hearty co-operation of all our supporters in searching out the 
non-subscribers in their region and getting them, if possible, 
to send in their names and the money ? With a long pull and 
a strong pull and a pull all together, we shall be able to pass 
peacefully through these troublous rimes. Let each one do his 
part. 


280 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May, <917 


Gbe promotion of Jntercessfon 

FROM THE FIRST HAY THAT THOU DIDST SET THINE HEART TO UNDERSTAND, 

AND TO CHASTEN THYSET.F BEFORE THY GOD, THY WORDS WERE HEARD, 

Dan. x:i2. 

“The Christian’s God desires the welfare of all men everywhere; His 
love is boundless in extent and individual in application ; His purpose of good 
sweeps through creation, comprehending every child of His and laboring for 
a transformed society on earth and in the heavens. Nothing that we ever 
dreamed of good for any man or for the race has touched the garment’s hem 
of the good which He purposes and toward which He works. . , . 

“Every dim and flickering desire our hearts ever have known for man¬ 
kind's good has been lighted at the central fire of His eternal passion for the 
salvation of His children. 

“The title of Dr. Mott’s address, 4 Intercession—the Primary Need,' is 
clearly a statement of fact. God wants men to lay hold on Him in inward 
prayer, aligning their dominant desires with His, until their intercession 
becomes the effective ally of His will. As in an irrigation system, with its 
many reticulated channels, the sluice gate would not plead with the reservoir 
to remember its forgotten power of doing good, but rather, feeling the urge of 
the ready water, would desire to be opened, that through it the waiting stream 
might find an entrance into all the fields and the will of the reservoir be done 
—so men should pray to God." 

Fosdick. 

“The knowledge that his friends are praying for him is one of the finest 
and most empowering influences that can surround any man. For Peter to 
know that his Master was interceding for him was in itself what a source of 
sustenance and strength ! They say that Duther, when he felt particularly 
strong, would exclaim, 4 1 feel as if I were being prayed for.’ Melanchthon 
here is typical, rejoicing over his accidental discovery that children were 
prayiug for the Reformation, Paul writes, 4 Brethren, pray for us,’ (I Thess. 
y.25) ; 4 ye also helping together on our behalf by your supplication ' (II Cor. 
1:11); 4 1 beseech you, brethren, that ye strive together in your prayers to God 
for me * (Rom. xvijo).” 

Fosdick:. 

“ I waut to bring you a new spelling of the word ask, that is given to us 
by our Dord Jesus Christ. The new spelling is T-A-K-E. 

44 God came down Himself in the person of His Son. He was given 
mastery of the earth. 4 All things have been delivered unto Me, of My 
Father.' He was the new Master, Yet He could hold His mastery only by 
obedience. And He obeyed, even unto death, aye the death of the Cross. 
And the title to the earth was confirmed to Him when He returned to His 
Father's presence. It was given to Him by the Father ; it was held by Him 
through His obedience. And now He gives us the right to His victory—to 
take what rightly belongs to us.” 


Condensed from S. D. Gordon, 


Contributed Articles 


From the Sunset 

L. NEWTON HAYES 


the close of day. But I have been even more fully 
entranced by the speculation as to what lies beyond the setting 
sun than by the lavish display of the sunset itself. I wanted 
to go into the West and see for myself, and thus the upper 
waters of the Yangtze, the distant province of Szechwan, and 
the mountains of Thibet came to possess for me a mystic and 
powerful charm. 

The absence on furlough of a fellow secretary from bis 
post in Cbengtu gave me my long-desired opportunity. On 
the 27th of October, 1915, I left Ichang—one thousand miles 
from the mouth of the Yangtze River—and started on a little 
steamer through the famous gorges which form the adamantine 
gateway to the West. I had always heard that the gorges near 
Ichang were beautiful, but I found them more than that. 
They are grand, awe-inspiring, sublime. I have been privileged 
to see a great deal of the beautiful in nature, but I have seen 
nothing to equal what I saw during the twenty-four hours of 
travel up the tortuous and dangerous channel of the mad- 
whirling Yangtze where it carves its way through the Ichang 
mountains. All the marvellous beauties which have appealed 
to me in the scenery of Japan, Hawaii, the Rockies, the 
Catskills, and the Pocano and Blue Ridge mountains thrown 
into one great valley would uot equal the display which I 
witnessed in those two days. 

Immediately after leaving Ichang, I found that the course 
of the river leads through several huge canyons where the 
cliffs rise almost perpendicularly from the water’s edge, some¬ 
times to the height of three, four, and five hundred feet, while 
the higher mountains, a little distance back (that effectively 
hemmed us in from the outside world), reach, in some cases, 


E VER since I can remember, sunsets have had a fascination 
for me. I have always appreciated those marvellous 
color effects that one frequently enjoys in the Orient at 


Noth.— Readers of the Recorder are reminded that the Editorial Board 
assumes no responsibility for the views expressed by the writers of articles 
published in these pages. 






282 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 

altitudes of 2,500 and 3,000 feet. These lofty peaks assume the 
shape of great turrets, towers, and cathedrals and are painted in 
some of the loveliest shades of yellow and gray and are outlined 
in as many tints of green. In these giant abysses one feels a 
distinct sense of awe and of insignificance as one appreciates 
in a new way the majesty of seemingly infinite proportions ; 
rocky walls which appear to touch the sky above—and 
unfathomed depths beneath. 

Throughout the extent of the gorges we found the moun¬ 
taineers living in picturesque dwellings which not merely 
suggested the chalets of Switzerland, but seemed to be those 
quaint structures themselves transplanted to these wonderful 
mountain sides. The projecting roofs, the little windows, the 
quaint balconies, and the eyrie location of these buildings gave 
many valleys the only touch necessary to remind one of the 
Alps. Successively, as our staunch little steamer puffed up 
the rapid current, there opened to us on either side glimpses 
of broad valleys or steep-sided canyons which led back into the 
higher reaches rich in picturesque suggestiveness. 

One of the most charming sights was the frequent vision 
of waterfalls which burst into view below lofty peaks or down 
at the water’s edge. Some of these were as unique as they 
were beautiful. In one valley I counted as many as twenty 
successive descents in one series of falls, over a depth of 
perhaps three hundred feet. Wherever these falls were seen, 
whether bubbling as cascades from under great ledges of 
limestone, or appearing as slender ribbons of water high over 
some cliff, they were invariably the center of charm of some 
most fasciuating view. I11 a number of cases we were close 
enough to the banks and the falls to recoguize the delicate fern 
foliage near the rushing waters to be that of the elusive 
maiden hair. 

One of the richest charms of the gorges lies in the luxu¬ 
riance of the foliage. Coniferous as well as deciduous trees 
and shrubs grow in rich abundance. Long graceful bamboo 
plumes blend in color with the tropical green of fruit-laden 
orange and lemon trees, adding beauty to the scene. 

I believe if I was impressed by any one thing more than 
by another, next to the marvellous grandeur of the scenery, it 
was by its splendid variety. There was not a moment of 
monotony in all the two days. Even the geological contour 
and the rock formations with their constantly varying types 


1917] 


From the Sunset 


283 


were in themselves quite sufficient to interest the most 
indifferent observer. Almost every unusual form of mountain 
structure with which I am familiar, including the fantastic 
buttes of Montana, the cathedral spires of Colorado and the 
castellated peaks of Nevada, found its correspondent here. 
In variety of formation, great granite precipices gave way to 
sandstone ledges, limestone cliffs, and shale embankments, and 
between these characteristic formations were a hundred and 
one varieties of aqueous and igneous types. 

The color effects of the canyons made impressions which 
will always remain. From earliest morning hours, when the 
mountain mists were just rising clear of the highest peaks 
until evening when the sunset fires threw their last reflections 
far into the gathering shadows of the mighty gorges, the views 
which presented themselves were such as could only inspire 
the deepest appreciation of every soul on board. Grand, 
glorious, and sublime are words which for me will ever in the 
future have a new significance since my trip through the 
wonderful Yangtze gorges. 

After emerging from the Titanic Chasm the river’s course 
led us through a great valley whose sides are less precipitous 
and farther removed from the water’s edge. While the 
landscape was less grand and inspiring it was full of interest 
and constantly challenged the attention of all on board. 

Every five or six hours of travel brought us to some 
dangerous rapid in the river which could tell the tale of a 
toll of hundreds, and doubtless of thousands of craft crushed 
in Its cruel, rocky jaws, and probably an equal number of lives 
swallowed up beneath the terrible whirlpools and the boiling 
caldrons of foam that have for centuries lured on the brave 
little craft aud their freight to destruction. I speak of the 
craft that ply this portion of the river as little. They seem 
small down upou the surface of the river, at the bottom of the 
great gorges. They seem like specks in comparison with the 
height of the lofty banks of the river, but in fact they average 
about seventy feet in length and carry from thirty to forty 
coolies, who man the powerful sweeps or laboriously tow the 
heavy boats by means of bamboo hawsers half a mile or more 
in length. 

Our party was fortuuate at the rapids. We had no 
accident, but at one point we narrowly escaped disaster. I 
wish I had space to tell in detail of the throbbing engine, 


284 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


working at capacity pressure with long sheets of flame pouring 
from the funnel, of the yelling natives along the shore, of the 
frightened passengers and of the excited captain and pilot who 
realized at the crest of the worst rapid that we were face to 
face with death in the conflict of steam against current. 

For fifteen minutes we were held in suspense, and it 
seemed as if the rocks below were hungrily awaiting our 
failure to make the ascent. Finally a steel hawser from the 
shore lauded on our prow and, with the aid of a powerful 
steam winch up forward, we were painfully drawn up into the 
quieter waters above. It is needless to say that all oil board 
experienced a feeling of relief on knowing that we were once 
more in a zone of safety. It is estimated that one in every ten 
boats that attempt to navigate these rapids meets its doom 
upon the rocks. A knowledge of these figures made my relief 
the more intense when I realized that we had cheated the 
rocks of another victim. 

The upper waters of the Yangtze are so treacherous that 
boats never travel after dark but anchor at sunset in the back 
waters of some quiet beud. The last night that we spent on 
the river brought real excitement. I stood at dusk near the 
captain on the little bridge, and, just after the steamer had 
been securely fastened for the night, a man sprang over the rail 
and excitedly whispered to the captain that a band of two 
thousand robbers was encamped near a little village two and 
one-half miles back from the opposite bank. The news spread 
like wildfire among the passengers and soon all was excitement. 
Few ate supper that night. If the robbers should come to 
know that we were anchored at that spot they would surely 
visit us. So everyone took from trunks and suitcases and 
parcels their possessions which they considered of the most 
value and hid these in places about the cabins where they 
thought the robbers would be the least likely to look, thus 
hoping, in the event of attack, to save something. Meanwhile 
the captain ordered the engine fires to be banked and the 
engineers to be ready to start on five minutes’ notice. The 
crew was divided so that there would be four men on watch all 
through the night—two in front and two at the stern. The 
three foreign passengers decided to help watch. We tossed a 
coin to decide the hours of our individual vigils. To my lot 
fell the hours from twelve to three—the period in which the 
captain said that we would be attacked, if at all. That was 


From the Sunset 


285 


1917J 


the tensest night that I have spent in many a month. I shall 
never forget how I walked up and down the narrow deck space 
on the starboard side of the boat—the side towards the open 
river—with my eyes fastened oil the dark waters and the 
darker outlines of the shore beyond. Four times during my 
watch we were startled by rifle shots that echoed ominously 
from the distant banks. Believing that these were fired by the 
approaching robbers, the sailors on guard roused the rest of the 
crew and most of the passengers, but each time the excitement 
died down into silence. 

I shall not soon forget the relief experienced when, at one 
o’clock, the moon began to break clear of the low bank of 
clouds and we had light sufficient to distinguish the rocks out 
in the river. From time to time lights appeared along the 
shore and lanterns flickered among the rocks and trees upon 
the opposite bank, but I saw no robber-laden boats push off 
into the current. The barking of dogs and the call of night 
birds could be heard away in the distance, and above all the 
other sounds came the dull roar of the rapids that churned 
ceaselessly a hundred yards or more below our anchorage. 
At three o’clock I called the third foreigner and turned in. 
When I awoke at nine the next morning the sun was shining 
brightly and we were well on our way again, out of the district 
which was being terrorized by the robber baud. 

At Chungking, where we left the steamer and the river, 
I rested a day and prepared for the overland journey. I bought 
a sedan chair and hired coolies to take me and my goods to the 
capital, four hundred miles away across the mountains and 
plains. Two foreign missionaries, who live in Chengtu, were 
in Chungking about to make their homeward journey. This 
was fortunate for me for they invited me to accompany them. 
A ten days’ trip alone in the heart of China—or rather on its 
farthest frontier—is not a pleasant prospect. My friends had 
planned a slightly longer journey back to the capital, over a 
less-travelled course, which led through the chief salt-producing 
district of the West. I was glad to have the chance to 
accompany them and to be able to see this unique industry at 
its best. It appears that there are iu certain parts of the 
province strata of rock salt from one to three thousand feet 
beneath the surface of the earth. In some of these districts 
the salt is in solution and huge bamboo buckets one hundred 
feet long and six inches in diameter (with valves at the 


286 The Chinese Recorder [May 

lower ends) are lowered to the bottom of deep wells and 
when filled with brine are laboriously drawn to the surface. 
The fluid is emptied, the water evaporated, and the salt is then 
purified for use. The ropes which are attached to the buckets 
are made of shredded bamboo and are drawn up by means of 
great windlasses twenty-five feet in diameter. These are turned 
by from four to six water buffaloes who are kept going round 
aud round at the maximum of their speed. I timed several of 
these windlasses in operation aud found that it required twenty 
minutes to haul up the precious fluid from its distant source. 

The overlaud journey from Chungking to Chengtu was 
made in my sedan chair carried by three bearers. We travelled 
from sunrise till dark, covering each day about thirty miles. 
Each uight we stopped iu a strongly walled city for protection. 
The road, for the most part, was paved with flagstones from 
three to five feet wide. The country along the highway was 
thickly populated aud the great road was under constant use. 
I judge that we passed, on an average, fully five thousand 
people every day. 

The variety of scenery and crops, and their difference 
from what one sees in East and North China, were very 
interesting to me. I was particularly impressed by the great 
orange groves on every side heavily loaded with their golden 
fruit. The mountain districts through which we passed were 
fascinating because of the wonderful rice field terraces. These 
rise in Szechwan step on step to marvellous heights, each one 
fed with water from the one the next higher up. The sugar¬ 
cane districts were interesting because of the huge area covered 
by the crop. We came through that country just as the cane 
was being harvested and hauled to the presses where it was 
crushed and the juice boiled into sugar. From one point in a 
large valley we counted the smoke of fifteen sugar mills which 
were working overtime, crushing the cane aud boiling down 
the juice into rich brown sugar. 

Next to the denseness of the population, 1 was most 
impressed by the self-sufficiency of the province, as 1 travelled 
into its very heart. Were Szechwan completely isolated from 
the rest of the world, she could subsist for ages, for all the 
necessities required for uormal existence are found iu great 
abundance within her borders. Salt aud sugar and coal, cotton 
and furs and meats, grains, vegetables, aud fruits abound in 
large variety. I am told that Szechwan has the richest 


I9i7j 


From the Sunset 


287 


farmland in the world aud that seven crops a year are produced 
from the soil in certain parts of the province. 

Chengtu, the capital of Szechwan, I found to be even 
more interesting aud attractive than I had anticipated. Its 
wall is of the conventional Chinese type, some thirty-five feet 
in height. Like Peking, it encloses a Tartar City and ail 
Imperial City. Chengtu has a population of about half a 
million. The city appealed strongly to me from the moment 
I entered its walls on account of its clean, wide streets, its 
air of industry, its intelligent population, and its evident 
prosperity. 

From time to time since reaching Chengtu, I have jotted 
down various things which have impressed a new arrival as of 
special interest. I shall record some of these here, and, 
as the list is rather long, I shall somewhat abbreviate my 
descriptions. 

I was very much surprised to find every third or fourth 
man whom I passed in the street wearing a turban similar to 
those worn in India. The only difference between the two 
types is that in Szechwan the crown of the head is left 
exposed. The colors of these articles of head-gear are about 
equally divided between blue and black and white. This 
head-dress was especially interesting to me since I have rarely 
observed it in any other part of the country. 

I have seen very little cigarette-smoking in Chengtu. 
The natives use a strong black Chinese tobacco, loosely rolled 
up into the shape of a cigar, four inches in length. This 
crude cigar is smoked in the bowl of a bamboo pipe, varying 
from one to five feet in length. The appearance of the 
combination to a new-comer is most amusing. I find, how¬ 
ever, that one gets accustomed to the sight of them, as one 
can get used to almost anything in the world, if be sees it 
often enough. 

Smoke-selling is a common business here. I suppose that 
there are literally hundreds of men and boys in this city who 
make their living in this way. These “sellers” carry about 
the streets long-stemmed brass water-pipes and make a 
business of letting other men enjoy their tobacco. They 
walk along the streets until they find a man who looks 
“hungry ” for a smoke. Without ceremony the stem is stuck 
into his mouth, and while the “victim” puffs away, the 
smoke-seller tends the furnace and stokes in the tobacco. 


288 


fne Chinese Recorder 


[May 


When the man attacked has had enough and has paid his 
fine, the carrier of the pipe goes on his way in search of 
further victims. 

Horses, here, are very small. The average animal one 
sees is no larger than the average donkey elsewhere. Moukeys 
and parrots are very common pets, the reason for this fact 
being the proximity of Chengtu to the native habitat of these 
jungle creatures. 

The fur markets of the city are rich with the skius of 
wild animals. Each day, as I go to my office, I pass many 
hundreds of valuable furs drying in the sun, undergoing the 
last stage of the tanning process. The most common among 
the skins are those of the leopard, fox, wolf, bear, monkey, and 
otter. The other day 1 counted seventeen lovely leopard skins 
dangling iu a row along the front of a dirty little shop. These 
furs are brought down from the big mountains which lie just 
west of Chengtu—the foot-hills of the Himalayas, On clear, 
summer days it is possible to see the tops of snow-clad moun¬ 
tains which rise to heights of 20,000 feet and over. 

Chengtu is the terminus of numerous caravan routes 
leading to the distant west, and here are to be found ear- 
avanseries which are the havens of rest for tired travellers from 
as far away as North India, Nepal, and Eastern Turkestan. 
When Marco Polo came to China from Venice, eight hundred 
years ago, he entered the country at Chengtu. In coming 
from Italy, he travelled over one of these long routes. I 
visited one of the caravanseries the other day and found there 
men who had been travelling day after day for three and four 
months over the wild, rugged passes of the Thibetan frontier. 
Until I saw these men, I thought that I had come a long, 
long way westward (and I often almost shudder when I realize 
that I am 1,400 miles from the nearest railroad), but these 
men’s experience of the still more distant West makes me feel 
that I have only just started on my journey toward the 
setting sun. 

The citizens of Chengtu have always been progressive. 
This, coupled with the fact that this is the chief civil and 
commercial city of the West, has been the reason for placing 
here some plants such as are found in only a few other parts 
of the country. Chengtu boasts a mint, an arsenal, a powder 
factory, an electric light plant, and a telephone system. An 
efficient post office and a fairly satisfactory telegraph adiniuis- 


From the Sunset 


289 


1917 ] 

tration connect us with the outside world. We have a 
Governor who is interested in aeronautics, and when he came 
to Chengtu seven months ago, he brought with him three 
biplanes of the latest type. It is surely a welcome, though an 
incongruous, sight to see one of these new birds of the sky 
soaring over this ancient city. With all that Chengtu has to 
show of what we call progress we miss that greatest of friends 
of civilization, the railroad. What would it not mean to this 
land of the West if there were only a railroad to the coast! 
The matter of time and of danger would be virtually 
eliminated, and, instead of taking his life in his hands and 
occupying three weeks in making the trip to Shanghai, a 
man could make it iti comfort and in safety in less than 
three days. 

In spite of Chengtu’s apparent economic progress, it seems 
to me that I have seen more of superstition and of idolatry 
here than anywhere else in China. At dusk, as I pass along 
the streets, I see burning before the doors of the majority of 
homes and shops two candles and a bunch of incense sticks as 
au evening offering of worship. I have found chicken’s blood 
used sacrificially as I have not observed it employed elsewhere. 
When a new shop is opened, and at feasts and lucky days, a 
chicken is killed and its blood is sprinkled on the signboard of 
the store and good luck is thus “ insured.” 

The streets of Cheugtu are wide and clean in comparison 
with those of other Chiuese cities and yet their width would 
not permit of the use of carriages or, to any practical extent, 
of jinricshas. The ordinary method of conveyance is the 
sedan chair, and I suppose that ten to twelve thousand of these 
are daily in use in the city. The ordinary sedan chairs have 
straight bamboo poles, but officials and men of wealth travel 
in chairs whose carrier-poles curve upward in the middle. 
These are so highly elevated that the passenger sits on a seat 
which is higher than the heads of the people who are on foot 
in the streets around him. 

The people of Chengtu are not entirely commercial and 
have not forgotten the aesthetic in life for they have placed 
many hundreds of beautiful wisteria arbors over the streets. 
These are to be found in some of the very busiest parts 
of the city. 

A unique institution, peculiar, I believe, to Cheugtu, is 
what is known as a “Night Bazaar.” Just before dusk each 


290 


l he Chinese Recorder 


[May 

evening some five hundred curio-sellers take their places out 
on the sidewalks of one of the main streets, and in the 
gathering twilight, and under the flickering beams of hundreds 
of little lights display their wares to a crowded thoroughfare. 
It is a picturesque sight, and one never to be forgotten. 

Another Cheugtu institution, and a most delightful one, 
is an annual spring flower fair. The products of hundreds of 
nurserymen and florists are gathered for exhibition and sale on 
the grounds of an ancient temple just outside the city walls. 
The display is beautiful and literally tens of thousands of 
people pour out daily to see the sight of China’s choicest 
flowers ranging from the butterfly orchid brought from 
Western jungles to the snow-white camelia, the highest 
development of the tea plant, which did so much to make 
China kuown to the outer world. Szechwan seems to be the 
California of China in more ways than one. It at least 
deserves that title because it is literally China’s land of flowers. 
Nowhere else have I observed such a profusion and variety of 
flowers and nowhere have I seen such a love of them among 
the Chinese as is shown here in Chengtu. 

Before I conclude I want to say something about the 
work of the Chengtu Y. M. C. A. which I came up to help 
for one year in the absence of one of its foreign secretaries. 
The work of our organization is planned along Hues similar 
to those of our work in America. For the present we have 
to content ourselves with a scattered, Chinese, one-story 
building, whose rooms are separated by many courts and 
corridors. I am glad to say, however, that Chengtu is 
expecting soon to have a modern building erected and 
equipped by friends in the United States. As a site for this 
new structure, the Governor of the province recently presented 
our Board of Directors with approximately four acres of land 
splendidly located in one of the commercial and school centers 
of the city. 

My personal work consists chiefly in the direct respon¬ 
sibility for the religions and educational activities of our Associa¬ 
tion. In January we started a Bible school to meet on Sunday 
afternoons. This work has grown steadily until we have now 
in all our work a total of tweutv-one Bible classes with an 
enrollment of over two hundred and fifty men. Each Sunday 
we have a strong men’s religious meeting. The attendance at 
this has averaged over the oue hundred mark. The attendance 


i$t 7 ] From the Sunset 291 

at our Bible classes and at the religious addresses is largely 
composed of students who are going to be the leaders of the 
future. These young men are coming to us from colleges and 
middle schools all over the city. We feel that we are 
beginning to make impressions that will count in the lives of 
these young men. 

Our educational work embraces three schools. One of 
these corresponds in many respects to a high school at home. 
The second is a school in which we teach only the English 
language, while the third school is a social service enterprise 
in which illiterates are taught, tuition-free, how to read and 
write their own language. The teachers of this school are 
voluntary workers. Twelve of the sixteen are students in 
our own school who are now getting their first lessons in social 
service. The total enrollment of our three schools is one 
hundred and forty-two. While this is a greater number than 
we have ever had before, yet it is small compared to what we 
expect to have after the present political unrest has come to 
an end. For over five months the residents of the city have 
been in constant fear of a mutiny and the consequent lawless¬ 
ness of the soldiery quartered here. As a natural result 
commercial and academic interests are greatly demoralized. 

There is a splendid spirit of fellowship among the 
foreigners of Chengtu. This is manifested nowhere more 
characteristically than in the co-operation with all the activities 
of the Association. Last week this spirit was shown in a 
city-wide health campaign conducted against tuberculosis. 
The city was divided into fourteen sections and fourteen 
foreigners captained as many teams comprising a hundred and 
sixty-one men, in distributing anti-tuberculosis literature into 
the very corners of Chengtu. 19,700 tracts and calendars 
were judiciously placed in the hands of people who can read in 
all parts of the city, lu the uear future the Association hopes 
to augment this effort with a carefully planned auti-tuber- 
culosis lecture campaign which will touch all the churches, 
mission schools, chapels, theatres, lecture halls, and many of 
the government schools of the city. The aggravated political 
situation has been the only reason which has kept us from 
having this campaign long ago. 


292 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


Vocational Training 

Miss C. J. LAMBERT. 


created by God to fill one special place in tlie world, a 
place chosen and prepared by Him. The dignity and impor¬ 
tance which this truth gives to the most ordinary life cannot be 
over-estimated, and yet, though more or less acknowledged, it 
is too often forgotten. How frequently a career is chosen, a 
post accepted, without any attempt to discover whether that 
career or that post be the one planned by God : human in¬ 
clination and worldly advantage are common guiding motives 
when such momentous decisions are being made, and all too 
seldom is the question asked, 4 ‘Is this what God has planned 
for my life?” 

If education in school is to be a preparation for life, the 
teacher should remember that for each of the young lives under 
his care, God has one special purpose, and this thought should 
profoundly influence his teaching. God’s purpose must be 
known before it can be carried out: “vocation,” as the word 
implies, is a call, it is not an idea, not the outcome of brain, 
but is a call from God : there must therefore be the listening, 
attentive ear, for a pre-occupied mind cannot hear that call. 

Immediately following the truth that the Creator calls each 
person to his special work, comes the idea of duty, duty 
towards God and towards man. “He perfects his character 
who discharges his duty” ; God’s purpose once known must 
be carried out; that is, there must be obedience. Obedience 
should be insisted upon at school and, when possible, the 
reasons for the command should be explained, in order that on 
the occasions when they cannot be explained, there will be 
confidence that they exist. 

If man is created for “the glory of God, and the relief 
of man’s estate,” it follows that life must not be selfish, and 
the teacher who is educating his children for their vocation in 
life will train them in habits of service: he will teach them 
that they are not being educated solely for their own good or 
pleasure, or simply that they may reach the highest develop¬ 
ment of which they are capable, but that God has allowed 
them to come to school that they may be made ready for use, 




HE thought that should prompt both the teacher who 
trains and the student who comes forward for training 
is a very solemn one; it is that each human being is 



1917] 


Vocational Training 


293 


and may gain something wherewith they can benefit others. 
This will induce in them an expectant attitude, and when the 
call to service comes, it will find them listening, and prepared 
by past obedience to obey without question. If the teacher 
realizes that God has a purpose for every life be will try to 
teach two things :— 

1. That God’s guidance must be sought in the question 
of life-work ; Jesus Christ must send each to his work, as He 
did the disciples of old. 

2. That the still small voice must be obeyed immediately, 
lest the opportunity for that particular service pass unheeded. 

When the truth is understood that God calls each indivi¬ 
dual to his life-work, the question then arises, “How is the 
call to be recognized as being from God ?” The teacher has 
then to explain that guidance will come through the still, small 
voice we name conscience. Conscience if persistently ignored 
is silenced, but to those who truly will to do the Will of their 
Father in Heaven, it speaks plainly, and no soul prepared to 
obey that Will at all costs is left in doubt about it. Children 
who have been taught to believe that God has a plan for each 
life, that He will speak to those who habitually listen for His 
voice and that His voice must be obeyed, have the foundation 
for true success in life. They will find guidance through their 
particular circumstances, and through their special abilities : 
clever ones will learn their powers are given to them in order 
that they may serve others : the less mentally gifted will learn 
that industrial and manual work may equally be done to His 
honour. 

Now let us consider how this fact should influence a school 
curriculum. There are some children whose brain power is not 
sufficient to make it worth while for them even to enter the 
Higher Primary course; this fact should always be recognized, 
and more attention be paid to the advisability of teaching them 
some form of industrial work at school. These children would 
give time both to study and to manual work each day and, as 
has been found in England, the manual labour would probably 
have a beneficial effect upon the brain work. If this were 
done the time at school would provide more direct preparation 
for their vocation in life. 

So far these remarks are applicable to both boys and girls, 
but now let us think of girls who have finished the Higher 
Primary course, and who have still several years before they are 


294 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


married. At present there are three special openings for such 
girls—teaching, nursing, and medicine. How can the last 
years at school be most profitably spent if they are to serve as 
teachers, nurses, or doctors ? As the senior girls reach this point 
of decision it is most interesting to talk to them about their 
probable vocation : some only think of continuing their own 
studies, others have begun to realize a sense of vocation, and 
want to be trained for some form of service. The following 
questions are useful in bringing the issue clearly before them :— 

1. What would you yourself like most of all to do ? 

2. What do you think that your parents will allow you to do? 

3. What do you think that God wants you to do ? 

The girls who feel called to medical work will need the 
advantages of a * Middle School course and time to concentrate 
on special subjects. Those who are going to become teachers 
will first need to continue their studies to a grade above that 
which they are expecting to teach (e.g., Lower Primary 
teachers should have taken the Higher Primary course, Higher 
Primary teachers should have taken the Middle School course), 
and should then take a course of training in the theory and 
practice of teaching. This latter is all important and, wherever 
possible, should be made compulsory. It will help to supply 
China’s great need of trained teachers, for not only are mission 
schools handicapped by the scarcity of qualified teachers, but 
the need in government schools is equally great. If only 50% 
of the girls educated in our mission schools were each to 
teach for three years before marriage, the need would partially 
be supplied, and the influence of Christianity would make itself 
felt in the government schools, where religious instruction 
could be given at other times if not actually allowed during 
school hours. 

In the fewer cases where girls continue their studies beyond 
the Middle School course, it should be clearly understood that, 
while encouraging those who are able to do so, time should still 
be allowed for a period of teaching before they are married, in 
order that the advantages received may be passed on to others. 

Under the new conditions in which Chinese girl students 
find themselves there is a temptation to become selfish in the 
desire to continue private study merely with the idea of being 
considered accomplished. 


♦The following are Chinese Government terms:—1. Tower Primary, four 
years; 2. Higher Primary, three or four years; 3. Middle School, four years, 



1917] Vocational Training 295 

This should be guarded against and they should be-en* 
couraged to realize that personal desire for continued private 
study should not stand in the way of their calling to serve 
others. They should be content with a less advanced education 
themselves in order that they may give out what they have 
already had the privilege of studying. (If financial help to¬ 
wards education lias been received from the Church, this 
consideration becomes still more obligatory.) 

This ideal can only be reached in so far as the previous 
years at school have brought to the girls a sense of vocation, 
and of their duty to share with others God’s gifts to them. It 
will involve self-sacrifice for some, but if it be the way in 
which they can best serve God and their fellowmen, the joy 
which will come from realizing that they are called by God 
will prove abundant recompense. “Except a grain of wheat 
fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone ; but if it die it 
briugeth forth much fruit.” 

This conviction will help some to go away to work in 
distant provinces or remote districts, or to remain unmarried 
for a time if they feel that this is God’s purpose for them, or 
to be willing to marry catechists and churchwardens with very 
limited salaries, rather than English-speaking clerks with large 
ones. 

Whatever standard of work is aimed at while at school, 
the final year should be given to some kind of vocational 
training, either industrial, domestic, pedagogical, or medical, 
so that in arranging our curricula it would he well always to 
allow for at least one vocational year at the end of each grade : 
in this way all will get some vocational training before leaving 
school. Although the majority of girls will be married their 
special training will not be lost on them, in fact it should 
make them much better wives and mothers. The domestic 
duties of married life may claim their full attention for several 
years, but after a time they may be able to give much help in 
various kinds of church work, and their former training, 
together with their broader experience in life, should make 
them even more useful in some educational posts than if they 
had never had families of their own to train. 

Let us help our students to secure the sense of vocation by 
trying to lead them to the right attitude towards God as their 
Creator, and by showing them that they were created not only 
to exist but to do, and that they are needed in God’s plan. 


296 


The Chinese Recorder 


(May 


Our Attitude Towards Chinese Religions* 

ARTHUR SOWERBY. 

AT I should address the Peking Missionary Association 
on so well-worn and threadbare a theme as the right 
attitude of Christian missionaries to the Chinese 
religions does demand a very genuine word of apology. 
That I venture to do so at all is, partly, because in the fluctua¬ 
tions of the missionary body there are constant accessions of 
new arrivals to whom the subject is one of great practical 
interest, and, still more, that while the right principles that 
control our actions may be conceded as well understood and 
firmly established, yet their application varies as the times 
vary, and especially is this so in China at the present time, 
when we see the nation pass through so many and such great 
changes, and where the strategy that controls our forces and 
directs our movements must differ correspondingly with the 
movements of the forces against which we stand arrayed. 

The use of this figure, militant, and apparently somewhat 
aggressive, will be pardoned and not misunderstood, by 
remembering that “the weapons of our warfare are not 
carnal,” but that our contest is the outcome of a supreme 
benevolence, and is prompted by nothing else than love for the 
men and women who are not to be found in our camps, and 
that the conflict is the eternal conflict of truth with error, light 
with darkness, the kingdoms of this world and the Kingdom of 
God’s dear Son. That leads me to the enunciation of two standard 
principles, two established canons that should rule our thoughts 
and guide our actions, but which, I trust, are so well-known, 
so convincing, and so widely accepted by missionaries every¬ 
where as to need merely their clear statement, and leave us 
free to consider their application. 

i. The first is that the Christian religion stands as the 
unique and explicit revelation from God , and therefore is the 
one ultimate and universal religion that can admit of no rival 
to its claims. If Jesus Christ was “sent from God” as we 
find repeated again and again in the Fourth Gospel, if His 
death is ail atonement for the sin of the race, if His resurrec¬ 
tion was the act and seal of the Divine forgiveness whereby 

*Read before the Peking Missionary Association and published by 
request. 





Our Attitude Towards Chinese Religions 


297 


1917] 


and in virtue of which men are reconciled to God and to one 
another in the realization of sonship and brotherhood, then only 
through the triumph of the truth of the Gospel will the New 
Jerusalem come down out of Heaven from God, and the human 
race reach its ultimate destiny in holiness and blesseduess. 

Objectively this is concisely stated in I Timothy 2:3-6, 
“God our Saviour willeth that all men should be saved and 
come to a knowledge of the truth, for there is one God, one 
mediator also between God and tnets, himself man, Christ 
Jesus, who gave Himself a ransom for all.” Subjectively it has 
been expressed succinctly and vigorously by Dr. Henry C. 
Mabie, of the American Baptist Missionary Union, who says, 
“ Would that the day were here when no candidate for a 
foreign mission field will be encouraged by his religious 
teachers—much less by auy mission board—to go out to the 
heathen as a missionary, who has not seen the fact of the 
reconciling cross to be s© central in the Bible that he will 
make it the very -core of his message, and who has not 
personally experienced such a power of that cross over his own 
heart and imagination, as will be ever with him. This should 
be in principle his first and last word, the Alpha and Omega of 
all his preaching and teaching.” 

I would contrast with this the position that is often 
taken by those other than missionaries, who study the religions 
of China and are indeed authorities upon those religions. 
These are sinologues of repute, to whom the missionary body 
is greatly indebted for their able and scholarly work, but in 
their writings are frequently found covert depreciations 
of the Christian faith, and a commendation of Chinese doctrines 
and religions, that, ignoring much that is erroneous, and some 
things very evil, place them in a position of equality, if not of 
superiority, to the doctrines of Christ, 

While I think this would be generally admitted it is hardly 
fair to make a charge of this sort without something specific in 
support of it, and yet it is not quite easy to give very convinc¬ 
ing proof; I shall, however, put before you one or two quotations 
that will explain my meaning. That able sinologue, Mr. E. 
H. Parker, quotes thus from a Chinese Catholic :— 

“Although Confucius taught the necessity of reverence 
and disinterested charity, he had no true belief in a self-existing 
Creator of an organized universe ; no faith in promised grace to 
come, or in eternal life; no true love of God as a Perfect 


298 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


Being above and superior to all things ; no true fear of God as 
the Supreme and Sole Ruler of the universe; and no true 
obedience to His commandmeuts.” On this Mr, Parker 
comments:— 

“Can those who blame Confucius for not believing all this 
show any grounds why at that date he should have believed it; 
and are they sure what they mean when they say they believe 
it themselves?” To which I would reply that uo sensible 
person would put any blame upon Confucius for not knowing 
what he could not know, but the difference between a religious 
faith in which these are the great essentials and a social 
ethical system in which they are left out, is tremendous, and 
that missionaries and their converts are so well persuaded of 
their truth and value that they put them before all things else, 
and in China martyrs have witnessed to this by their blood. 
Again, that leading sinologue, Dr. Herbert A. Giles, closes 
his recent book on Confucianism and its Rivals thus:— 

“The Republic of China is crying out for a state religion. 
In the words of a famous Chinese poet, 

‘ Stoop and there it is, 

Seek it not right nor left.* 

Let the Chinese people be encouraged by the erection of 
temples and by forms of prayer, to join in the old Unitarian 
worship of four thousand years ago. Let them transfer to Vien^ 
God, discarding the duality caused by the later introduction of 
Shang TV, all those thoughts of reverence and gratitude which 
have been centred so long upon the human, to the neglect of 
the Divine. Their stirring battle-cry would then be, “There 
is no god but God, and Confucius is His Prophet.” 

Again, with all respect to Dr. Giles, that is a position 
utterly impossible to Christian men ; it throws away not only- 
all of the sublime revelation given when God spoke in past 
times by the prophets, and “in these last days by His Sou,” 
but elevates the dim and ancient theism of China with the 
formal and uninspiring moral philosophy of the Sage, to a 
position of pre-eminence over Christ and His Gospel. By the 
most modern methods and on the lowest ground this position 
should be condemned, as it exhibits a complete incapacity to 
estimate rightly religious values. 

It would be possible to add to these quotations that I have 
laid before you, which show that a criticism of the missionary 
view which is often hostile arises from an inability to grasp the 


1917] Our Attitude Towards Chinese Religions 299 

true character of the Christian religion, and in consequence an 
undue estimation of other religions, but perhaps sufficient has 
been said and we may turn to the second great principle to be 
borne in mind. 

2. That is, that in our estimation of non-Christian faiths 
we should deal in the spirit of complete fairness; not only 
should we be careful to act with that close regard to truth, 
which is the noblest characteristic and richest fruit of the scien¬ 
tific method , but we should also exercise a charitable sympathy. 
These religions are the outcome of much anxious thought, of 
many a painful martyrdom ; they are the product of some of the 
deepest and noblest aspirations, and they are intimately 
associated with the lives of millions of the human family, 
their hopes and fears, their joys and sorrows, and to some 
extent they have justified themselves by restraining men from 
barbarism and anarchy, and have held states and races together 
in some measure of brotherhood and order. 

This second canon is larger and more tolerant than would 
have been acceptable to Christian missionaries at the com¬ 
mencement of the modern missionary movement, about one 
hundred and twenty years ago, and may appear to some to be 
too liberal even now, but it should be amply safeguarded by 
the acceptance of the first, and it would seem to be justified by 
what we have found to be of religious aud moral value iu the 
countries that we are now evangelizing. Perhaps that will 
appear more clearly as we proceed. 

Taking our stand then on these two principles we proceed 
to examine the three religions of China, but it is evident that 
in the brief space at our disposal we cannot attempt to deal iu 
any way exhaustively with any one of them. They are all 
ancient, each has its standard classics or scriptures, each has its 
historical development, and the roots of each go back to a very 
remote antiquity, and there are connected with all of them 
many customs that have a great hold on the people; two of 
them have an elaborate priesthood and ecclesiastical organiza¬ 
tion, and they all have their separate rites. All we can hope 
to do is to touch on a few outstanding features, and especially 
to note their power aud influence over the Chinese to-day, in 
their social and political life. 

Remembering that the question of a national religion is 
at present occupying the minds of the Chinese we may ask 
what claim has each of these religions, through the services it 


300 The Chinese Recorder [May 

has rendered to the Chinese, to be accepted as the national 
religion of the Chinese Republic. It is true that only Con¬ 
fucianism has any chance of attaining to this dignity, yet it 
may be supposed that neither the Buddhists nor the Taoists 
will be willing to be entirely displaced, and as both of these 
religions still have a powerful influence on Chinese thought and 
habits it is well to find out the best points of each, for it is not 
so much the falsity and errors of Chinese religions that hinder 
the acceptance of Christianity, as it is the good and the true 
that each religion possesses, which enables it to hold its position 
in Chinese esteem. 

To understand these benefits it is necessary rather to look 
at the social life of the Chinese, than to consider the doctrines 
of the Three Religions as we find them in the Classics and 
Sacred Books. A graphic and on the whole truthful picture of 
Chinese village and town life has been given us by two Chinese 
scholars, gentlemen who have obtained degrees from English 
Universities, Mr. Yung and Mr. Tao, who have published a 
book written in English for the benefit of the foreigner inter¬ 
ested in Chinese life. Naturally these gentlemen have painted 
as favorable a picture as they could, although they are not 
blind to certain defects and shadows, but we must take their 
treatise rather as the Chinese ideal than as the scientific state¬ 
ment of the truth. 

For instance, Mr. Yung says that in matters of “education, 
police, repairs of roads, etc., the village temple does practically 
for the village what the county council and quarter sessions 
together do for the English county.” Anyone who knows 
the well-repaired roads of England, the cleanly, sanitary con¬ 
ditions of English villages, and compares them with the quag¬ 
mires to be found on Chinese roads everywhere, and the filthy, 
unsanitary, and neglected Chinese villages, will see how far 
from the truth such a comparison is. 

These gentlemen, however, have done a good service and 
are undoubtedly right when they say with emphasis that the 
family is the unit in Chinese social life, and they show how 
loyalty to the family and the clan has been and is the dominant 
principle in China. Filial piety and brotherly love say they, 
are the ethical principles on which the family life and the village 
clan are based, and these are virtues which are the basis of the 
Confucian system. The whole ethical system of this family life 
has been carefully elaborated. The family records, the auces- 


1917] 


Our Attitude Towards Chinese Religions 


501 


tral hall, and the ancestral tablets are all part of it, the system 
of inheritance by which the land or property is equitably 
divided rests upon these fundamental moral principles; marriages 
are subordinated to the interests of the family as a whole and a 
marriage is never considered as an affair in which the affection 
of the two, the bride and bridegroom, are almost the sole con¬ 
sideration ; the training and education of both boys and girls is 
controlled by the thought of the general good, prosperity, and 
honour of the family, and so, also, the welfare of each member 
of the family has to be considered, and only may one be shut 
out from the family life, from its shelter, protection, and support 
if morally unworthy. Then it is claimed to be a duty ou the 
part of the father to destroy an unworthy sou, and it has been 
done and is even now done by the father burying the unfilial 
soil alive, at the door of his dwelling. 

Mr. Tao writes, “The family we may take as the most 
important kind of social organization: the family life becomes 

the basis of our social life.it is indeed no exaggeration 

to say that China, as a whole, consists of no individuals, but of 
families." He goes on to explain, “Foreigners often wonder 
how Chinese family life is at all possible with such an aggregate 
of heterogeneous members living together. It is indeed strange, 
especially in the eyes of those saturated with the ideas of in¬ 
dividualism. To understand it thoroughly, let us digress from 
our subject for a while and study the very spirit which pervades 
it. That spirit, for lack of a better term, we shall call altruism. 
Altruism, in our present case, means forgetfulness of oneself, 
rather than ‘ to do to others what we would like should be done 
to us.’ It means a negation of self, rather than the sentimental 
desire to be liked by others. In one word, the Chinese conception 
of altruism is directly opposed to the teaching of Max Stirner : 
the exaltation of the Unique One. Loyalty to the Emperor, 
filial piety to parents, love for children, would mean nothing if 
not the expressions of such a spirit. A Chinese does not live 
for himself alone. He is the sou of his parents, the descendant 
of his ancestors, the potential father of his children, and the 
pillar of his family. His efforts towards literary distinction or 
official promotion are not directed merely for personal ends or 
personal reputation. Our ephemeral self is nothing: it is for 
the good of our ancestors, our immediate parents, and our 
immediate descendants that we work, we drudge, and even we 
die.” 



302 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


While certainly open to criticism in some respects, yet we 
must all feel that here is a very noble conception of life and 
duty ; and if it means a loss of self yet it is true here that ” he 
that loseth his life shall find it,” and while this seems to rob a 
man of his career yet as we know from what we have seen in 
Chinese life it often leads a man to a career, and many a young 
Chinese has become a great scholar, a high official, and left 
behind him a worthy reputation, because be did not find his 
career alone, or to the neglect of his family, but through their 
sympathy and support, and animated by the feeling that in his 
laborious and often self-denying work his aim was not for his 
selfish gain but for the good of the family in whose welfare he 
found his chiefest joy. This is very different from the indivi¬ 
dualism that exists among us, but it is a serious question whether 
that individualism has not been pushed too far and, with us, 
often the noblest duties are scorned, and the most sacred ties 
broken for the sake of daring to live one’s own life and to find 
a career. 

However that may be, this principle of identifying oneself 
with one’s clan, in loyalty and service, is developed and carried 
out throughout the whole of Chinese life, and reaches from the 
humblest peasant up to what was the Bmperor’s throne. And 
this is Confucianism, the religion of Confucius: and because the 
stability of the social order rested upon it one can understand 
how tenaciously all the official classes and literary graduates, 
who hoped in time to obtain positions of official rank, clung to 
it, and why they refused even to consider the claims of the 
Christian religion brought to them by foreigners. 

This is Confucianism, as a vital, regulative force, inspiring 
men to fulfil their duties, and to realise some of life’s ends, and 
for this reason it becomes tbe greatest difficulty in our way in 
our endeavours to win the Chinese to the Christian faith. We 
find very little of religious doctrine that is false which we can 
combat, but we have to-deal with an ethical ideal that is of great 
practical value, and has not only been frankly adopted by the 
other contending religions of China, so that the Chinese insist on 
their essential unity (the San Chiao being to them I Cbiao), 
but has been a great cohesive force binding the people together 
by a common sympathy, tbe outcome of their best and noblest 
feelings. 

The Confucian religion has been maintained not so much 
by temples, or by public worship, but by family rites and cere- 


1917 ] Our Attitude Towards Chinese Religions 303 

monies connected with their births, marriages, and deaths, and 
although ancestral worship and the ancestral tablet is older 
than Confucius, yet it may well be taken for its symbol. It is 
possible then to understand why Chinese converts are unwilling 
to remove their ancestral tablets, and to abandon many of their 
marriage and funeral rites that involve the worship and offer¬ 
ing of incense to the manes of their deceased. To do so seems 
to them to break with their most sacred ties, to dishonour their 
family and their dead, to be revolutionary to the point of 
anarchy, to have no proper moral sense, while to the ruling 
classes it looks like a destruction of the very foundations ou 
which society is based and the throne established. We see 
with an amused smile the funeral processions, we think the 
grief is often simulated, as perhaps it is, and we are apt to 
regard the whole show as fantastical and absurd, and yet at the 
basis of it all is this high family ethic, that is so noble and has 
been of such untold worth to the Chinese. 

Dr. H. A. Giles in his recently published lectures on Con¬ 
fucianism and its Rivals says, “Ancestral worship, deeply 
ingrained as it is in the Chinese mind, is one of the great obstacles 
to the Christianization of China ; and many worthy and well- 
meaning missionaries, going so far back even as the Jesuits of 
the seventeenth century, have pleaded for the admission of this 
apparently harmless rite among the devotional duties of the 
Christian convert. Other missionaries, however, have set their 
faces against such a concession, correctly feeling that the main 
object of ancestral worship in China is to secure from the 
spirits of dead ancestors, in return for offerings of food and at 
gTaves, protection and advancement of worldly interests which 
would be incompatible with the teachings of Christianity.” 

That is a judgment of some value, for it is not the utter¬ 
ance of a missionary who might be considered prejudiced, but 
as we have seen from a previous quotation it comes from one 
who would revive the ancient Unitarianism of China. If then 
we missionaries have to insist on our converts removing the 
tablet and breaking with Confucianism, we must not only do so 
with sympathy and care, remembering that we are shaking the 
very foundations on which this ancient civilization has rested, 
and that we are wounding some of the finest and noblest sensibil¬ 
ities of the people, but we must also see to it that we show that 
Christianity in its ethical teaching can establish the family on a 
higher basis, with a richer development. We are ourselves pay- 


304 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


ing quite a new attention to the social view of Christianity, and 
we are beginning to see where the claim of the personal merges 
into the larger demands of the family, the nation, and the Church, 
and we may be doing untold wrong and working incalculable 
mischief if we do not explain and press home this aspect of the 
Gospel of Christ. We must take care how we overturn without 
being able to build up and reconstruct. The trouble with 
China to-day is that the Government is in the hands of those 
who have done the one but find it nigh impossible to do 
the other. 

From Confucianism we turn to Taoism, as being more 
closely allied to it than Buddhism. We need not long delay 
over Taoism for it is difficult to see what additional advantage 
it has been to the Chinese people. Everyone admits the vast 
difference between the later developments of Taoism with its 
boundless superstitions and the ancient philosophy of the Taoist 
sages. The main teaching of Lao Chun, more generally known 
as Lao Tzu, is to be found in the Tao Teh Cliing, How far 
that is genuine it would be hard to say but I think if subjected to 
a severe scrutiny a great deal of it would have to be struck out. 
I remember reading many years ago a magazine article by 
Dr. Giles to that effect. However, the whole treatise is vague 
and indistinct and no well-defined philosophy, not to say 
theology or ethic, can be built up on it. It is difficult of 
translation, as we may learn from the first sentence, Tao ko tao 
fei chang tao , ming ko ming Jei chang mingy which has been 
rendered a number of ways. I think it means, “The reason 
that can be reasoned out is not the ultimate reason, and the 
name that can be named is not the eternal name.” 

That is just the sort of thing that poets and sages say, and 
Tennyson in “The Ancient Sage” says almost exactly the same. 

It is not severe, accurate, scientific thought, but the 
irrepressible intuition, insight, the exhaustless and never-to-be- 
satisfied questioning of the human spirit that crystallizes into 
some striking apothegm which illumines our minds even if we 
cannot systematize it. This is one service that Taoist thinkers 
and philosophers have rendered China. They refused to be 
satisfied with the limits of Confucian thought, and have ever 
kept the door open for the entrance of fresh light. 

The Taoist has accepted the Confucian ethic, and so 
strengthened it, but has always been feeling after the mysterious 
and higher powers in whose hands lies the dispensing of 


1917] Our Attitude Towards Chinese Religions 305 

retributions and human destiny. It has tried in a variety of 
ways to pierce the veil, but while we admire the aspiration, 
yet the results have often been disastrous, leading to endless 
idolatries and futile superstitions. 

The Kau Ying Pien illustrates well the wituess of Taoism to 
ethical truth, but it also exhibits the character of its idolatrous 
beliefs. It speaks of the San T‘ai, the Three Counsellors, the 
Pei Tou, or Spirit of the North Star, that are above men’s 
beads, and observe men’s deeds, and of the San Shih, or the 
Three Genii inhabiting men’s bodies, and the God of the 
Hearth, which latter at certain times ascend up to Heaven and 
report on what they have seen and heard. The witness that all 
that men do is known in the courts above, has undoubted value, 
but the belief in these fictional genii leads to a trifling with the 
Divine sanctions of morality. 

There is a book called the Chiu Sheng Chuan 
published last century, that fairly represents the influence for 
good or ill of the Taoists. It was issued under the Imperial 
sanction, and up till the time of the Republic could be pur¬ 
chased in the Government Book Stores. It is a kind of olla- 
podrida of Chinese doctrines, essays, poems, maxims, and edicts, 
many of them very excellent moral rules. In it there is au 
article called Au Han Tan Dream that well illustrates Taoism. 

Han Tau is a hsien town in Chihli, and the story goes that 
a traveller resting at au inn here was feeling depressed because 
of his poor fortune, when a venerable and well-dressed stranger 
appeared. After some conversation the traveller suddenly found 
himself in a situation of wealth and prosperity. He was 
dwelling in a wealthy house with every desire gratified ; years 
passed by and he attained to the highest position in the Empire 
under the Emperor, of whom he was the favorite. He had 
wives, and sons and daughters, innumerable servants, wealth 
and honor, but suddenly he fell into disfavor and the Emperor 
ordered his execution. Just then a clock struck and he woke 
to find the millet being placed on the table, the fifty years of 
his dream had passed while his breakfast was in preparation. 
The veuerable stranger, who was none other than Eu Tsu, 
first of the Pa Hsien, bad disappeared. 

The author of this essay describes a similar dream, but 
makes it an occasion to discuss the identity of the moral subject. 
He says that he has eyes, ears, mouth, and a body, hut these 
are not the true self. Were it not for the true self the eye 


306 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


would see but not perceive, the ear would hear but not under¬ 
stand, speech would be disordered words, and movement would 
be meaningless and uncontrolled. He describes his dream, 
and asks, Did he not see and hear and feel in the dreams ? He 
did indeed, but this was psychical and in a confused way. He 
then reflects that owing to his inexhaustible desires, and his 
illimitable sins, he has to meet with retribution, and the Judge 
of Hades is there on his throne, with the ten companies of 
demons, the sword, the saw, and the caldron, ready to inflict 
punishment. As the dreams had been a real existence, and yet 
empty (did not Tennyson write, “ Dreams are true while they 
last and do we not live in dreams ? n ), so this other existence 
that seemed a reality was but a dream. Let but the clock 
strike, and the years would have passed, the shadows would 
have fled away, and the time would seem to have been nothing 
more than the few minutes spent in boiling the millet. Where 
is the true self then ? It is suspended in the Heavens. Within 
one are the principles of virtue, righteousness, propriety, and 
wisdom ( jen , i, It, chih)\ by following these we attain to 
perception and intelligence, can speak the universal tongue, 
and go the way of the universal reason. When our turn comes 
to visit the other world, we go to the Courts to pay our respect as 
a matter of courtesy, and enter the Kingdom of Flowers and 
dwell in the Palace of Purity and Abstraction. 

This well illustrates the character of Taoism and the 
service it has rendered the Chinese. In its ceaseless question¬ 
ing, in its emphasis on morals, and in its attempt to grasp the 
Divine it has done something to mould Chinese life and 
character, and it is for us to answer its questions and satisfy its 
aspirations by exhibiting the Gospel of Christ in all its fulness 
of spiritual truth and moral insight. 

Finally we come to Buddhism, and I fear there is but 
scant time left to deal with it. Buddhism is so profound a 
philosophy, demands such extensive and thorough study, and 
is so difficult of comprehension that one feels it ought not to 
be dealt with at all except in a course of lectures, prepared say 
after twenty years devoted specially to that end. You will 
therefore pardon the unavoidable poverty of treatment, while 
the great hold it has had and still has on the Chinese demands 
that it find some place here. 

As you know, there are several schools of Buddhistic 
teaching, but what concerns us in China is the school of 


1917 ] Our Attitude Towards Chinese Religions 307 

Buddhist thought called the Mahayana, or the Buddhism of 
the Great Chariot, the teachers of the Mahayana School desig¬ 
nating the primitive Buddhism as taught by Sakyamuni, or 
Gautama Buddha, as Hinayana, or the Buddhism of the Little 
Chariot. It is asserted by some that the primitive Buddhism, 
the Hinayana teaching, is atheistical, and the Mahayana teach¬ 
ing is a derivation from Christianity, that it is the Christianity 
of the Nestorian Church. I would put in a demurrer to both 
of these statements. The ancient Buddhism is really a develop¬ 
ment of the monistic philosophy of India, and that is hardly 
atheism. Whether the Mahayana Buddhism be a derivation 
from Christianity or not is, perhaps, not definitely proved. 
The advocates of this theory claim that the proofs are abundant 
and satisfactory, and it may be admitted that there has been 
some interchange of thought between the teachers of Buddhism 
and the Christian bishops of Syria, yet the identity of the 
Buddhism of the Great Chariot and Nestorian Christianity will, 
I think, be questioned by many, and certainly it has not yet 
been accepted by the majority of competent sinologues. It is 
fair to demand some more conclusive proofs before accepting 
this form of Buddhism as essentially Christian, and even if its 
Christian origin were granted it would still be necessary to ask 
wbat essential doctrines of Christian truth had been lost, and 
■what erroneous Buddhist had been incorporated before any 
advances towards Buddhists as sharing with us a common faith 
could be made. 

{Note. Since this paper was read I have seen Saeki’s “ The 
Nestorian Monument in China,” and Mrs. Gordon’s a Symbols of 
the Way.” Both these writers strongly support the theory 
mentioned here, but for reasons that I cannot obtrude into this 
paper I am still unconvinced.) 

The chief tenet of the Mahayana Buddhism is the belief in 
a Buddha of the Western Heaven, Amitabha, Amito Fu, of 
such saving power that the mere repetition of his name not 
only obtains deliverance from innumerable evils, but effectually 
cleanses the heart from sin, and wins for the believer admission 
into the Paradise of the West. A small popular pamphlet once 
fell into my hands in which the three religions were declared 
to be one, the Confucian ethic was accepted, and this was 
joined to a belief hi the Taoist “hsuan” a character 

that means Heaven, the Divine, the Heavenly Powers, the 
heart, and a good many other things according to the Kang Hsi 


308 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


Tzu Tien), bat whatever the one enjoined or the other pro¬ 
mised was fulfilled through the repetition of the mystic Amito 
Fu. On one page of the book was a dark black circle, repre¬ 
senting the human heart, and on the next a clean white circle— 
the heart cleansed by the simple method of repeating the 
Buddha’s name. Thus the three religions became one by all 
three being absorbed into Amito through this simple method. 
It is the simplicity and ease of this method that obtains for this 
cult the name of the Great Chariot, for while the cult of Sakya 
Muni was difficult and could only avail for the few, here was a 
method so simple, and professedly so efficacious that it secured 
the salvation of the masses. 

It would be a mistake, however, to suppose that this exhausts 
the tenets of the Mahayana Buddhism. There is joined to 
it not only the worship of Kwan Yin, of Wen Shu Pusa, but 
also of Ju Lai Fu, of Met Li Fu (possibly Ju Lai Fu under 
another aspect), and other Buddhas, and Boddhisatwas, and at 
the back of it all there is a very profound philosophy. 

De Groot in his article on Chinese Buddhism in Hastings’ 
Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, says :— 

“ Mahayanistic Buddhism is a nniversalistic religion, whose 
great principle or basis is the order of the World, which it calls 
Dharma or Law. Dharma manifests itself especially by the 
Universal Light, the Creator of everything, and this light is 
emitted by the Buddhas, or beings endowed with the highest 
bodhi, or intelligence. There have been an infinite number of 
these beings in the past, and an infinite number will be born in 
the future ; indeed the Light of the World is born every day in 
the morning, and enters into nirvana, or nothingness in the 
evening. The life of a Buddha is a day of preaching of the 
Dharma, a so-called revolution of its wheel, a daily emanation 
of its light. Thus it is that there have been delivered many 
billions and trillions of sermons, as long as the universe has 
existed, each having for its subject the elevation of man to a 
state of bliss ; and those which have been happily written dowu 
for the good of posterity are the so-called sutras, which in 
China are termed ching . ,J 

I quote this not because of its correctness, for I am inclined 
to think it has almost as many errors as sentences, but to show 
that the Mahayana Buddhism is something far deeper than the 
mere repetition of the name of Amito Fu of the Western 
Heavens, and that it has a deep religious philosophy contained 


1917] 


Our Attitude Towards Chinese Religions 


309 


in it. It is interesting to note that in this article the name of 
Amitabha occurs but once, and that in connection with Sakya, 
Maitreya, and Kwan Yin, but really what De Groot styles the 
Universal Light is but a translation of Amitabha, and this puts 
Arnito back again into tbe supreme place. 

In closing the article De Groot says very truly, “Spiritual 
religion exists in China principally within the circle of Bud¬ 
dhism, and through the sects Buddhism meets the human need 
of such an inward religion. n 

Again I place a query against that last sentence, but it is 
true that neither Confucianism with its barren deism, nor 
Taoism with its puerile polytheism can touch at all the 
religious sense, but in Buddhism there is a strange and awful 
mystery and power encircling the Fu, that tends to a belief in 
One Supreme Being, immeasurably greater than gods or men, 
and withal endowed with an intense compassion and saving 
pity. 

Take, for instance, that strange allegorical book, the Hsi 
Yu Chi, which might more correctly be translated “Westward 
Ho” than “A Mission to Heaven.” 

In that we have the adventures of Lao Sun, the Monkey 
King, typifying the restlessness of human nature. Having 
obtained magical powers from a learned sage, Lao Sun ascends 
into the Heavenly Regions, and here we find Yu Hwang 
Shang Ti, altogether different from the Shang Ti of the Class¬ 
ics, who is the Celestial Ruler and is simply a glorified Chinese 
Emperor. He has his palaces and gardens, his wives, and 
numberless attendants, there are princes of the celestial family, 
liis ministers, and he issues his edicts, and grants titles, gives 
rewards and honours, and sends his soldiers out to punish 
rebels, just like a Chinese Emperor. His soldiers usually get 
the worst of it, also like recent Emperors, and Lao Sun consid¬ 
ers him an incapable ruler, who has held the Celestial Throne 
long enough and appeals to Fu to appoint him, Sun, in Yu 
Hwang Shang Ti’s place. But here there is something far 
different. To convince Buddha of his magical abilitjq Sun 
makes a number of leaps and revolutions, going thousands of 
miles, to be arrested at last by five great pink pillars and on 
his return from his long journey he discovers that all the while 
he has been in the Buddha’s hand. Thus, with 'their idea of 
Fu, they are striving to find the Great Reality, the Eternal God, 
who lies behind all phenomena. 


310 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 

To comprehend the Mahayana Buddhism we need to study 
the sutras or the eking of the Buddhists. Dr. Timothy Richard 
in his translation of the Ta Ching Ki Shin Luii and the Miao 
Fa Lien Hua Kuug, which he calls “ The Awakening of Faith’ 5 
and “The Esseuce of the Lotus Scriptures,” affords English 
readers some idea of what these sutras are like and you will 
find in them a glorification of the Buddhist objects of worship, 
an overpowering enthusiasm for what is considered to be 
religious truth, and a passionate desire for morai and spiritual 
purity. 

A very striking expression of this deep religious feeling is 
given us in R. F. Johnstone’s “ Buddhist China.” It is a prayer 
taken from “The Prayers of the Jhana School” used in the 
monasteries of Puto and runs :— 

“I am indeed filled with thankfulness that it has been 
grauted to me to know the Buddha's way of salvation ; but 
although I am a monk and have abandoned the world, I am 
bitterly conscious that my heart is not yet penetrated with the 
truth. I am sorely lacking in true knowledge and have many 
vain thoughts and wrong opinions. I am deficient in the 
moral force necessary for spiritual advancement. I study the 
scriptures with diligence, and yet I am incapable of fully 
understanding their holy wisdom. I fear that few blessings 
are in store for me, that my life is destined to be cut short, and 
that I have devoted myself all in vain to the religious life. 
I have wasted my days and dare hope for nothing but a spend¬ 
thrift’s death. Behold in my longing to purify this heart of 
mine, I am shedding tears of anguish. In reverence and 
humiliation I kneel before Thee *, day and night my thoughts 
dwell on Thy holy countenance. I hold fast to Thy holy 
name and prostrate myself before Thy sacred image. Incline 
Thy heavenly ear, 0 Pusa, to hearken unto me : of Thy divine 
love save me from misery, graut me Thy pity and Thy protec¬ 
tion ; let Thy spiritual light shine upon my body and illumine 
my heart. Baptize me with Thy sweet dew so that it may 
wash away all stains of hatred and ill-will, cleanse me from 
all sin and foulness, and make me pure in thought and 
deed. May I show gratitude for all mercies; may I put my 
trust in the Buddha, the Law, aud the company of saints, 
and wherever the Law holds sway may all living beings 
attain union in the perfect wisdom that leads to the peace of 
Buddhahood.” 


1917 ] Our Attitude Towards Chinese Religions 311 

Could not we, if we heard one praying like that, respond 
with a deep Amen to most of the petitions ? and with the 
alteration of only a few words this could be made into a most 
touching Christian prayer; its humility, its penitence, its 
desires for holiness and enlightenment are all admirable, and 
irresistibly draw out our sympathies. A few alterations, in¬ 
deed, but of what tremendous significance ; and alterations that 
lead the worshipper from the Light of Asia to the Son of God, 
the Light of the World. 

There is our difficult and holy task, to bring about these 
saving alterations, and in doing so to help to satisfy the deep 
thirst of the soul. 

Here I would close, but before doing so I would give one 
final word of caution. I can imagine someone feeling that 
the translator of this prayer has carried into it thoughts and 
aspirations, and Christian ideas that would not be found in the 
original Chinese draft. I do not think so in this instance, but 
in dealing with Chinese religions that is a mistake that is often 
made, and in the interests of strict scientific truth we need to 
be on our guard. I shall only give one instance of what I 
mean. Dr. E. H. Parker in his translation of the Tao Teh 
Ching translates Tao as Province and Teh as virtue, and then 
Grace. Our idea of a personal God, a Divine Father, who 
cares for His children, and foresees aud provides for their needs, 
gives us the Christian idea of Providence, and it is the redemp¬ 
tive mercy and the communicated spirit of Jesus Christ that 
gives us the religious significance of grace, and these ideas are 
entirely absent from the Tao Teh Ching, and it is only mis¬ 
leading to use them as translating the words, tao and teh. Mr. 
Parker is by no means the greatest offender in this respect, but 
I would urge that we should not allow whatever sympathy we 
may have for the Chinese religions, to lead us into this error. 

Briefly in conclusion I would note these three outstanding 
characteristics of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism, the 
splendid and practical social ethics of the first, the enquiring 
spirit of the second, and the spirituality of the third. Those 
are the demauds we have to meet. Education and scientific 
teaching are rapidly erasing the old idolatries and supersti¬ 
tions,and are beginning to show Young China the value of 
truth for truth’s sake; the inauguration of a Republic has 
dealt a severe blow at Confucianism by displacing tbe Emperor 
for a President, elected at the choice of the people, aud thus 


312 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


asserting the sovereign will of the people against the authority 
of kings. The Buddhist priesthood by its present moral 
degradation will, as the enlightenment of the Chinese con¬ 
tinues, continually weaken its hold on the people, and as 
Buddha, the Law, and the Church are the three great essentials 
in Buddhism it is possible to foretell its steady decay. I assert 
tbe moral degradation of the Buddhist priesthood, partly from 
what I kuow of it through a long residence in the interior, but 
I would remind yon that the Boxer atrocities were organized and 
the worst murders committed at the instigation of the Buddhist 
priests ; also, when the Talai Lama passed through Shansi and 
visited Peking some ten or eight years ago, he and his followers 
appeared as a set of savage and rude barbarians, and they 
left a reputation behind them in country districts that helped 
to dispel any belief in the sanctity of the Buddhist Church. 

Surely the Christian Faith which we preach is able to 
meet these demands. The truest basis for social ethics will be 
found in the realization of sonship and brotherhood restored 
through the redemptive work of our Lord Jesus Christ, only 
we need ourselves to pay more attention to this aspect of Chris¬ 
tianity, and to state it clearly to our converts. The Christian 
Faith solves many problems, but it leaves some mysteries yet 
unexplained ; it does not fetter and enchain our minds, but 
gives us the right and the freedom to enquire fearlessly, and we 
can do so with all the more confidence since we have under 
our feet a settled basis of truth : we stand upon the rock, and 
therefore welcome the freest efforts of the human mind ; lastly, 
the Gospel of Jesus Christ appeals to the highest spiritual 
qualities of the mind and heart. The whole course of Chris¬ 
tian history is marked by tbe saintly lives of men and women 
whose highest aspirations and deepest longings found the fullest 
response in their communion with Christ; Chrysostom, Augus¬ 
tine, Anselm, Thomas h Kernpis, Luther, Bunyan, Wesley, 
and many another, men and women of our own day and 
generation, bear their witness to the high spirituality of the 
religion of Christ, and so—uuweariedly and faithfully—may 
we continue to preach the everlasting Gospel. 

“Thine is the mystic light great India craves; 

Thine is the Parsee’s sin-destroying beam ; 

Thine is the Buddhist’s rest from tossing waves ; 

Thiue is the empire of vast China’s dream. 

Gather us in 1 


313 


1917] The Kitchens of Missionary Institutions 


Thine is the Roman’s strength without his pride *, 
Thine is the Greek’s glad world without its graves *, 
Thine is Judea’s law, with love beside ; 

The truth that centres, and the grace that saves. 


Gather us in ! 


Some seek a Father in the heavens above; 
Some ask a human image to adore ; 

Some crave a spirit, vast as life and love ; 
Within Thy mansions we have all, and more. 


Gather us in ! ” 


The Kitchens of Missionary Institutions 


HENRY fowler. 



T has often been a source of wonder to us why “the philos¬ 


opher” has left behind no record of his reflections on 


1 * J a chimney ! 

Truth to tell, that structure has many things to 
impart alike to the reflective and enquiring mind. 

To stand on an eminence in the early morning overlook¬ 
ing a busy city and to attempt to count the number of chimneys 
within one’s range of vision has proved to some of us, may be, 
an impossible task. Have we ever considered the significance 
of those thousands of tubes pouring forth their myriads of 
carbon particles and poisonous gasses into the air, adding alike 
to the discomfort and ill health as well as to the life and pros¬ 
perity of the community? 

Have we ever thought of the tragedies and comedies, the 
unique and commonplace of those factors which contribute to 
the warming of a room, the driving of a fly wheel, or the 
preparation of a meal ? 

Has that quietly-lifting, blue-tinged, fleecy cloud which 
issues from the country cottage any relation to those thick 
black clouds of sickening smoke which belch forth continually 
from yonder tall ugly factory chimney ? 

What is the distance in point of time and outlook between 
those beautiful Elizabethan chimneys and wide open hearths 
so familiar to us in many an old manor house of the homeland, 
and those ugly flues facing the sky from the Georgian and 
early Victorian buildings? 




The Chinese Recorder 


314 


£NUy 


What attempt have we made or encouraged in our day 
to harmonize the utilitarian with the beauties and graces of 
nature ? 

One of the deep impressions made upon our mind when 
landing years ago in Shanghai after a stay in “ Auld Reekie” 
was the almost entire absence of what one might call its 
“chimney life!” Passing inland it became more and more 
noticeable. A hundred aud one questions arose as to the 
“why” and “wherefore” of this. Incidentally we shall 
mention one or two of these later. 

Time aud circumstances have changed this port consider¬ 
ably, the industries of the nations have gathered in Shanghai 
and in the eagerness to gain rapid wealth little care is apparently 
taken to protect the community from some ills which could be 
remedied. The sky here, as in the manufacturing districts 
of the West, is now polluted constantly with the products of 
combustion. 

It might be thought that the subject given us for discussion 
was a very mundane one—as commonplace as anything in 
the range of our daily experience. As a matter of fact I believe 
it holds within itself one of the biggest problems of our hospital 
and institutional work, for surely in China the'chimney, or 
its absence , may be said to be the index of the kitchen—and 
it is the consideratiou of the hospital kitchen which brings us 
here to-day. 

It has been our good fortune to pay visits to 'some 50 
odd hospitals aud institutions in China. On deputation work 
at home also we made it our business to inspect as many 
hospitals, asylums, and schools as possible. The lessons gath¬ 
ered from these visits both in regard to hospital construc¬ 
tion and administration have well repaid any 'inconvenience 
experienced. 

Very heartily do we recommend such a plan to all interested 
in this aspect of medical mission work. 

No greater contrast can be offered than in the well- 
appointed electric-lighted, gas-, steam*, or electric-heated hos¬ 
pital kitchen of the homeland—spotless, almost odourless, and 
altogether conveniently situated-—and that found in the ma¬ 
jority of our schools and hospitals in China. 

In the home institutions the kitchen is almost always a 
special department and has its own staff of specially trained 
helpers in the shape of stewards, cooks, and scullery maids. 


1917] 


The Kitchens of Missionary Institutions 


315 



R-EAR.- ELEVATION* 





PLAN 

MODSI, CHINRSR KITCHRN FOR HOSPITAL, SCHOOLS, ETC. 




































































































The Chinese Recorder 


31$ 


(Way 



MODBL CHINBSR KITCHEN FOR HOSPITALS, SCHOOLS, 
















































































































































1917] The Kitchens of Missionary-Institutions 317 

Here in China the whole administration of the hospital is 
often in the hands of one and the same individual. That 
person has to see the out-patients, prescribe and sometimes 
dispense drugs for them, operate upon them, instruct his 
helpers, if he knows how, in the art of washing, sweeping, 
cleaning, and orderliness. He has to be his own scribe, make 
his own purchases, maintain his bodily and spiritual health, 
and sometimes is still further embarrassed by having to take a 
share in the church work of his station. What wonder if in 
course of time he breaks down under the giant’s burden or goes 
along the road of least resistance to the great loss of his self- 
respect and the good of his helpers and patients. 

In the name of the Church great hardships are being 
borne in some places known to us by men who, uncomplainingly, 
year in and year out, are doing the best they can but who all 
the time suffer intensely from the knowledge that their super¬ 
vision is inadequate and their work, at best, second rate. 

In our wanderings we have often been pained and em¬ 
barrassed when asking after the sanitary and culinary arrange¬ 
ments of an institution, for already the untidy condition of 
the surroundings has prepared us for a sad state of affairs 
there. 

“Do you often go into your kitchen?” we have some¬ 
times asked. “Why, no,” is generally the reply. “Why 
should I, or indeed how can I ? You will see that things are 
not as they should be or as I should like them to be, but what 
can one man do to keep all this work going.” U I cannot 
remedy matters, so I let them alone.” “It has been like this 
ever since I came, besides, were I to go much into the place 
now—the cook and his staff would resent my presence as an 
intrusion; I should be regarded as a spy and in a manner, as 
plain as speech could tell, be bidden to go about my own 
business” ! ! 

Now we hold that the Chinese cook can, if properly 
trained, turn out as decent a dish as any French chef, more¬ 
over he can be encouraged to keep his kitchen clean and tidy ; 
but leave him to his own sweet will and very soon his im¬ 
mediate surroundings will be such as to beggar description. 
Decayed vegetable matter under the tables and in every corner, 
utensils helter-skelter and dirty, fuel and debris scattered in all 
directions, water, filth, and expectorations below, smoke and 
a vicious atmosphere above. 


318 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


As to the personnel. The cook himself may be stuffed like 
a partridge and keep his health, but in such a place he soon 
becomes as dirty as a tinker, only more greasy, smelly, and 
undesirable as a neighbour. As for his underlings they some¬ 
times look as if they came from the nether regions, so dirty 
and unkempt are they. Here it is certainly true that “a man’s 
environment determines his sweetness and outlook on life.” 

Under such circumstances is it any wonder if some of our 
commonest alimentary troubles have their beginnings in the 
kitchen I We venture to suggest that the term “ kitekenitis" 
be written in bold type on many a chart which now carries a 
different diagnosis. My object in coming here to-day is to 
point out what I believe to be a better way and to make the 
kitchen a pride to the cook and medical staff alike. 

At once let it be understood that there is no need whatever 
to perpetuate the kitchen arrangements so much in vogue in 
China. The latest edition of the Kweh Wen gives a very clear 
idea of what is meant. (See diagram.) 

The construction of the cooking stove you will note is 
sufficient to account for the filthy condition already described 
and in great measure for the absence of ‘‘chimney life” in 
China. 

Do what you will whenever such a stove is used, back- 
smoke, fumes, and dust are sure to pour into the kitchen. 
The chimney shown is inadequate and in the wrong place. 
Carbon particles mixing with steam from the cooking of rice 
and vegetables quickly find their way into every crack and 
cranny. The result is to be seen to-day, alas ! in many of the 
kitchens of our most modern hospitals, schools, and other 
institutions. Unfortunately, the domestic kitchen arrangements 
of foreign residences are often not one whit better. Possibly 
the fault is to be placed in the first instance on a wrong con¬ 
ception of the needs of master and servant. An institution or 
a house will be well planned with lofty, lightsome, airy, and 
convenient rooms, but, apparently because the kitchen is in 
the hands of Chinese, any kind of place is considered good 
enough for it. Often kitchen, cook and servants’ quarters will 
be found huddled together in some dark otherwise unusable 
corneT of the compound. 

Invariably there is insufficient air space in these rooms 
and an utter lack, or misplaced application, of conveniences 
for the Chinese inmates. The blame must not always be 


1917 ] The Kitchens of Missionary Institutions 319 

placed wholly on the missionary. Again and again plans 
have been put into our hands for new buildings, prepared by 
competent architects with the same conspicuous defects. 

Surely, as custodians of the health of our mission com¬ 
pounds—where new buildings are to be erected—a lead in 
these matters should be given by us to architects, builders, 
and colleagues alike. 

Let it be recognised that the first essential of a kitchen is 
plenty of light and air and thorough cleanliness : and for our 
servants’ quarters a similar condition of things. 

In planning a house, a hospital, or any institution, large 
or small, in China, we claim therefore that the housing of the 
Chinese staff, who prepare our food and wait upon us, should 
be duly considered, and that the kitchen should be of sufficient 
size, and so conveniently placed and constructed as to make 
cleanliness a sine qua non. 

We recommend that wherever possible kitchen, store house, 
pantry, and dining hall should be in convenient proximity 
to each other. Our Leper Home assistant has drawn for this 
meeting in true Chinese perspective, a plan of the arrangements 
to be found in the Siaokati Leper Home, Here some 160-170 
inmates and servants are provided for all the year round. 
This arrangement we have somewhat modified in our geueral 
hospital culinary department where we generally prepare food 
for about 90-100 persons. The main feature in both places 
is that not the slightest smoke can get into the kitchen because 
the fire is stoked from behind, a wall dividing kitchen from 
stoke house. All steam and oily vapour due to the constant 
cooking, incident to such institutions, pass directly upwards 
through ventilators. Thus the kitchen keeps free from smoke, 
steam, disagreeable or eveu appetising odours. The cook 
with very little supervisiou can be made to handle clean 
utensils and in his own person be sweet and wholesome. 
What is of most importance is the fact that food can be better 
prepared and cooked in this environment than in that 
previously described. 

Care will need to be exercised in constructing the 
chimney. It should pass directly from the furnace into the 
outer air in a straight line. Sufficient draught also will have 
to be provided beneath the grate. This can be best done by 
making a stoking pit. Quite recently we sent details of this 
stove arrangement to an architect for inclusion in his drawings 


320 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


for a large institution. The result is both ludicrous and 
annoying. To secure the necessary draught and to carry off 
steam from the rice-steamers probably the whole structure 
will have to be pulled down and rebuilt. (I shall be pleased 
to enter into details of these drawings later if desired.) 

Either wood, grass, reeds, or coals can be used in the 
stove. Each furnace heats up the large iron 1 ‘ kok ’ ’ so 
familiar to us in the East. If the institution is a small one a 
single furnace can be so constructed as to heat up two small 
koks, plus a deeper iron vessel for hot water supply. It is 
simply a matter of clay, bricks, and common sense. 

We claim that besides being cleanly and convenient this 
arrangement is also thoroughly economical. 

The daily allowance for one of the large furnaces capable 
of cooking for 150-200 men is 70 catties of coal and 30 
catties of wood fuel. The whole cost is well under 1,000 
cash per diem. 

If dust coal is bought in bulk it is more economical still. 
Equal quantities of coal dust and wet clay are well mixed up 
in a suitable box in the stoking pit. A shovel full of this is 
placed around some burning wood and very soon a fire giving 
off tremendous heat is the result. 

The coal preparation is added about every hour in the 
form of a crater, that is with a depression corresponding to 
the deepest point of the iron “ kokP Beyond this, no 
stoking whatever is required. If the desire is for slow 
combustion the door of the furnace is left open—if intense 
heat is desired the draught is increased by the closing of the 
furnace door. 

In a small institution the work will be so slight that the 
cook himself can easily stoke and regulate his own stove. 

Provided it is properly constructed, there are two other 
advantages possessed by this stove worth mentioning, viz :— 

(a) It burns up most of its own smoke and gasses. 

( b) There is scarcely any loss of heat up the chimney. 

The stoke house, like the kitchen, can be kept absolutely 

free from smoke and dirt. It may be approached either 
directly through a door from the kitchen or from the outside 
by means of its own separate entrance. 

If funds permit we strongly recommend that the top of 
the stoves surrounding the “ koks" should be covered with a 
layer of brass. This can easily be kept bright and clean aud 


191 7 } The Kitchens of Missionary institutions $21 

so add to the attractiveness of the kitchen. It goes without 
saying that as few articles of furniture as possible should be in 
the kitchen. A strong Ningpo varnished table with thick 
chopping boards is an essential. Beside this, the only things 
really necessary are a couple of varnished tripod stands on 
which to place tubs and steamers. 

It is a great mistake to allow a cupboard in the coo.k 
house. Everything should be open to inspection at a glance. 
Brass shovels, brass bowls, and other necessary articles for 
preparing food, should be carefully arranged on hooks on a 
good sized varnished board. This is turn should be placed 
for convenience in handling on the wall adjacent to the 
stoves. 

There should be no shelves whatever in the kitchen. The 
pantry is the proper place for basins, chopsticks, and everything 
else connected with the distribution of food. 

We strongly suggest that the floor and walls to the height 
of 4 feet thould be laid with Portland cement. In the centre 
of the floor, or at the sides, it is desirable that a slight drain 
should be made for the carrying away at once of any spilt 
water. 

If there is no water system in connection with the in¬ 
stitution it is convenient to have a couple of large water kangs 
built half iu and half out of the kitchen wall. These can 
be filled from the outside without interfering with the work of 
the kitchen. 

Having provided for our kitchen we turn our attention 
again to the cook. When engaging him it should be made 
quite clear that every Saturday afternoon he has to whitewash 
his kitchen walls, clean the stove, polish up every bit of 
brass work, and thoroughly wash down all places under his 
control. 

Should he object to do this work or to co-operate iu 
keeping his department tidy and clean the wisest thing is to 
let him give place to a better man. A reform of this kind 
should never be hindered because of an unwilling worker. 

We believe it will be found when once the matter is 
clearly explained to the cook and his helpers, that all will 
enter heartily into the scheme. 

Reforms having begun in the kitchen other departments 
will probably speedily come iuto line and each contribute to 
a whole which shall make for health aud uplift. 


322 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


The best methods of tickling the palates of our hospital 


sick and getting rid of the vile smelling salt cabbage, mouldy 


bean curd cake and other abominations so well known to us 
cannot for want of time be dealt with now. 

Possibly they could find a place in some subsequent 
paper or debate. 

We are indebted to Messrs. Shattuch and Hussey, for the 
drawings used in connection with this article. 


Obituaries 


Rev. J. M. W. Farnham, D.D. 



I j |N Rev. J. M. W. Farnham, D.D., who, on February 16th, 
I || j 1917, at the age of eighty-seven years, passed quietly to his 
|AJ heavenly home as sets the sun in the west, the missionary 
force lost a devoted veteran of striking personality, the cause 
of mission industrial education one of its most enthusiastic pioneers, 
the reading people among the Christians a provider of instructive, 
stimulating literature, and the Central China Tract Society its 
organizer and staunchest supporter. 

Dr. Farnham’s early life was spent grappling with many diffi¬ 
culties in the struggle for an education, and he was one of those 
who came out of that conflict braced for the battles of life, with the 
warrior spirit unabated to the very day of his departure. 

He reached China in March, i860, and early devoted himself to 
the education of youth in the Presbyterian Mission School at the 
South Gate of the city of Shanghai. While there he introduced 
industrial training by means of a small printing plant, and infused 
his own spirit of diligence, perseverance, and enthusiasm into the 
hearts of his pupils. Some of these he also trained in the methods 
of conducting a printing business, one of the results of which, after 
the lapse of fifty years, is the Commercial Press of Shanghai, the 
largest and most progressive institution of its kind in China, 
whose managers are Christian men employing more than 1,500 
persons in its various departments. 

Dr. Farnfaam's devotion to his work and his undivided interest 
in the welfare of the Chinese for whose eternal life he was laboring, 
knit them to him in a remarkable way, so that as he approached 
the age of ninety they determined to celebrate in a public and 
impressive congratulatory service bis many years of labor for China. 
And this memorial occasion was unique in the history of missions 






THE LATE REV. J. M. W. FARNHAM, D.D 




323 


19173 Rev. J. M. W. Farnham, D.D. 

in Shanghai. Martyrs’ Memorial Hall was filled with a large 
company of old and young who, with presentation of banners and 
scrolls and an elaborate programme, united in offering affectionate 
tributes to the character of the father in Israel who had lived among 
them and for them so long. 

For thirty-five years Dr. Farnbam devoted himself to preparing 
reading matter for the instruction and the spiritual nourishment of 
the Chinese Christian community. By means of two periodicals, 
The Child'$ Paper and The Illustrated News, he reached both young 
and old, and by his enthusiastic support of the Central China Tract 
Society did much to assist his colleagues in extending the influence 
of that valued institution. 

He was a man of intense convictions which, while they made 
him sometimes a strenuous opponent, nevertheless, being usually 
right and true, enabled him to exercise a positive and powerful 
influence for good throughout his long career. They were of the 
type also that impelled him to continue long and painstakingly at 
one chosen task, and roll up a great aggregate of work in the 
course of the years. 

He had profound belief in the living God, in Christ, in the Holy 
Spirit as a reality, in the Bible as the infinitely true and mighty 
Word of God. Indeed, the most striking characteristic of a man 
with so many elements of a strong personality was perhaps his great 
and simple faith in the fundamentals of the Christian revelation, a 
loyalty which was like a slumbering fire, ready to burst into ardent 
expression if in his presence the principles of the faith met with 
open opposition. 

Much of his time aud means were spent, and increasingly 
during later years, in advocating the use of the word “ Shen ” for 
“God” in the Chinese Bible and Christian literature, and in 
vigorous opposition to the rival term appropriated from the Chinese 
classics. For the purpose of again bringing this view to the atten¬ 
tion of the Christian forces in China a number of educated Christian 
Chinese united with him in forming the Chinese Bible and Book 
Society and disseminating much literature upon the subject through 
its instrumentality. 

He was a public-spirited member of the community at Mohkan- 
shau, where he left no means unemployed to provide health of 
body, mind, and heart for his missionary colleagues who resorted to 
the hillside for summer rest. 

His devotion to Mrs. Farnbam during her lifetime was a 
beautiful feature of his character. Their more than a half century 
of married life was characterized by a restful confidence and a joy 
in fellowship that rendered it one long honeymoon and made their 
home a haven of peace to those who had the privilege of a stay 
within its walls. Mrs. Farnbam had preceded him three years to 


324 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 

the heavenly home, aud he had counted the weeks since their 
separation, saying often during the last week of his life, “ It is one 
hundred and fifty-three weeks since she passed away on Friday ” ; 
and on that day, often repeating the question, “ Is it Friday? n he 
followed her into the Master’s presence, in peace. 

He had a great heart of sympathy for all who were in need, and 
his home was always and increasingly during the last years of his 
life a haven of comfort to one after another who for the time had 
need of a friendly, sheltering hand. 

He rests from his labors and his works do follow him. 

Immediately after his death, the Chinese Christians, his pupils 
of former years and others, enthusiastically proposed to the mission 
to erect a suitable church edifice, entirely at their own expense, as 
a memorial to him, on the site of his Shanghai residence, which 
is another token of the remarkable influence he had upon the hearts 
of the Chinese who were nearest him. 

Dr. Farnham, like other strong and good men, had his limita¬ 
tions, but the total influence of his life, his undivided loyalty to 
God and His Book, his ardent perseverance in the cause of missions, 
his practical interest in the uplift of men, was noble indeed and a 
large contribution to the permanent and highest welfare of China. 

J. W. L. 


Miss Annie Simpson, E.B.M. 

Miss Simpson arrived in China in the spring of 1894 under 
the English Baptist Missionary Society, aud was located at Tsow- 
p‘ing, Shantung. 

After twenty-three years of faithful and devoted service our 
friend and fellow-worker has passed away. She left no message; 
gave us no intimation that she was leaving us—but died as she had 
lived—quietly and peacefully. She was not demonstrative, not a 
great talker, but she felt deeply, and the things concerning the 
King were very real to her. She knew in whom she believed. In 
a word she was ready, and we commit her body to the grave in 
sure and certain hope of the resurrection to eternal life. She was 
a quiet, unobtrusive, painstaking, and plodding worker, and the 
women in the north owe much to her earnest aud indefatigable 
labours. I have heard it said of women trained by Miss Simpson 
who presented themselves as candidates for church membership, 
that they had a better knowledge and grip of the Scriptures than 
many of the men. I doubt not that at the last, many Chinese 
women will acknowledge Miss Simpson as the instrument God used 
in their conversion. 



Mrs. Gilbert McIntosh 


325 


1917] 

Increasing deafness was a trial to her, but her ardour never 
cooled; her zeal never slackened. To the last she was as keen as 
ever in visiting out-stations and in planning and arranging for 
Bible classes. Last year she chafed against the amount of time she 
was obliged to spend at home owing to the presence of rebel 
soldiers in the district, and she was looking forward with great 
delight to making up for what she described as “ lost time.” God 
has called her to higher service, and though we can ill spare her, 
He knows best, and never makes a mistake. What shall we say? 
“The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away. Blessed 
be the name of the Lord.” We are thankful for her long and 
devoted service, and feel sure her witness for the Saviour in this 
land will have never-ending results. The memory of the just is 
blessed. May the memory of our friend be an inspiration to us 
all. We are thankful she was spared acute suffering and a 
lingering illness. She was tired, and rested for a while, and the 
Lord took her. 

She was by nature gentle and kind—not easily provoked—but 
could be very indignant concerning things she felt to be wrong. 
She was very conscientious in her work, preparing most carefully 
for all her Bible classes with the women. If I were asked 
to sum up her life in a sentence it would be “ She hath done what 
she could.” The quality our Saviour commended in the parable of 
the talents was not genius, cleverness, knowledge—but faithful¬ 
ness ; and faithfulness was the characteristic of Miss Simpson’s life. 
We can well believe she has heard the Saviour say, “ Well done 
good and faithful servant, enter thou into the joy of thy Lord.” 
God is speaking to each one of us to-day, reminding us of the 
uncertainty of life. “ Blessed are those servants whom the Lord 
when He cometh shall find watching.” 

E. C. S. 


Mrs. Gilbert McIntosh. 

On March roth, 1917, from the little home in West Kilbride, 
Scotland, there went up to the Homeland above the soul of Mrs. 
Gilbert McIntosh. 

Our readers who have more recently come to China had no 
opportunity to know and love her, but many of them who received 
the ever-ready helpfulness of her husband little realized how God 
was using the years of this anxious separation to polish them both 
Into Living Stones for His Temple. 

About thirty years ago she came to China to be married and 
for some twenty years she was his constant helper and comforter. 
We who were permitted to be intimately associated with her knew 



326 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 

of the practical beauty of her spiritual life, but to the world she 
was a very quiet, humble soul. Her husband, children, and home 
largely occupied her time, but a fragrance went out from her simple, 
patient, willing, and gladsome service, of which we were all 
conscious. 

She bravely struggled with the disease that fastened itself upon 
her ten years ago, making no complaint. On taking their furlough 
she was ordered by her physicians to remain at home, but chose to 
have her husband return to China, and by her prayers and letters 
lovingly helped to sustain him during their separation. Her thought 
was ever for others, and she now gave her little strength to her 
parents and children. 

Again and agaiu her husband returned to her always hoping 
to bring her back with him, and when at his last going he found 
her still unable to come, he resigned his connection with the 
Presbyterian Board of Missions (which, however, was not accepted 
by them) in order to remain with her. Their only son was in the 
trenches, and a short time before she had seen her parents move into 
their Heavenly Home, so those last two years had brought to her 
much anxiety and sorrow, but her letters always told of her trust 
in God and her restfulness in His Love. She always seemed to 
improve after her husband’s return, but the last getting better was 
only a prelude to her Home-going. God had “ some better thing” 
for her and so he took her to be with Him, which is “far better.” 

Our loving sympathy goes out to the husband and children 
whom we know God is comforting with His own comfort. 

M. M. F. 


Our Book Table 

0 1© Selected Portions of Scripture. Distribution Fund t 
Nanking. 

Wisely selected, dealing with the central themes of the Bible. 
Well printed and bound. We cannot commend the illustrations as 
a whole; some are grotesque, others puerile, and a few misleading. 
Did Moses ever wear Chinese dress, or was the Lord clothed in a 
Chinese schoolboy’s costume? The one of the burial of Christ is 
atrocious and misleading. What effect that free distribution of the 
book will have on the sales of the Bible Societies is no concern of 
ours, but we trust that the truths contained herein will find entrance 
into many hearts. 


“ Hai.e Done.” Some Thoughts for Women. By the Misses Gowjck. 
United Council for Missionary Education t London . 

The purpose of this booklet of 6o pages is to claim the attention 
of Christian women at home to the circumstances surrounding 




t$17] Correspondence 327 

women in non-Christian lands, and the significance of the present 
opportunity. It is a clamant call to consider the issues involved, 
and to a fuller recognition of the standard of love and service. 
The style and thought grip, cultured and earnest, but are what we 
expect from these lady workers. 


Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio. Dr. Herbert A. Giles 
Kelly and Walsh , Shanghai. Third edition , revised . 

These 144 translations from the works of the ‘‘Last of the 
Immortals” are too well-known to need commeudation here. They 
read like tales from the Arabian Nights, and, in Chinese dress, are 
known all over the land. The translation, of ^course, by such an 
author, is excellently done, for he has the true instincts of the 
scholar, and knows his theme from the inside. The stories are often 
amusing, sometimes enlightening, and always interesting. We 
urge all young missionaries in particular to procure the original— 
the Tiao Chai—and use this translation as a companion volume. 
They will thank us for calling attention to the masterly^aid this 
translation affords. 


Correspondence 


SELF-SUPPORT AND CHINESE 
ADMINISTRATION. 

To the Editor of 

The Chinese Recorder. 

Dear Sir :—At its annual con¬ 
vention for all believers held in 
October, 19165 the Hengchow 
station of the Hunan Mission 
(Presbyterian Church) formally 
launched a plan to secure the 
self-support of its Chinese church 
proper by the end of fifteen 
years from the date of the con¬ 
vention. For a couple of years 
the membership was being pre¬ 
pared for this step. It was 
explained to the Chinese just 
how much the American Church 
was paying annually for the 
support of their preachers and 
churches, and that they should 
be providing a constantly in¬ 
creasing portion of the same so 
that American funds might be 
freed to take the Gospel to 


others with an equal need for 
and right to it. Two previous 
annual conventions had elected 
Chinese committees to collect 
gifts. But the amount of money 
sent in was not great. The goal 
was too indefinite and distant. 
It was a matter of convenience; 
to contribute was all right, not 
to contribute was about the 
same; foreigners would foot the 
bill anyway even if Chinese did 
not help. The money received 
was paid over to the mission¬ 
aries. This was a mistake. 

The 1916 Convention plan set 
fifteen years as the goal for 
self-support. The station’s field 
covers seven counties in which 
there are thirty-nine congre¬ 
gations of groups having a total 
of about 480 adult baptized 
members. The Chinese Church 
(including day-schools) assumed 
the responsibility of providing 
one-fifteenth of its budget for 
the first year with an increase 





328 


The Chinese Recorder 


of one-fifteenth on each succeed¬ 
ing year. Each congregation is 
expected to pay a sum equal to 
1,200 cash per year for each 
member. It may be necessary 
to increase this amount later. 
The Convention elected by ballot 
its own Central Finauce Com¬ 
mittee. All funds are to be both 
received and disbursed by it, no 
Chinese funds being administered 
by any foreigners. Beginning 
with October, 1916, the station 
has paid only fourteen-fifteenths 
of all preachers’ or workers’ 
salaries; for the balance they 
must depend on their own 
Finance Committee. Each con¬ 
gregation has a local committee 
of two to collect funds. One 
member keeps accounts only and 
one holds the cash. These com¬ 
mittees collect monthly and remit 
to the Central Finance Com¬ 
mittee once every three months. 

This plan puts an incentive on 
the preachers to help push and 
the people see the entire course 
of their gifts from giver to 
ultimate consumer. It is too 
soon to forecast very much, hut 
though only a portion of the 
congregations has sent in funds, 
the Finance Committee has paid 
all its portion of salaries for 
October through December, 1916, 
and has a cash balance on hand. 
The station’s annual conference 
for preachers and one local 
leader (future elders) from each 
congregation meets April 1-4, 
at which time remittances will 
come in not only for the first 
quarter but for last October- 
December as well. 

As soon as the Chinese Church 
pays one-fifteenth of its budget, 


[May 

a Church Executive Committee, 
consisting of the evangelistic 
missionaries and one Chinese 
member, will be created. The 
missionaries will hold fourteen 
of the total fifteen votes. For 
each additional fifteenth of its 
support provided by the Chinese 
Church, another Chinese mem¬ 
ber will be added to tbe com¬ 
mittee. The missionaries, of 
course, have one vote less for 
each new Chinese vote. It is a 
gradual transfer of votes until, 
when the Chinese Church sup¬ 
ports itself, there will be no mis¬ 
sionary voting. One Chinese 
may or may not hold more than 
one vote, as seems expedient. 
This Executive Committee is 
the transition to a Presbytery or 
other formal ecclesiastical body. 
Meanwhile ordination, of both 
ministers and elders, will wait 
until the candidates represent 
self-supporting constituencies. 

Some special financial necessity 
may interfere with the steady 
proportional increase as planned 
but that need not destroy the 
plan. If, for example, it be¬ 
comes impossible to move on 
from two-fifteenths to three- 
fifteenths on the following year, 
we can just take an intercalary 
year on two-fifteenths again, as 
the Chinese are so accustomed 
to doing with their calendar 
months. Working this plan is 
not easy but it is worth while 
and practical. 

I am, etc., 

Geo. L. Geewicks. 

Hangchow, Hunan. 


1917] 


Correspondence 


329 


MISSING PARCELS AND MAG* 
AZINES. 

To the Editor of 

The Chinese Recorder. 

Dear Sir: —How many of your 
readers are short of parcels 
or magazines from the United 
States ? Recently, wheu call¬ 
ing for a parcel at the Shanghai 
office, the postmaster requested 
me to “just take a look at the 
condition in which parcels reach 
here because of lack of proper 
packing.” Of the large number 
which had just arrived fully 
one-third were in crushed and 
burst condition. From many 
of them articles, could have 
slipped—and who could judge 
in which to replace them? 

The postmaster wishes to 
enlist all in a campaign of in¬ 
formation to homefolks to en¬ 
sure proper packing. The main 
things are: 

To use strong paper, that will 
stand the rocking and chafing 
incident to the long voyage. 
Put address on two sides—one 
may be defaced or otherwise 
destroyed. 

Cardboard boxes should have 
filling enough to support them 
from crushing. 

Light wooden boxes should 
have nails driven at an angle. 
If nailed straight in, they work 
loose. It is better to cord them, 
too. 

Most parcels, in boxes, are 
corded only over ends and sides, 
leaving one set of edges to bear 
the strain, and easily burst apart. 
Cords should be put around the 
“ third ” way of boxes also. 

If your magazines are missing, 
they may be among many which 
have lost the wrappers entirely. 
From the debris of paper in the 
mail sack, attempt is made to get 
magazine and address together. 


Advise your publishers to put 
cord on your magazines, in 
addition to the wrappers. 

Let us all lend “ our pens ” 
to help our P. O. officials and 
ourselves. 

Very truly, 

C. W. D. 

AN APPRECIATION AND A. 

SUGGESTION. 

To the Editor of 

The Chinese Recorder. 

Dear Editor :—Permit me to 
thank you and Mr. MacNaughtan 
for the article in the April num¬ 
ber on “How to Preach the Gos¬ 
pel to Non-Christian Chinese.” 
While I am only an inex¬ 
perienced missionary, having 
just begun the work, I have had 
more years of experience in the 
work of the church in general 
and in dealing with the religious 
thinkiugof men the world round, 
and this experience enables me 
to appreciate very much Mr. 
MacNaughtan’s article. For al¬ 
most 20 centuries the church 
has persisted in expounding 
the gospel in Judaistic legal 
terms and not one theologian of 
all these years has ever presented 
that theory of the Cross in a 
satisfying and consistent way. 
None do justice to the loving 
Heavenly Father. 

We may never fully under¬ 
stand the place the Cross has 
between sin and salvation. All 
illustrations do help us in some 
measure but we should avoid 
presentations that leave a ques¬ 
tion in the mind of the listener 
or enquirer. 

Mr. MacNaughtan’s presenta¬ 
tion is dear and satisfying. I 
would like to see his article in 
tract form, probably added to 


330 


The Chinese Recorder 


in some particulars, as Mr. 
MacNaughtan’s rich experience 
might suggest to him, some¬ 
thing that presents in brief the 
glad news, the message of 
salvation, and that also handles 
the difficulties that already pre¬ 


[May 

vail to non-Christian minds. 
Such, I am sure, would be useful 
and please many of us. 

Yours truly, 

D. McRae 


Missionary News 

Reports and Minutes 


SOME EXTRACTS FROM THE 
REPORT OP THE “ INDO-CHINA 

MISSION OF THE CHRISTIAN 
AND MISSIONARY ALLIANCE ” 

No one part of the world has 
so great an area and so dense a 
population totally without the 
pure Gospel as French Indo- 
China. Except for one station 
in Taos, opened by the Plymouth 
Brethren, the Alliance Mission 
is the only Protestant Missionary 
Society at work in Auuam. The 
British and Foreign Bible Society 
has had colporteurs in the field 
for some years and the Paris 
Evangelical Association has 
had French pastors working 
among the French’ population, 
including the soldiers and 
sailors. 

According to the interpretation 
of an ancient treaty between 
France and the Kingdom of 
Annam, dated' 1874, only Roman 
Catholic missionaries can be per¬ 
mitted to propagate the teachings 
of their religion in any part of 
the colony, that is not con¬ 
sidered actual French possession* 
This interpretation restricts Prot¬ 
estant missionary work to the 
three cities of Haiphong, Hanoi, 
and Tourane, and the Province 
of Cochim-Chma, including the 
largest city of indo-China, name¬ 


ly Saigon, all of which are 
French possessions. 

The Christian and Missionary 
Alliance made its first effort to 
enter this field of approximately 
22,000,000 people nearly twenty- 
five years ago. However, real 
work was permitted only five 
years ago. At the present time 
mission work is carried on in 
Tourane city, and in Hanoi, the 
capital, with good prospects of 
soon opening a quiet work in 
Haiphong. The mission is very 
anxious to open a station at 
Saigon also. 

In September of last year, the 
Indo-Chiua missionaries met in 
Conference at Haiphoug. Among 
the important matters settled 
upon were:—(i) That publica¬ 
tion work be commenced without 
delay, and that each missionary 
give definite time and attention 
to- the revision of the Gospels, 
Acts of the Apostles, and the 
Epistle to the Romans, with 
special attention to Mark during 
the Conference year. (2) That 
each missionary try to get out 
one or more simple direct Gospel 
tracts for publication during the 
year. Among the subjects 
agreed upon for prayer were:— 
For the government authorities 
of French Indo-Chiua, that they 
may not hinder the work, but 
that a wide door to the whole 




351 


Missionary News 


19173 

of Indo-China may be opened 
speedily. 

Mr. and Mrs. Irwin and Miss 
Russell carry on the work in 
Tourane city. A year ago the 
station reported seven members. 
Recently a letter, received from 
Rev. R. A. Jaffray, of Wuchow, 
acting superintendent of the 
Indo-China Mission, announces: 
“ During the fall of last year and 
the early months of this year, 
a steady work of salvation has 
beeu going on in connection with 
this station until over thirty 
Annamese have been brought to 
a knowledge and acceptance of 
the truth.” These converts, 
largely young men, are of the 
better educated, and more intel¬ 
ligent class, and the promise for 
the work in the future is very 
bright.” Two of the thirty 
Tourane church-members are 
related to royalty, three are 
clerks in the French railway 
offices, two are school teachers, 
three railroad workmen, four 
students, etc. A splendid Sun¬ 
day school of over one hundred 
enrolled scholars has beeu started, 
and recently a primary school 
for girls, with fourteen pupils, 
has been opeued. 

About six months ago Mr. 
and Mrs. Cadrnau proceeded to 
Hanoi, Tonkin, to open a station 
in this capital city where there 
are at least 8o,ooo Annamese. 
Property has not as yet been 
purchased. The initial outfit for 
publication work is on its way 
and will be installed in Hanoi. 
Both in the field of evangelization 
work as well as in publication 
work “ a great door and effectual 
is open unto us, but there are 
many adversaries.” 

The Alliance Mission with its 
five missionaries is the only 
Protestant Mission in all Indo- 
China. “ What are these among 
so many ? ” 


BIBLE INSTITUTE, YOUNG WOM¬ 
EN’S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 

During the week March 25th 
to April 1st the Shanghai Youug 
Women’s Christian Association 
held a Bible Institute at its 
buildings. The purpose of this 
Institute was three-fold. First, 
the securing of the interest of 
the members of the Association 
in the real spiritual purpose of 
that organization as expressed 
through the Bible classes aud 
religious services of the Associa¬ 
tion itself and through active 
Christian service in the churches 
aud community. Second, the 
training of capable Bible teachers 
to provide for appeals for teachers 
which are coming to the Associa¬ 
tion from non-mission schools, 
as well as to provide competent 
teachers for the classes held 
directly under the Association. 
Third, to come into closer touch 
with graduates of the mission 
schools of the city. Some of 
these graduates go back into 
their own schools as teachers but 
many are not actively employed 
in Christian service, and the 
securiug of their active partici¬ 
pation in Christian work was 
one of the results hoped for from 
the Institute. 

The Association was fortunate 
in securing as leaders for the 
Institute, Mr. D. W. Tyoa of 
the National Committee of the 
Youug Men’s Christian Associa¬ 
tion and Miss Daisy Brown of 
the American Board Mission iu 
Foochow. 

In panning for the Institute 
the cordial co-operation of two 
groups of people was especially 
helpful. The principals of mis¬ 
sion schools in the city, and in 
several cases the heads of non- 
mission schools, made a prompt 
and cordial response, sending 
good representatives of students 


332 


The Chinese Recorder 


and teachers to the lectures. 
The plan of the Institute was 
presented to the Union Pastors* 
Meeting - , asking that announce¬ 
ment be made through them in 
the various churches and that 
Bible-women be appointed to 
represent each church in attend¬ 
ing the Institute. Five churches 
responded, which was at least a 
beginning of active co-operation 
between the churches and the 
Association in the matter of 
training Bible teachers. The 
services of all the Christian 
members of the Association were 
enlisted to bring their friends to 
the Institute. “ Personal work ” 
was done in the Association Day 
School and special educational 
classes and among the Associa¬ 
tion Committee members. 

The leaders of the Institute 
had hoped for a small but care¬ 
fully selected audience, but the 
actual numbers far exceeded the 
expectations, the average attend¬ 
ance for the eight days being 
115, while the audience itself 
was actually made up of strong 
representative women—potential 
leaders of others. 

One typical quotation will 
serve to illustrate the attitude of 
the audience. One of the wide¬ 
awake young teachers who was 
a regular attendant at the lectures 
said, “I never before got this 
broad view of the meaning of 
the Church. Now that I have 
this outline picture, I am eager 
to fill in the details.*’ A number 
asked Miss Brown to give some 
additional talks on “How We 
Got Otir Bible.” Time limita¬ 
tions prevented this, but it is 
hoped that such a course can be 
given later. 

As a first step in following 
up the work of the Institute, 
Pastor 14 , of Soochow, gave an 
address at the Association Vesper 
Service on April 15th. This 


[May 

took the form of a strong aud 
definite appeal for personal con¬ 
secration to Christian service. 

The first concrete result of the 
Institute has been a request that 
it be repeated for the benefit of 
five mission schools within a 
mile of one another. It has been 
arranged by Mrs. Yie, the special 
Bible teacher of the Association, 
to repeat all the lectures to the 
older students of these schools. 
In anticipation of this work Mrs. 
Yie has gone over all the mate¬ 
rial presented, with Miss Brown 
and Miss Wie, who interpreted 
for her. This is a gratifying 
opportunity to multiply the 
results from the Institute. 

While too soon to reap the 
desired results from this Institute, 
the Association hopes that next 
year may see in Shanghai a 
larger number of Christian 
Chinese women who are prepared 
to give valuable service as Bible 
teachers in the churches and in 
Bible classes conducted by the 
Association, aud also that other 
forms of Christian service may 
receive reinforcements from 
among the women who during 
the Institute received a broader 
vision of Christianity and who 
dedicated their lives anew to the 
service of Christianity. 


UNITED METHODIST CHURCH, 
TIENTSIN 

The Annual District Meeting 
of the United Methodist Church 
was held in Tientsin on April 
12th aud following days. The 
Executive met at the Mission 
House on Thursday, the 12th 
hist., when the appointments 
and fiuances were considered. 
There were present: Rev. Dr. 
Candliu in the chair, Revs. J. 
Hinds, F. B, Turner, J. K. 
Robson, W. Eddon, and Miss 



1917] 


333 


Missionary News 


Armitt. Dr. A. E. Jones, owing 
to domestic affliction, was unable 
to be present. Miss Turner also 
could not be present. 

The District Meeting was held 
in the city chapel, Tung Ma Eu, 
on 16th and 17th, when repre¬ 
sentatives from all the circuits 
and branches of work were 
present. The reports from the 
various circuits were presented 
to the meeting showing that the 
year has been one of quiet work 
and advance. 

In Tientsin City the work 
shows more advance than it has 
for a long time past, and the 
attendance has much increased, 
while the work in the Sunday 
school and among the women is 
a pleasiug and hopeful feature 
of the situation. 

The Shantung Circuits, al¬ 
though insufficiently manned, 
have put tip a good fight, and 
well maintained their ground 
and made even some headway. 

The work in the two Northern 
Circuits has also showed good 
results. 


The hospitals at Eaoling and 
Yungpingfu have been centres 
of beneficent healing and spirit¬ 
ual helpfulness. Their statistics 
are as follows :— 

Taoling Hospital:— 
Out-patients 4,941 
In-patients 431 

Outside visits 90 

Yungpingfu Hospital:— 

Out-patients 4,943 
In-patients 91 

Church statistics areas below : — 

Organized Churches ioo 

Members 3,473 showing 
an increase of 110 on the year. 

Probationers 724 

Baptisms during year 249 
Scholars 644 

Students iu Peking 
University 16 

Church Contribu¬ 
tions ^424.16.11 

Raised for Special 

purposes /476.19.7 


Miscellanea 


G. SHERWOOD EDDY’S VISIT TO 
china in 1917 

Dates. Mr. Eddy expects to 
arrive in China about November 
1st, 1917, leaving about January 
31st, 1918. 

Objective. The objective of 
Mr. Eddy’s meetings will be 
determined by those responsible 
for them in each city. It is his 
sincere desire, repeatedly ex¬ 
pressed in his letters, to work 
for the churches and missions 
wherever he may be invited 
to go. 

The changed conditions in 
China,recent correspondence with 
Christiau leaders in a number of 


provinces, and continued study 
of previous campaigns all sug¬ 
gest that the meetings this year 
should be different from, and an 
advance on, the meetings in 1914. 
In the first place, the prepara¬ 
tion, conduct, and conservation 
should center in the churches. 
Secondly, the aim may well be, 
not primarily to lead men to 
decide to “investigate” the 
truth of Christianity, but to lead 
men to accept Jesus Christ as 
their Eord and Saviour, and to 
ally themselves with the Chris¬ 
tian Church. 

This will determine the char* 
acter of the meetings and the 
classes of men to be invited to 



334 


The Chinese Recorder 


attend them. With such an ob¬ 
jective, the meetings must be 
planned for those who already 
have some knowledge of Chris¬ 
tian truth. The primary aim 
will be to lead men to make life 
decisions, but it is understood 
that the addresses will also exalt 
the position of the Church and 
that the duty of church member¬ 
ship with its privileges will be 
clearly and fully explained. The 
preparation for the meetings will 
require that the churches in 
advance enlist such men in the 
study of Christian truth, and 
also make adequate plans to 
maintain their interest after the 
meetings and prepare to receive 
them into full church member¬ 
ship. 

The importance of planning 
for these meetings not as a 
special, temporary effort, but as 
part of a permanent program of 
evangelization cannot be over¬ 
emphasized. 

It may be that in some cities, 
not previously visited by Mr. 
Eddy, it will be advisable to 
plan for meetings whose objec¬ 
tive will simply be to explain 
Christian truth, without publicly 
registering any decisions. 

The meetings in all places will 
be for men only. The purpose 
of these meetings is to help in 
the effort of the churches to 
win the educated and influential 
classes in the larger cities. 

In most, if not in all, cities 
visited, it will be desirable to 
plan one or two meetings for the 
Christians for the strengthening 
of their faith and to arouse them 
to greater evangelistic activity. 

Places Visited. The places 
which Mr. Eddy will visit are 
not yet determined. He wishes 
to go where the churches de¬ 
sire that he should, where the 
churches are able to unite in a 
concerted forward evangelistic 


[M»y 

movement, where the best prep¬ 
aration can be made to make 
this part of a permanent, con¬ 
tinuous evangelistic program, 
and where he can best serve the 
Christian Movement in China. 

Responsibility. The respon¬ 
sibility for undertaking and 
carrying through these special 
meetings in any city rests wholly 
upon the authoritative church 
and missionary organizations in 
each place. 

The National Committee of 
the Y. M. C. A., of which Mr. 
Eddy is a secretary aud which is 
endeavoring especially to reach 
these classes of men, will carry 
the responsibility for the national 
arrangements. 

The invitations asking that Mr. 
Eddy visit any city should be 
sent to the National Committee 
at 4 Quinsan Gardens, Shanghai. 
The limitations of time will make 
it possible to go to only a com¬ 
paratively small number of cities. 
Early correspondence with the 
National Committee is important 
and therefore prompt action in 
the cities is necessary. 

The Chiua Continuation Com¬ 
mittee and its Special Committee 
on a Forward Evangelistic Move¬ 
ment, while not directly responsi¬ 
ble for this campaign, are deeply 
interested in it, as in all other 
evangelistic work, and desire to 
give such assistance as may be 
within their power. With this 
purpose the Forward Evangelistic 
Movement Committee is issuing 
this bulletin of information. 

A. E. Warnshuis. 

MISSIONARY FELLOWSHIPS OF¬ 
FERED BY UNION THEO¬ 
LOGICAL SEMINARY, 

NEW YORE CITY 

In order to forward the cause 
of missions three Missionary 
Fellowships, each yielding $500 


335 


Missionary News 


1917] 

annually, have just been estab¬ 
lished by Union Theological Sem¬ 
inary. They are intended for 
missionaries on furlough and for 
exceptionally qualified natives 
of mission lands who have been 
engaged in responsible positions 
of Christian service. 

The aim of these Fellowships 
Is (a) to promote advanced mis¬ 
sionary preparation, and (b) to 
encourage productive missionary 
scholarship. Applicants, there¬ 
fore, should be individuals of 
special purpose or promise who 
have already completed a course 
of theological study and have 
engaged in actual service iti 
missionary countries. In making 
appointments to these Fellow¬ 
ships, preference will be given 
to those applicants who wish to 
use such opportunities in the 
solution of some particular prob¬ 
lem, such as the theory, science, 
practice, or history of missions. 
In order that these Fellowships 
may serve the missionary enter¬ 
prise as widely as possible the 
incorporation of results in a 
monograph, while not essential, 
will be encouraged. The Fel¬ 
lowships are for resident work 
under the guidance and direc¬ 
tion of the Faculty of the Sem¬ 
inary. 

These Fellowships are awarded 
by the Faculty for one year, but 
the period of tenure may be 
extended in cases where the 
quality and value of work or 
attending circumstances justify 
it. Bach application for a Fel¬ 
lowship should be accompanied 
by full statemeuts, not only 
from the applicant, but also 
from suitable officials (such as 
officers of the Mission, Board, 
Church). Facts as to the ap¬ 
plicant’s health, attainments, 
ability, purpose, etc., will be 
needed as an adequate basis for 
deciding the relative qualifica¬ 


tions of the applicants for ap¬ 
pointment. All applications 
should be in the hands of the 
Registrar of the Seminary not 
later than January first preceding 
the academic year for winch 
the Fellowship is sought. How¬ 
ever, for the academic year 1917 
to 1918, applications will be 
received at once. 

EVANGELISTIC CAMPAIGN IN 
SZECHWAN 

A unanimous invitation to 
conduct an evangelistic campaign 
in Szechwan in the autumn of 
1918, has been extended to 
G. Sherwood Kddy by all of the 
missions in the province. For a 
number of years the missionaries 
in Szechwan have been thinking 
about and praying for a com¬ 
prehensive evangelistic move¬ 
ment. Bach passing year, with 
its larger experience and its 
growing spirit of unity has car¬ 
ried this desire a little nearer 
its realization. At a meeting 
of the Advisory Council of the 
churches of Szechwan, last Octo¬ 
ber, a resolution was passed 
instructing the Evangelistic 
Committee to prepare a statement 
of plans, and to present this 
statement to the missions for 
their consideration. This state¬ 
ment contains the following pro¬ 
posals : 

(1) That we conduct in the 
autumn of 1918 a province-wide 
evangelistic campaign similar to 
the Fukien campaign of 1914. 

(2) That the campaign should 
have three centres of effort, 
Cheugtu, Chungking, and Bae- 
ting. 

(3) That we invite Mr. G. 
Sherwood Eddy to conduct the 
campaign. 

(4) That a Chinese and foreign 
secretary be secured to assist 


336 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May 


the Organizing Committee in its 
work of preparation and follow¬ 
up Bible classes. 

(5) That each mission agree¬ 
ing to join in the campaign 
appoint one Chinese and one 
foreigner in each of the three 
districts to serve on one of the 
large Organizing Committees. 

(6) That during the year 1917 
definite preparatory evangelistic 
efforts be carried on throughout 
the province. 

(7) That each mission appoint 
a corresponding member in each 
city where there will be con¬ 
ducted definite work in connec¬ 
tion with this carapaigu. 

All the missions aud churches 
have not only responded cor¬ 
dially to this movement of the 
Advisory Council, but each has 
promised its share of the budget, 
which amounts to $4,000. 

The Provincial Evangelistic 
Committee is making extensive 
plans for a “preparedness cam* 
paign” during the summer and 
early fall. Meetings extending 
over a week or two to be held 
in different places. Bible classes 
are being formed and special 
Workers’ Traiuing Courses start¬ 
ed. A letter from Rev, A. J. 
Brace, Chairman of the Evangel¬ 
istic Committee, states that the 
students are becoming vitally 
interested aud special efforts are 
being made to encourage “Per¬ 
sonal Work” and to prepare the 
Christians in the churches for 
this form of service. 

The Organizing Committee of 
the Szechwan province-wide evan¬ 
gelistic campaign has requested 
the release of Mr. E. Newton 
Hayes from the work of the 
Young Men’s Christian Associa* 
tion, to become Organizing Sec¬ 
retary for one year. It is hoped 
that Mr. Hayes will give full 
time to the campaign work for 
six months before the actual 


date of the campaign and six 
months after in “Follow-up” 
Bible class work. 

A special request for prayer 
has been issued, with ten speci¬ 
fied topics, all of which concern 
the coming evaugelistic cam¬ 
paign. A Bulletin has been 
issued in which the following 
information is given : 

The first meeting of the Cen¬ 
tral Organizing Committee for 
the Szechwan province-wide evan¬ 
gelistic campaign was held on 
February 26th, in Chengtti. Sub¬ 
committees on Finance, litera¬ 
ture, Training of Workers, 
Prayer, and Women’s Work, 
were appointed. A letter of 
invitation to Mr. Eddy was read 
and approved. It was decided 
to add to the letter the statement 
that if Mr. Eddy found it im¬ 
possible to come in the autumn 
of 1918, the Committee would 
like to know whether he could 
come to Szechwan either in the 
spring of 1919 or in the autumn 
of the same year. 

Rev. R. J. Davidson has been 
instructed to make inquiries 
while in the East attending the 
China Continuation Committee 
meeting, about possible sub¬ 
stitutes in case Mr. Eddy is 
unable to come j also to investi¬ 
gate the matter of suitable litera¬ 
ture to be used in various ways 
during the campaign. It is 
hoped that a Chinese Secretary 
may be secured to assist Mr. 
Hayes in his work as Organizing 
Secretary. 

PEKING UNION MEDICAL 
COLLEGE 

The Peking Union Medical 
College, which last year admitted 
no new students on account of 
difficulties connected with the 
reorganization of the institution, 
will re-open its preparatory de- 


337 


Missionary News 


1917] 

partment on the new basis on 
September n, 1917. The pre¬ 
paratory course will extend over 
two years and will include in¬ 
struction in English, Chinese 
literature and composition, chem¬ 
istry, physics, and biology. Iu 
all the courses except Chinese 
the inedium of instruction will 
be English, and very thorough 
preparation in that language will 
therefore be required. Candi¬ 
dates for admission must be 
graduates of a middle school 
and have completed at least one 
year of college work in addition. 
Admission examinations iu the 
sciences and in the Chinese and 
English languages will be held 
at Peking and at Shanghai, 
beginning August 28, 1917. 


Full information regarding 
entrance requirements, fees, etc., 
may be obtained on application 
to the Dean, Pekiug Uuioii 
Medical College, Peking. 

It is expected that the first 
class will be admitted to the 
medical course proper iu the 
autumn of 1919. The length of 
this course will be four years, 
but an additional year of hospital 
service may be required before 
the granting of the degree. 

The College is not prepared at 
this time to admit women to its 
classes, but it is the intention of 
the Board of Trustees in due 
time to admit qualified women 
students to the medical school on 
the same basis as men. 


News Items 


About two hundred members 
and friends witnessed the laying 
of the cornerstone of the Canton¬ 
ese Union Church, in Shaygbai 
on March 17th. Owing to rain 
the visitors met in the Presby¬ 
terian Mission Press Chapel, 
where the gathering was called 
to order by the Reverend Kwong 
Eau Chun (« It), the 

minister. The Rev. Chen Shih 
Shang U) led in 

prayer, after which papers re¬ 
garding the history of the church 
were read by Dr. Fong F. Sec 
and Mr. A. O’Beu (jg gf j£| g*; 

W hi both Chinese and 
English. Rev. G. F. Fitch, D.D., 
spoke on the subject, “The 
Cantonese in Shanghai,” his 
speech being interpreted by Mr. 
Eutn Chay Yun (#C Sf JJ), a 
returned student. Rev. Chang 
Pao Tsao (£S QE ID 4 fc fiff) also 
spoke; at the close of his address 
the visitors were ushered to the 
grounds to witness the formal 
placing of the cornerstone, which 


was done by Dr. Fitch with the 
aid of a silver trowel pre¬ 
sented to him for the occasion. 
This church has been organized 
but recently and is already in a 
very flourishing condition, hav¬ 
ing a fine Sabbath school, Chris¬ 
tian Endeavor Society, and a 
good congregation on the Sab¬ 
bath, and flourishing schools 
during the week. 

In the Annual Catalogue of 
Union Theological Seminary just 
published, the following an¬ 
nouncement is made :— 

Special Training for Mission - 
aries on Furlough. “ Hours 
(without credit) will be arranged 
for returned missionaries by 
the Department of Practical 
Theology iu order to assist them 
by special homiletical training, 
to present the enterprise of mis¬ 
sions to the home churches in 
the most effective manuer.” 

{See “Missionary Fellowships," 
etc.) 



338 


The Chinese Recorder 


The annual meeting of the 
Board of Directors of the Chinese 
Christian Intelligencer was held 
at the home of the editor, No. 
176 North Szechuen Road, 
Shanghai, on February 22, 1917. 
The reports showed that the 
past year had been a very suc¬ 
cessful one, and that there was 
an increasing demand for space 
in the paper for useful articles. 
For this reason and also because 
of the high cost of paper it was 
found necessary to appeal for 
funds from the Chinese and 
foreign constituency, and a com¬ 
mittee was formed for that pur¬ 
pose. 

The first Sunday in March was 
recommended to the churches as 
a day in which the interests of 
the Chinese Christian Intelligen¬ 
cer might be brought before the 
people and remembered in prayer. 

A real invasion—but not for 
war. A friendly athletic com¬ 
petition in which young men will 
have an opportunity to expend 
much of their mighty energy, 
but will gather strength both of 
body and mind in the develop¬ 
ment of character in this com¬ 
petition. 

One hundred competitors left 
China to-day to participate in the 
Third Far Eastern Championship 
Games accompanied by twenty- 
five coaches and officials and by 
as many friends. Two bands, a 
Company of Boy Scouts and 
hundreds of enthusiastic admir¬ 
ers waved the steamer bon voy¬ 
age from Shanghai. 

China first sent an athletic 
team out of her own territory 
in 1913, when they visited the 
Philippine Islands and the Fili¬ 
pinos were victorious, easily de¬ 
feating both China and Japan. 
In 1915 in Shanghai, China 
overwhelmed the visitors in the 
total number of points, and is 


[May 

now sending the strongest ath¬ 
letic team in her history. Many 
are confident that she will win 
on Japanese territory. “ Not to 
win the greatest number of 
points," says Tong Shao Yi, "but 
to play the game in a way that 
makes for character, is the desire 
of every friend of the young 
men of China to-day.’ ’ 


As this issue of the Recorder 
goes to press, the China Con¬ 
tinuation Committee is in full 
session at Hangchow. This is 
the Fifth Annual Meeting. The 
Committee is being entertained 
in spacious and comfortable 
buildings belonging to Dr. Main 
on the shores of the beautiful 
West Cake. The business ses¬ 
sions are held in the large 
Sanatorium, where thirty of the 
members are also being lodged. 
It is confidently expecied that 
the meeting this year will be the 
most important and profitable in 
every way that the Committee 
has yet had. The next issue of 
the Chinese Recorder will be 
devoted to accounts and reports 
of this meeting. 

One of the special features of 
the Continuation Committee 
Meeting at Hangchow is the pres¬ 
ence of five representatives from 
the Japan Continuation Com¬ 
mittee : Dr. Harada, President 
of Doshisha University, Bishop 
Hirariwa of the Methodist 
Church, Dr. Wainwright of the 
Christian Literature Society in 
Japan, Galen M. Fisher, National 
Secretary of the Y. M. C. A. in 
Japan and acting secretary of 
the Japan Continuation Commit¬ 
tee, and Mr. Gilbert Bowles, 
treasurer of the last named organ¬ 
ization. 


In March the Tientsin Young 
Women's Christian Association 
celebrated its fourth birthday. 





339 


Missionay News 


1917] 

Around the annual meeting, at 
which Mr. T. C. Wong was the 
speaker, were centered a number 
of interesting events. A Health 
Campaign was conducted by 
Miss Mayhew, the National 
Secretary of Physical Education. 
Her series of talks included 
such subjects as Child Welfare, 
Means of Preventing Disease, 
Easy Aids to Health, Physical 
Education, etc. Over 2,000 per¬ 
sons were in attendance and a 
large number were turned away 
from the doors owing to lack of 
room. The audience included 
groups from normal schools, 
students and teachers from other 
government schools, and the 
general membership of the As¬ 
sociation. As one result of the 
Campaign a Health Club was 
organized which is now planning 
for a Better Babies Contest. 

The Annual Meeting was also 
an occasion of starting a finance 
campaign for the year’s budget 
of the Association. In accord¬ 
ance with the general policy of 
the Association the entire budget 
is secured by Chinese women 
from the Chinese citizens. 


At its January meeting the 
China National Committee of 
the Y. W. C. A. voted to ask 
the World’s Committee for 36 
hew secretaries in 1917. The 
securing of the 36 is the most 
important result looked for from 
Miss Coppock’s visit to America. 
Six of these have been secured. 
On the day when Miss Coppock 
presented China’s request to the 
Foreign Department in New 
York, special intercession was 
made in all the Association 
circles in China for the success 
of this appeal to the young 
Christian women of the West. 


At Easter time many people 
seize the opportunity to go away 


from Shanghai for rest. The 
number of places easy of access 
and providing the necessary 
amount of change and quiet is 
of course limited, but the West 
Lake, Hangchow, has now been 
added to the possibilities. Its 
beauty and house accommodation 
attracted a small party of foreign 
young men from Shanghai who 
desired a combination of the 
religious and recreative. As a 
first experiment the little con¬ 
ference was a great success. 
The limits of the house made 
the gathering more like a family 
party. Weather aud surround¬ 
ings were equally ideal. The 
religious meetings were very 
profitable without being burden¬ 
some and it was found possible 
to combine them with a real 
rest, so much needed by busy 
Shanghai men. Before dispers¬ 
ing it was resolved to appoint 
a committee to arrange for a 
similar school next year at the 
same time and place. 


Special conferences are to be field 
during the summer at Killing and 
Pehtaiho for the benefit of leaders in 
the churches of the Yangtze Valley 
and North China, who will be respon¬ 
sible for the Autumn Evangelistic 
Campaign, with which Mr. Sherwood 
Eddy will be connected. 

The Hankow Committee on the 
Autumn Evangelistic Campaign has 
rightly estimated the value of the 
promotion of intercession in connec¬ 
tion with the campaign by asking 
Bishop L. H. Roots to be responsible 
for the department of the campaign. 
Other cities will also do well to 
secure one of their outstanding leaders 
for the promotion of this work. 

Conferences for the officers of the 
Student Young Men’s Christian As¬ 
sociations were held during April ia 
Canton for the Associations of Canton 
and Hongkong, and iu Shanghai for 
the Associations of the Kiangnan 
Region. Special emphasis was placed 
upon the atudy of the form of or¬ 
ganization best adapted to middle- 
schools. A similar conference will be 





340 


The Chinese Recorder 


held in Foochow for the Associations 
of North Fukien, May 18th to 20th. 

The National Committee of the 
Young Women's Christian Association 
announces the following conferences 
for the summer of 1917 : 

Northern Conference, Wofossu, 
June r8th-25th. 

Yangtsze Valley, Lily Valley, Kil¬ 
ling, June z6th-July 3rd. 

East Central Conference, Hang¬ 
chow, June 29th-July 8th. 

Kwangtiing Province, Canton, Sep¬ 
tember 5th-i2th, 

Fukien Province, Foochow, Sep¬ 
tember 12 th-19th. 


[May 

In preparation for the Autumn 
Evangelistic Campaign, the churches 
of Peking are the furthest along. 
Each church has appointed a special 
Evangelistic Committee of from three 
to five men. This committee is re¬ 
sponsible for launching immediately 
a movement for Bible study and per¬ 
sonal work to prepare members of the 
student and gentry classes for an 
intelligent decision for the Christiau 
life. Each church and the Young 
Men's Christian Association has ap¬ 
pointed one member of its executive 
to act as a co-ordinating committee 
in order to bring to each church the 
best experience of all. 


Dates of Important Meetings 


April: 


25th-May 2nd : Fifth Annual Meet¬ 
ing of the China Continuation Com¬ 
mittee, Hangchow. 

June ; 

4th-i5th : Special Meetings, China 
Inland and United Methodist Mis¬ 
sions, for Preachers and Church Lead¬ 
ers, Weuchow. 

24-July 1st: Student Conference 
(Y. M. C. A.), Taiku, Shansi. 

25th-July 3rd : Young Women’s 
Christian Association Conference, 
Ruling. 

26th-July 3rd : Student Conference 
(Y. M. C. A.), Chengtu, Sze. 


July: 

ist-gth : Student Conference (Y. M. 
C. A.), Wofossu, North China. 

3rd-i2th : Student Conference (Y, 
M. C. A.), Shanghai, Kiangnan. 

ioth-i7th : Student Conference {Y. 
M. C. A.), Moulcden, Manchuria. 

25th-August 8th : Leaders’ Confer¬ 
ence re preparation Autumnal Evan¬ 
gelistic Campaign. 

August : 

i5th-3otb : Leaders’ Conference re 
preparation Autumnal Evangelistic 
Campaign. 

Late August: Student Conferences 
(Y. M. C. A.): Foochow, Fu. Amoy, 
Fu. Canton, Kwaugtuug, Tsinan, 
Sung. Ruling, 23rd-3ist. 


Personals 


Word has been received of the death 
of the mother of Rev. E. K. Morrow. 

Word has come from Mr. Rawlinsou 
now in America on furlough that he 
expects to leave for China on August 
30 th. 

Dr. Harold Balme of the Union 
Medical School at Tsinanfu is leaving 
for the United States and England to 
secure members for the faculty of 
that Institution, 

Rev. A. P. Quirmbach, C.M.M., Ela¬ 
ting, Sze., has changed his name to 
Quentin, Miss H. M. Kblkenbeck, 
C.I.M., Yingshan, Sze., has changed 
her name to Kingston. 


Word has been received of the sud¬ 
den death of Rev. W. P. Chalfaut, 
D.D., of the Theological School of 
the Shantung Christiau University, 
on Saturday, April 21st, of heart 
failure. 

The Venerable Archdeacon Thom¬ 
son passed quietly to his rest on Mon¬ 
day, the 23rd of April, in his eighty- 
fourth year. He came to China in 
1859, and so had seen more years in 
China than any other living Protes¬ 
tant missionary. 

Dr. Geo. H. Bondfield left Shang¬ 
hai for Szechwan early in the month 
of April, but on arriving at Hankow 
was taken with a severe attack of 




341 


Missionary News 


1917] 

pneumonia, from which, however, 
according to a late telegram, he is hap¬ 
pily recovering. It is feared that the 
trip to Szechwan will have to be given 
up for the present. 

Mr. F. N. D. Bucbman is expected 
to reach Shanghai June 23rd to pre¬ 
pare for Mr. Eddy’s meetings. Mr. 
Howard A, Walter of Lahore, India, 
wlio has had rich experience in con¬ 
nection with the evangelistic move¬ 
ment in India, will accompany Mr. 
Bucbman and give several months 
to helping promote the movement in 
China. Mr. Rugh, having respon¬ 
sibility for the campaign, will also 
have charge of their schedules. 

Bishop Herbert W. Welch, elected 
at the recent Methodist Episcopal 
General Conference as one of the 
Bishops of Eastern Asia, with Mrs. 
Welch, spent several days in Shanghai 
on their way to Peking, the guests of 
Bishop Lewis and Dr. Lacy. The 
invitation of the Executive of the 
China Continuation Committee for 
Bishop Welch to spend a day in 
Hangchow in attendance on the 
Aunual Meeting, could not be accept¬ 
ed because of other engagements. 
Bishop Welch succeeds Bishop Harris, 
who was Missionary Bishop of Japan 
and Korea. At the time of his elec¬ 
tion Bishop Welch wa9 President of 
the Oltio Wesleyan University, Dela¬ 
ware, Ohio, which position Bishop 
Bashford held at the lime of his elec¬ 
tion to the bishopric in the same 
denomination. Bishop Welch assumes 
his new duties in the Orient with the 
best wishes of many Chinese friends. 

BIRTHS. 

February : 

13th, at Chicago, Ilf., U. S. A., to 
Dr. and Mrs. J. G. Vaughan, M. E. M., 
a daughter (Florence Lucile). 

March : 

tNo date given.) At Foochow, to 
Mr. and Mrs. H. E. Dennis, Y. M. 
C. A., a daughter (Margaret Linn). 

22nd, at Rochester, Minn., U. S. A., 
to Dr. and Mrs. C. F. Knpfer, M.E.M., 
a granddaughter (Muretta Morgan). 

24th, at Kiukiang, to Rev. and Mrs. 
Chas. F. Joharmaber, M. E, M. # a 
daughter (Margaret Carrol). 

25th, at Luanfu, to Mr. and Mrs. 
H. Lyons, C. I. M., a son (William 
Henry). 

28th, at Canton, to Mr. and Mrs. 
E. H. Lockwood, Y. M. C, A., a 
daughter. 


30th, at Hsuchow, Honan, to Rev. 
and Mrs. A. L- Benson, A.S. M., a 
daughter (Hilda Marie). 

31st, at Taikuhsien, Shansi, to Rev. 
and Mrs. Paul L. Corbin, A.B.C.F.M., 
twins (Helen and Allen Monroe). 

April : 

6th, at Piugtingchow, to Mr. and 
Mrs. S. Bjertmes, C. I. M., a daughter 
(Ester). 

8lh, at Peking, to Mr. and Mrs. A. E. 
Newlaiul, Hill Murray School for 
Chinese Blind, a son (William Hill 
Murray). 

DEATHS. 

March : 

18th, at Shanghai Isolation Hos¬ 
pital, Mery C., eldest daughter of Dr. 
and Mrs. Paul Wakefield, F. C. M. S.» 
aged 8 years 10 months. Scarlet fever. 

23rd, at Fakumen, Manchuria, Dr. 
IdaD, Mitchell, I, P. M. Diphtheria. 

27th, at Foreign Women’s Home, 
Chusan Road, Shanghai, Mrs. J. A. 
Jackson, 

April : 

5th, at Kienli, Hupeh, Mrs. E. 
Gillstrom, S M.S., aged 29. Fever. 

6th, at Fenchow, Shansi, Walter 
Husted Wolfe, only child of Mr. and 
Mrs. J. B. Wolfe, A. B. C. F. M.; aged 
two years and seven months. Double 
pneumonia. 

12th, at Hengchow, Hunan, Mrs. 
W. Edgar Robertson, A.P.M. (North). 
Subtertian malaria complicated with 
pneumonia, 

i6tli, at Nanking, Miss Grace M. 
Lucas, A.P.M. (North). Pneumonia. 

18th, at Chefoo, Stuart Sutherland, 
son of Mr. and Mrs. Harold F. Smith, 
A. P. M. (North), aged 38 days. 
Acute indigestion. 

20th, at Huchow, Che., Edgar, aged 
one vear and ten months; son of Dr. 
and Mrs. C. D. Leach, A. B. M. 

2ist, at Tsingchowfu, Shantung, 
Rev. Wm. P. Cbalfant, D.D., A.P.M. 
(North). Heart failure. 

21st, at Shanghai, Ven. Arch. K. H. 
Thomson, D.D., A, C, M. 

MARRIAGES, 

March: 

30th, Albertina Elizabeth Augusta 
Sasseu, Yale Mission, to Otto Klein, 
Hankow. 


342 


The Chinese Recorder 


[May, 1917 


31st, at Tientsin, Miss F. J. Kipper 
to Mr. J. W. H. Tomkinson, both 
C. I. M. 

(Date not given.) Kathleen M. C. 
Mu Hand to Captain J. H. Wallace, 
Y. M. C. A, 

April : 

10th, in St. John’s Pro-Cathedral, 
Shanghai, Alfaretta A, Stark to R. F, 
Wilner, Esq., A. C. M. 

17th, at Shanghai, Miss M, Stucki 
to Mr. J. Cerny, both C. I. M. 


ARRIVALS. 

March: 

25th, from Australia, Col. and Mrs. 
Friedriche, Adj, F. Gillam, Ensigns 
E. Daddow, A. J. Graham, F. Greener, 
V, Pennington ; Capts. Z. Dare, F, 
Harris, E. Renshaw, S.A. From New 
Zealand, Adj. B. Newton, Capts. M, 

H. Andrews, I,. Smith, E. Wilkinson, 
S.A. 

27th, from England, Dr. B. Grace 
Morland, F. F. M. A.; Rev. A. E. 
Evans and G. Gartside-Tippinge, C. 

I. M. 

April: 

1st, from U. S. A., Rev, and Mrs. 
E. H. Dyer and Miss Alfaretta A. 
Stark, A. C. M.; from Canada, Rev. 
and Mrs, W. R. Malcolm and child, 
and Misses E. M. Parr and R, J. 
Begbie, C.I. M.; Rev. and Mrs. A. T. 
Crutcher and children, Sirs. Carson 
and children, C. M. M. 

5th, from Canada, Capt. & Mrs, H. 
Beckett, Capt. & Mrs. W. Phillips, 
Capt. N. Fisher, S, A. From U. S. A., 
Capts. F. Goodwin, H. Noretn, Dieut. 
V. Nelson, S.A. 

6th, from TJ.S. A., Mrs. A. P. Zwe- 
iner, A, P, M.; Rev. and Mrs. J. W. 
Lowe'and children, A. B. M.; Miss A. 
M. Roloff, Evan. Asso. 

8th, from Sweden, Ensigns E. 
Brandt, L. Victorson, Capts. G.~Ander- 
son, A. Cedervall, S. A. From Fin¬ 
land, Capts. H. Astrom and L. Selin ; 
Dients. S. Elmgren, H. Gustaffson, 
B. Sundberg, S.A. 

13th, from U. S. A., Dr. Peter C. 
Kiang, A. C. M. 

18th, from U. S. A,, Rev. and Mrs. 
A- S. Cooper, A.C M. 

25th, from Korea, Bishop and Mrs. 
Herbert W. Welch, M. E. M. 


(Date not given.) From U.S.A., 
Mrs. Nancy Farmer, Rev, H. T v . 
Reeves, Rev, and Mrs. H. Kerr 
Taylor, A. P. M. (So.). 

DEPARTURES. 

March : 

31st, to Canada, Rev. and Mrs. 
H. B. Rjdler and children, C. M. S.; 
Mrs. T. A. Arthurs aud children and 
Mrs. J. Menzies aud children, C. P. M. 

April : 

1st, to Canada, Rev. and Mrs. K. 
Bergfjord and children, Mr. and Mrs. 
Vambel and children, N, J u M. 

2nd, to Canada, Miss L. A. Ker, 
C. M. M. 

3rd, to Australia, Mr. and Mrs. J. 
H. Edgar and child, and Misses G. 
Trudinger and E. K. Hooper, C. I. M. 

5th, to U. S. A., Rev. and Mrs. J. M. 
Yard and daughters, and Miss Clara 
Collier, M. E.'M. 

14th, to Canada, Misses A. Morgan 
and M. R. Swann, C. M. M.; Dr. and 
Mrs. W. H. Davidson, F. F. M. A. 
To U. S. A., Rev. aud Mrs. R. Well- 
wood, A, B. M.; Misses W. F„ Cripe 
and M. Metzger, G. B. B.; Rev. and 
Mrs.]. W. Hawley, M. E. M.; Dr. and 
Mrs. W. W. Peter, Mr. C, W, Harvey 
and Mr. Paul B, Anderson, Y. M. C. A.; 
Mr. and Mrs. A. I. Garrison and 
children, C. and M. A., eu route 
from Brusawal, India. 

15th, to Europe via Weihaiwei, 
A. W. S. Dee, Esq., A. C. M. (With a 
contingent of Chinese coolies.) 

18th, to U. S. A., Miss Emma Axel- 
son, C. & M. A.; Miss Madge Hendry, 
M. E. S.; Mrs. Adell and Miss Goldie 
Harrison,aud Mrs. Hattie Hammond, 
Pent.; Dr. atid Mrs. T. W. Ayers, son 
and daughter, and Miss J. W. Hide, 
A. B. M. (So.); Misses Nelson, Rod- 
berg, and Berjesoti, S. A. M. C„; Mrs. 

J. B. Woods and children, and Rev. 
J. W. Paxton, A. P. M. (So.); Rev. 
and Mrs P. 0 . Holthe and children, 
and Miss H. Holthe, N. M. S. 

19th, to U. S. A., Mr, and Mrs. C. B. 
Harvey, and Miss M. Elrick, Am. 
Wes. Meth.; Miss Ida Shumaker, 
Br. Cb., all en route from India. 

20th, to U. S. A., Rev. aud Mrs. G. S. 
Brown aud children, M. E. M. 

28th, to U. S.’A., Miss Clara E. Mer¬ 
rill and Miss Ella Jordau, M. E. M. 


CHINA CONTINUATION COMMITTEE NUMBER 

THE CHINESE 

RECORDER 

is m m 

VOL. XLVI1I. JUNE, r 9 r 7 . No. 6 

RegTsU-ml at the Chinese l'ost Office as n Newspaper. 

Reports of the 
Special Committee on Comity 
Special Committee on the Chinese Church 
National Evangelistic Week, 1917 
Committee on Survey and Occupation 
Recommendations of the Special Committee 


Material intended for Publication should be addressed, 

“ Editor, Chinese Recorder, 5 Quinsan Gardens, Shanghai." 
Advertising and Business Matters should he addressed to 

‘‘Presbyterian Mission Press, 18 Peking Road, Shanghai." 


Published monthly by the American Presbyterian Mission Press, 
18 Peking Road, Shanghai, China. 

Subscription $4.00 Mexican (Gold $2.00 or 8 shillings) per annum, postpaid. 















THE CHINESE 

RECORDER 

VOL. XLVIII. JUNE, 1917. No. 6 


CONTENTS 

VAGK. 

EDITORIAL COMMENT. ’43 

Tha China Continuation Committee.—HanSchow.—Special Features — Delegates from 
Japan.—Membership.—Survey.—Comity .—Tract Societies.—Chinese Church. 

The Promotion of Intercession .34S 


CHINA CONTINUATION COMMITTEE ANNUAL MEETING: 

Report of the 5 pecia! Committee on Comity . D. E. HosTR. 349 

Report of the Special Committee on the Chinese Church. C. Y. Cheng. 358 
Report of the National Evangelistic Week, 1917 ... W. MacNaughtan. 369 

...E. C. Lobenstwr. 377 

Recommendations of the Special Committees ... ..390 

Impressions of Members .401 


Report of the Special Committee on Survey and j 
Occupation. J 


OBITUARIES:—Venerable Archdeacon E. H. Thomson, D.D. 

Rev. William P. Chalfant, M.A., D.D.... 

Mrs. Sewell McFarlane, London Mission, Tientsin 
Mrs. Jonathan Lees, Tientsin. 

CORRESPONDENCE . . 

Rev. Thomas Bryson and Fifty Years' Service. 

MISSIONARY NEWS . 

News Hems. 


The Buddhist Island! of the 
West Lake, Hangchow . 


ILLUSTRATIONS. 

'Three Urns and Moon’s Reflected Image,' 


Pao Soh Teh from Imperial Island, West Lake, Hangchow 
China Continuation Committee Conference was held 

The Lafe Ven. Archdeacon L. H. Thomson, D.D.... 

The Late Rev. W. P. Chalfant, D.D. 

The Late Mrs. McFarlane 

The Late Mrs, Lees. 


where the i 


. 403 

W. M.H. 404 

R. 407 

.. R. 409 

. 4ii 

. 4«2 


Frontispiece. 


Page 403 

404 

.. 403 

40C1 






NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS 


D. E. Hoste, Esq., is the General Director of the China Inland 
Mission. He came to China in 1885* spending over eleven j^ears in 
evangelistic work in Southwest Shansi. For five years he acted as 
Superintendent of the China Inland Mission work in that province. 
He spent two further years, before assuming the position of General 
Director, as superintendent of the work of his mission in Honan. 
He is Vice-Chairman of the China Continuation Committee, and 
has held many other positions of prominence and influence in mis¬ 
sionary circles. 

Rev. Cheng Ching-yi, D.D., Chinese Secretary of the China 
Continuation Committee, Shanghai. Mr. Cheng is a native of 
Chihli, a graduate of the Middle School of the London Mission in 
Peking, and of the Theological School of the same mission in 
Tientsin. He spent three years in connection with the British and 
Foreign Bible Society in Loudon, assisting Prof. Owen in the 
revision of the New Testament in Chinese. He later spent two 
years in the Bible Training School in Glasgow. In 1910 he was 
one of the Chinese representatives from China to the World Mis¬ 
sionary Conference in Edinburgh, and was there elected a member 
of its Continuation Committee. After his return to China, and 
before assuming the position of Chinese Secretary of the China 
Continuation Committee, he was the able pastor of three self- 
supporting churches of the London Missionary Society in Peking. 
He is the Editor of the China Church Year Book, and has recently 
attained the distinction of receiving the degree of Doctor of Divin¬ 
ity from Knox College, Toronto. This is the first time such a 
degree has been conferred on a Chinese religious leader by a 
Western educational institution. 

Rev. Wm. MacNaughtan, M.A., United Free Church of 
Scotland, Mukden. Mr. MacNaughtan came to China in 1898, and 
has been engaged in evangelistic work in Manchuria ever since. 
At the invitation of the Executive Committee of the China Con¬ 
tinuation Committee, he spent more than a month preceding the 
Annual Meeting in the office of the National Evangelistic Secretary, 
Rev. A. L- Warushuis, who is at present on furlough, studying 
and compiling the reports of the Week of Evangelism from all over 
China. He is the Forward Evangelistic Secretary for Manchuria. 

Rev. E. C. LoBENSTiNK, B.A., Secretary of the China Con¬ 
tinuation Committee, Shanghai. Mr. Lobeustine came to China in 
1898 under the Presbyterian Mission, North. He opeued the 
station at Hwaiyuan, An., and engaged in evangelistic work there 
until 1911. For two years he was Secretary of the Central China 
Famine Relief Committee. He was Minute Secretary of the Cen¬ 
tenary Conference of 1907, and Organizing Secretary for the Mott 
Conferences of 1913. He is the present Editor of the China Mission 
Year Book. 



Photo by K. F. Fitch. 

THE BUDDHIST ISLAND OF THE “THREE URNS AND MOON’S REFLECTED IMAGE,’’ WEST LAKE, HANGCHOW. 











Photo by R. F. Fitch 

PAO SOH TAH FROM IMPERIAL ISLAND, WEST LAKE, HANGCHOW, WHERE THE CHINA CONTINUATION COMMITTEE 

CONFERENCE WAS HELD. 







THE CHINESE RECORDER 


Published Monthly at the American Presbyterian Mission Press, 
18 Peking Road, Shanghai, China 


Editorial Board. 

Editor-in-chief ; Rev. Frank Rawlinson. (On furlough.) 

a ■ / r-j-t ( Rev. W. Hopkyn Rubs, d.d. 

Associate Editors j Rey Q F Fl . rcHj D 0 . 

Rev. Robert C.Beebe,m,d. Rev.O.E. Kilborn, m.d. Rt. Rev.F.L.N orris,d.i>. 

Rev. Ernest Box. Rev. E.C. Lobrnstink. Rev. O. Schultze. 

Rev. G. A. Clayton. Mr.G ilbert McIntosh. Rev. A. H. Smith, d o. 

Rev. J. C. Gibson, d.d. Rev. G. H. McNeur. Miss Raora M. White. 


VOL. XLV1II JUNE, 1917 NO. 6 


Editorial 

The late meeting of the China Continua- 
Sbe China Continua* t j on Committee at Hangchow is the first. 

tton Committee, , , .. , , 

despite several previous attempts, which 

has been held outside of Shanghai. So late as last year the 

same thing was planned, but owiug to unfavorable political 

conditions it had to be given up. The kind invitations of Dr. 

and Mrs. Main being again offered were gratefully accepted. It 

gave to many members of the Conference an opportunity to see 

for the first time the wonderful complex of beneficent activities 

centering around the medical work of the Church Missionary 

Society at this important center, the like of which it would be 

hard to find elsewhere in China. The Lecture Hall is a 

dynamo which for about twelve years has been radiating light 

and heat in all directions, and to a great distance. 

* * * 

Hangchow itself is the show city of China. It 
has the right historical associations as repeatedly 
the capital of the empire. It has pagodas of assorted forms, 
heights, and ages. It has a long line of famous names, many 
of them connected with graves and temples still kept ill repair. 
And above all it has the West Lake, the most celebrated body 
of water iu all China, in couplets, in poetry, and in legends. 











344 


The Chinese Recorder 


[June 


There is ill or around Peking nothing which can be men¬ 
tioned in comparison, for though the “Hill of Ten Thousand 
Ages” is more beautiful, and quite as historical, it has until 
recently been sacrosanct, and is accessible only to those who 
care to pay a dollar apiece (more or less) and has never been a 
place of resort, while the West Lake has never been otherwise. 
The removal of the northern wall of Hangchow within recent 
years, and its replacement by a fine boulevard allowing of 
unlimited riksha travel, is a vast improvement over the tiresome 
old sedans, which, however, seem to be still more in use than 
in any other Chinese city so near to the coast. 


Special features. 


A special feature of this meeting was the 
presence for the first time of a delegation of 
five from the Japan Continuation Committee, whose ensuing 
addresses added much to the interest of the gathering. Protestant 
missions to China began one hundred and ten years ago, while 
it is but a few years since they commemorated their fiftieth 
anniversary in Japan. But these developments have influenced 
each other in a larger degree than is generally supposed. 
Many of the influential missionaries to Japan first spent long 
years in China, and as almost every missionary in China can 
easily pass through Japan on his way to his homeland, there 
is much interchange of thought and experience. The recent 
stationing of Chinese-speaking missionaries in Tokyo to work 
among the Chinese students has greatly increased these inter¬ 
national ties. 


* * * 

_ , , The Tapanese churches happily possess a 

Debates from ^ , *!. , , . , ce . c X T 

Federation by which fifteen of the Japan 

Continuation Committee are chosen, and the 

missions also happily have a Federation by which another 

fifteen are elected. The Continuation Committee itself only 

elects ten of its members, instead of the whole, as is necessarily 

the case in China, for lack of any other practicable way. The 

differences between the development of missions in the two 

lands are as striking as the resemblances, yet some of the 

problems are identical—albeit with variations. The October 

meeting of the Japan Continuation Committee is to be visited 

by a delegation of the China body, to consist of three members— 


Editorial 


1917) 


345 


perhaps of four—by which it is hoped that the benefits of 
intercommunication already received may be increased. 

Not a word was said in public from which any inference 
could be drawn that the relations between these adjacent lands 
is, or ever has been, strained—a marked instance of Christian 
courtesy and self-control, which might to advantage be imitated 
elsewhere. 

* * x 

IT is noticeable that the membership of the 
flfoembersbtp. £^ina Continuation Committee both Chinese and 
foreign is rapidly altering. Many of the foreign members are 
obliged to leave their fields, some for a time, some permanently. 
The Chinese delegates recommended many new names with an 
obvious view to getting the Continuation Committee more 
widely known, and more in direct contact with the Chinese 
churches. This, of course, means that an increasingly large 
number of persons are, and will be, brought into connection 
with the problems of missionary work both from the Chinese 
side, aud from the point of view of a China-wide outlook with 
special reference to the Horae Base. This must result on the 
part of the Chinese leaders in a larger and a more intelligent 
interest in the solution of those problems. At present but a 
comparatively small number of these leaders are practically 
aware of the existence and the value of the China Church Year 
Book. This invaluable compeud of facts and of surveys may 
be depended on to make its own way if it is properly introduced 
and adequately pushed. In some cases it has resulted in 
awakening an interest wide and deep in the work of others. 

One mission reported at the conference that it is its practice 
to put into the hands ot every preacker a copy of this manual, 
with striking iufiuence upon their range of intellectual and 
spiritual vision. This may be commended to every mission in 
China as a wise example to follow. 

•K ¥ 

In its earliest and crudest form what is now termed 
Surveg. problem of “Survey and Occupation” was simply 
the question of how to get and to keep a footing. The pioneers 
lived on a houseboat, “squatted” in an inn, with frequent and 
incessant moves onward, often “destitute, afflicted, tormented.” 
When later troubles began the struggle was to keep the little 
which they had gained. The missionaries were then—in 


546 


The Chinese Recorder 


[June 


Virgilian phrase “ Lone swimmers in a mighty sea,” and 
had no time to throw ropes to one another—and besides they 
had no surplus ropes. To China they had come on general 
principles only. Many of them had no previous knowledge of 
the country, its people, or their conditions. With wonderful 
patience at last they succeeded in getting a firm footing. Even 
when they temporarily failed to hold it, others generally came 
later to resume the unending effort. In all these weary years 
and decades the amount of help that one group could give to 
another group was generally small and sporadic, though some¬ 
times of importance and often highly appreciated. But in 
general it was felt that “ Every tub must stand on its own 
bottom.” Eve